轉折語Transitional signals

轉折語Transitional signals
Jessie Lin

1.  對等詞coordinators

對等詞包含了七個對等連接詞coordination
conjunctions: and, but, so, or, nor, for, yet 與五個配對連接詞
correlative conjunctions: both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither
… nor, whether … or。

當這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。並特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

Would you rather take a
written or an oral exam?

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句(independent clause), 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

Independent Clause, Coordinating Conjunction+ Independent
Clause.

I like hamburgers, but
I don’t like French fries.

2.  從屬詞subordinator

從屬詞也就是從屬連接詞subordinating
conjunction如although, when, before, because 等。它會在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

Subordinating
Conjunction + Dependent Clause, Independent Clause.

Although I like
hamburgers, I don’t like French fries.

I don’t like French
fries although I like hamburgers.

3.  轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

Independent
Clause.  Conjunctive Adverbs,
Independent Clause.

I like hamburgers.
However, I don’t like French fries.

I like hamburgers. I
don’t , however, like French fries.

I like hamburgers. I
don’t like French fries, however.

I like hamburgers;
however, I don’t like French fries.

4.  其他others

有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語如in addition to,動詞如cause等也可以用來表示轉折語。這些次沒有特定的標點符號規則,必須注意前後的字詞的用法。

An additional reason
for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

對等連接詞,從屬連接詞,與轉折語的用法

對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句,連接詞一定放在兩個句子中間。

I was very hungry, so I
ate three hamburgers.

從屬連接詞帶領非獨立子句來連接另一個獨立子句,從屬連接詞在句首句子需要逗號分開,在句中則不需要。

Because I was hungry, I
ate three hamburgers.

I ate three hamburgers
because I was hungry.

轉折字或連接副詞用來連接兩個獨立子句時,需用分號把子句分開。或可連接兩個句子。

I was very hungry;
therefore, I ate three hamburgers.

I was very hungry.
Therefore, I ate three hamburgers.

轉折語列表 Chart of Transition Signals

用法 1. 對等詞 2. 從屬詞 3. 轉折語 4. 其他
additional idea

附加

and

nor

also

besides

furthermore

in addition

moreover

too

another

an additional

compare things

比較

and

both…and

not only …

but also

neither…

nor

as

just as

also

likewise

similarly

too

as…as

like/alike

just like

similar to

be alike

be similar

opposite idea

contrast things

相反

對比

but

yet

although

even though

though

whereas

while

however

nevertheless

nonetheless

on the other

hand

on the contrary

in contrast

instead

in/by comparison

still

despite

in spite of

compared to

compared with

differ from

be different

be dissimilar

be unlike

alternative

選擇

or if

unless

otherwise
cause or reason

理由或原因

for because

since

as

due to

because of

result from

as a result of

the consequence

of

effect or result

影響或結果

so thus

hence

therefore

accordingly

as a result

as a consequence

consequently

result in

cause

affect

the cause of

the reason for

example

舉例

for example

for instance

such as

like

an example of

chronologi-cal order

時間順序

first, second,

first of all

then, next

now, then, soon

last, finally

meanwhile

gradually

after that

since then

the first

the next

the last

the final

before lunch

after the war

since 1999

explain and restate

解釋或陳述

indeed

that is

emphasize

強調

in fact
order of import-ance

重要性

above all

first and foremost

most importantly

primarily

the most important

the primary

to conclude

結論

all in all

in brief

in conclusion

in short

in summary

indeed

It is clear that…

We can see that..

The evidence

suggests that…

轉折語列表 Chart of Transition Signals

用法 1. 對等詞 2. 從屬詞 3. 轉折語 4. 其他
additional idea

附加

and

nor

also

besides

furthermore

in addition

moreover

too

another

an additional

compare things

比較

and

both…and

not only …

but also

neither…

nor

as

just as

also

likewise

similarly

too

as…as

like/alike

just like

similar to

be alike

be similar

opposite idea

contrast things

相反

對比

but

yet

although

even though

though

whereas

while

however

nevertheless

nonetheless

on the other

hand

on the contrary

in contrast

instead

in/by comparison

still

despite

in spite of

compared to

compared with

differ from

be different

be dissimilar

be unlike

alternative

選擇

or if

unless

otherwise
cause or reason

理由或原因

for because

since

as

due to

because of

result from

as a result of

the consequence

of

effect or result

影響或結果

so thus

hence

therefore

accordingly

as a result

as a consequence

consequently

result in

cause

affect

the cause of

the reason for

example

舉例

for example

for instance

such as

like

an example of

chronologi-cal order

時間順序

first, second,

first of all

then, next

now, then, soon

last, finally

meanwhile

gradually

after that

since then

the first

the next

the last

the final

before lunch

after the war

since 1999

explain and restate

解釋或陳述

indeed

that is

emphasize

強調

in fact
order of import-ance

重要性

above all

first and foremost

most importantly

primarily

the most important

the primary

to conclude

結論

all in all

in brief

in conclusion

in short

in summary

indeed

It is clear that…

We can see that..

The evidence

suggests that…

 

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