嚇人的老師

一直想說,因為還沒發生過,所以也就假裝沒事,果然人在生病的時候是比較脆弱的。可能外面看不出來,不過我有時後會非常的sentimental,中文翻做多愁善感。同學看到這裡可能就笑到肚子痛,從哪個角度看來,我這老師一點都不像多愁善感的人,我也絕對不會把自己歸為那型,但是呢有時候就會非常的敏感(難怪一天到晚鼻子過敏),整個人相當的一觸即發。尤其身體不舒服的時候。

昨天又到了會話課口試的時間,慣例都會問同學一些比較個人的問題,問著問著,不小心問到同學的姊姊居然是在前幾個月的ㄧ場車禍中過世,當下覺得真是不好意思,然後呢,拍拍同學的肩膀安慰了一下,結果眼淚在淚框轉啊轉,最後還是掉了下來,反而是同學安慰我,真的是非常不好意思。唉,真是不專業的老師。

可情緒這種東西,有時候真的很難控制。有時候還好,有時候真的在比較脆弱的時候,怎麼樣都擋不住。我先前的丹麥學生,我教他中文。這位身高一百九的先生,金牛座又屬牛,真的是牛上加牛,有時候非常的固執。人高馬大,外加主管當久了,講話常常都不自覺的大聲。中文文法本來就很難解釋,他又要打破沙鍋問到底。結果有一次,他還是很兇的問問題,我跟他說了好幾次,你不要那麼大聲,他還是對著我大吼,結果,我的眼淚就咚咚咚流了下來,這位老兄趕忙道歉。嚇死他,怎麼這老師上課上著上著眼淚就流出來了。呵呵,誰叫他要欺負弱女子。沒有啦,那陣子剛好有些事,又被他一吼就…。

一陣子一陣子,最近就相當的敏感。下午坐捷運時,重看村上春樹的1Q84,裡面有一段源氏物語的節錄,非常感人,看著看著我就自己頻頻拭淚,趕快把書合起來。所以假如同學在捷運上不小心遇到我,又正好留著淚時不要被我嚇到。

小時候就愛哭。長大後好一點。但是自從我媽媽幾年前因為癌症去逝後,就比較嚴重。其實已經很多年了。不知不覺七年過去了。又開始感傷了。前幾天看CSI的時候,有一個老婆走了的人問那個老婆也過逝的探長,How long did it take to get over this? 花了多久的時間才走過來的? Never. 永不,探長說了類似這樣的話。一點都沒錯,而且通常應該會加的那句話他沒說,我自己在心理說: You’ll never get over it. You just get stronger. 那種痛是永遠無法忘懷的,只能變得更堅強一點吧,因為人生還是得走下去。又小感傷了。

啊!又扯遠了。只是想提一下,講到什麼安樂死啊,什麼不好的消息之類的話題時,有時這老師會變得比較感性一點,大家就多包含囉,不要被我嚇到。還有老師驚人的笑聲也常嚇到同學。還有神出鬼沒的老師,常常不知不覺就出現在同學身邊,聽同學的回答。上回就有同學被我嚇到整個人跳起來。老師沒有這麼恐怖吧,我回去照了一下鏡子,呵呵。

最後一定要提一下。今天跟好友去另個好友的老公掌廚的DV8吃了朋友老公做的超好吃Eggs Benedict,又打包了超好吃的Ceasar Salad,幸福的不得到。等等來po一下照片。希望大家也有個幸福的週末 😉

0 基礎 0.0 推薦文法書

文法書推薦 

常被同學問到文法書買哪一本,每個人程度不太一樣,需求也不同。我自己很愛買,買了一堆,下面幾本是我比較推薦的,現在書局又不斷推出新書,要找到適合自己程度,自己看的順眼的最重要,推薦了一些,建議大家要買書的話到大書局,翻翻潔西推薦的幾本,找幾本自己看得順眼的比較一下。下面也寫了一些練習方法,同學可以參考一下。

有時候會遇到一些同學,文法概念比較不好,我會請他們找文法書來作練習。文法這個東西有時候很難解釋的明白。因為所謂的文法其實是從人們說話的方式,寫作的方式中去整理出一些大規則,大原則出來,是先有語言才有文法的,其實是歸納出來的。中文有沒有文法?當然有了,只是我們都會說,從小就說,所以根本沒感覺到文法的存在,也不需要花太多努力來學。外國人學中文文法時真的挺可憐的,因為又多又細又亂。我教外國人中文的時候真的是自己也說不出道理來,也很難整理出個文法點,最後呢,只能用一些外國老師教英文又說不出文法點的老梗沒有為什麼,因為我們就是這樣說,要不然就是中文沒人會這樣說,所以不可以這樣說呵呵。

 

可是我們學英文時要本末倒置的從文法開始學,由歸納變成演繹,學文法,分開一條一條學,只是見樹不見林。然後把一知半解的一條條文法,套到想表達的句子,用中文概念,自己造起句子時自然而然很容易錯誤百出。因為語言是個相當複雜的東西,文法的規則很細,也會有很多例外。真的需要一條條背熟嗎?倒不必要,因為不會所有的都經常用到,背會了,卻不會用的大有人在。最好最理想的方式是靠多閱讀,多聽多看聊理解,可是那又必須累積到非常大量,所以呢,我覺得買本好的文法書來當作工具書是相當重要的。

 

後來我發現,找對文法書,做題的方式,學習的方式也相當重要。不鼓勵買只有解釋沒有練習的文法書,因為解釋再多,看了一定忘。有同學說做了好幾本文法書,可是文法概念還是沒有。恩,這應該是做題練習的方式有問題,或者是沒有融會貫通。

我自己家裡有二三十本文法書,其實我也沒有每一本都從頭看到尾,只是拿來當工具書。我覺得每本書都有它的優缺點。某個地方說得很清楚,某些地方又帶過去而已。比較討厭的還有不同的說法,那我就自己靠經驗來找答案了。

我自己有整理了一些文法的概念,在文法的部份,教文法的時候,有整理一些放在部落格,同學可以上去最上面的dropbox的地方找文法的連結,點進後做練習。 下面這幾本也不錯,建議同學找一家大書局,把我推薦的這幾本看看,找一個適合自己程度的。其實最近書出的又快又多,也可以看看一些新的。建議同學不要為了省錢,拿家裡老舊的文法書來讀,通常效果真的不會太好。真的不想買的就去圖書館借,現在圖書館也很多新書喔。

 

最新推薦的牛津出版社的推文在這裡

https://jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com/2010/12/07/%E6%BD%94%E8%A5%BF%E6%8E%A8%E8%96%A6%E6%96%87%E6%B3%95%E6%9B%B8%E4%BA%8C/


1. 入門書:英文文法入門指引,由三民書局出版,呂香瑩著,下面點進去是博客來的連結

 英文文法入門指引

 

這本書優點是簡單易懂,有練習題,是台灣人寫的。缺點是很多部份都只有點到為止。像形容詞子句,名詞子句跟副詞子句這部份寫的很少。

基礎的可以從頭做到尾,做題目的時候一定要弄懂文法點再去做題,做完一個單元後一定要對答案,把錯的地方找出來,弄清究竟是迷糊或不懂,可以把錯的答案擦掉,再做一次到記住重點為止。複雜的文法點最好自己整理筆記,記住重點並寫幾個例題。大部份的文法書都是一個單元一個單元,分開做的時候都沒問題,但是幾個單元在一起時就容易混淆,所以最好找有幾個單元一起的。

 

2. 強力推薦: Grammar Express  出版社 : Longman作者 : Marjorie Fuchs & Margaret Bonner

ISBN : 0-201-52073-7

Grammar Express

Grammar Express Basic

台灣文鶴出局代理出版 這本書在博客來賣天價,兩千多元,因為是進口,誠品從前有賣,但是現在也沒賣了,文鶴除了網購外,其實就在古亭站出來走五分鐘就可以到,可以看一下網站上的營業時間跟地點,有空可以去看看。對了,這本書有分有解答跟沒有解答,同學自己練習一定要記得要買有解答的喔 with key 。

這本書我很喜歡,因為有趣生動又活潑,裡面有例句,有對話,有文章來讓你更清楚用在哪裡。有選擇,有改錯等不同方式,還有不同單元的混合練習,可惜只有英文,對於底子不好的同學比較吃力,它有兩本,所以可以先從basic 開始做起。或者老師上課用這本也不錯,先前潔西上過一期36小時的文法克,用基礎的,感覺學生吸收還不錯。準備托福或雅思的同學想要加強底子的也可以從這本開始。

 

3. 補習班最常用的:是敦煌代理的 Basic English Grammar, Fundamentals of  English Grammar, Understanding and Using English Grammar 這一系列三本,優點是這本書有中譯本,所以會比較容易些,不過缺點也是有中文翻譯,所以翻譯起來有時候有點難懂啊,很難避免的翻譯腔潔西有時候也看不太懂,呵呵。

a. Basic English Grammar  作者 Betty Schrampfer Azar (紅色)敦煌書局底子比較差的人可以用這本,非常基礎。但是文法點涵蓋的太少,不太夠用,但是打基礎的話還不錯,例子很多。蠻多地方在賣的,假如找不到的話可以到敦煌走走,在美術館附近,圓山站下,要走個起碼十分鐘,經過從前的花博,潔西很喜歡那個地方,每次去天氣好的話都在那兒看飛機從頭上飛過。敦煌在中山北路跟民族西路口,很好找,海霸王的斜對面。

Basic English Grammar 這是第三版,中英,也有全英文的,比較貴一點點

Basic English Grammar Answer Key 這本書的解答要分開買,記得買喔

b. Fundamental English Grammar 作者 Schrampfer Azar (黑色)敦煌書局出版,這是第四版,新版的有聽說,有很多CD聽力的部分,潔西不太喜歡啊,覺得第三版的題目比較多一些,但是有聽力也是有它的好處,沒有聽力的比較便宜,潔西覺得可以買有CD的一起做練習,不然還要另外買答案,其實加起來就差不多錢了。一般有點基礎的人可以從這一本開始做。多練習,這本的文法也沒有包含全部,一般考試可以應付,但是假如要考多益雅思跟托福的人,還是建議把這本做完,再做完下一本才比較完整。這本書在許多方面解釋得比進階清楚一點,因為進階的設定是你大致上基礎文法都懂了,除非你真的底子很好,不然不建議直接做進階,這本中級說了很多重要的東西喔。

Fundamentals of English Grammar with CD and Answer Key

c. Understanding and Using English Grammar  Betty Schrampfer (藍色)敦煌書局出版,第四集,一樣推薦買有附CD跟解答的。這本包含的基本跟一些比較深入的文法,比較詳細,但是老實說,潔西覺得裡面講得很多東西這輩子真的用不太到,或用到的比例非常非常小,所以儘量弄懂,很難的部分弄不懂也沒關係,真的,除非你要考雅思或托福,不然有些東西似懂非懂就可以,真的很實用的東西會一直遇到,多練習幾次就懂了。不過要寫作的人就一定要熟讀這本喔。

Understanding and Using English Grammar 4th edition with CD and Answer Key

4. 潔西的第一本文法書:Grammar in Use,劍橋出版,台灣是華泰代理,很多大書局都有。這個系列最近也分級出了基礎,中級跟進階。潔西翻了一下,覺得應該也不錯用,超想買,但是忍住了,Cambridge 的書潔西推薦文寫不少啊,呵呵,有沒有出版社要送書,潔西來幫忙寫推文的八卦啊,呵呵,想太多了。

Grammar in Use 文法書系列  這個新的系列有圖片,很親人喔

5. 真的很討厭文法的人可以看這本:我的第一本文法書,這是韓國人出的針對完全沒有文法概念的人寫的。很多圖例,挺可愛的,對不想看書的人來講是個不錯的選擇。

我的第一本文法書

6. 基礎文法

遠東出版的遠東新文法與何嘉仁出的大家一起哈文法是比較簡單、基礎的,假如底子不好的人也可以先從這裡開始。比較給青少年的,國中生。

7. 詳細文法:朗文新英文文法全集,作者是石黑昭博,這是日本人寫的書,在文法點方面說的比較細,對文法觀念不強的同學來說很不錯。潔西從前買的時候沒有練習題,現在有另外出練習本跟解答。

朗文新英文文法全集

8.  準備考試的文法:給中學生的基礎文法,作者孫雅玲,培生出版,朗文出版社這是比較典型的台灣式英文的教法,很適合準備考試的人,很細啊,一般要加強會話多益寫作的都不建議。

給中學生的基礎文法


其實推了這麼多,還是要看個人的需要。買適合自己需求的,買了要看要做練習,做過錯了,還要再做到對,理解為止,不然也就只是裝飾書架。英文有句諺語。You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink. 你可以把馬帶到水邊,但是你不能讓它喝水。意思是說,你所能做的有限。當老師的也是一樣,很多時候我們真的很希望能把文法點說得一清二楚,讓同學都能明明白白地學好,可是文法很多時候真的不是能說得清楚的。所以最好的方式還是要靠自己。多做練習,多閱讀,觀察在文章裡面要如何用一些重要的文法點,在把它用出來。不必要整本文法書都記得一清二楚,可是常用的如時態,子句等都要熟悉。然後有問題多提出。加油囉!

 

0 基礎 0.1 八大詞類

八大詞類( the parts of speech)                by  Jessie Lin    P.1

每一個英文單字都可以歸屬為英文的八大詞類之一。同一個字可能有好幾種不同的詞性。如: Love is a wonderful thing. I love
you.
這兩個句子中love 分別是名詞與動。在記單字時要一併把詞性記住才能寫出與說出正確的句子。

 

1.    
動詞 (verbs):用來描述一個動作或狀態。可分為行為動詞 (action verbs)、連綴動詞 (linking verbs) 與助動詞
(auxiliary verbs)

a. 行為動詞:用來描述主詞的動作或狀態,絕大部分的動詞屬於這一類。

      如:fly,
wash, smile, wait, live…
等。

      They walk to
school every day.

      Tom lives in
America.

b. 連綴動詞:用來連接主詞與主詞補語。主詞補語用來補充說明主詞,可能為名詞或形容詞。只有少數的動詞如be動詞,感官動詞等為這一類。當主詞補語為名詞時,主詞應該會等於主詞補語。如:Jessie is my teacher. 其中Jessiemy
teacher
是一樣的。當主詞補語為形容詞時,會用來描述、形容主詞。如I feel tired. tired是用來描述I

       如:
am, is, are, was, seem, look, taste, appear, turn, feel…
等。

       Mary is a
good student.

       Rita
looks very happy.

   c. 助動詞: 其功用是與主要動詞結合成動詞片語而來表達特定時式或特殊語氣。

     如:be,
have, do(
注意這三個也可當一般動詞); will, would, can, could,

        
may, might…
等。 

      I will call you
when I get home.

      I haven’t had
anything all day. I am starving. I could eat a horse!

 

2.   
名詞 (nouns):名詞顧名思義是人、地、物甚至是抽象概念的名字。可作為主詞、受詞與補語。也經常接在其他詞類後形成片語。

如:Peter,
Taipei, table, truth..
等。

Jessie is an English teacher.

My boyfriend bought some flowers for me on
my birthday.

 

3.   
代名詞 (pronouns):是用來取代名詞的字。前面已經提過的名詞或是說話者彼此已知的名詞都可用代名詞代替。主要是避免重複。

如:you,
him, herself, everyone, this, which, what…
等。

These are not my books.

Linda’s husband gave her a diamond. It cost
NT50,000.

 

八大詞類( the parts of speech)               by  Jessie Lin    P.2

 

4.   
形容詞 (adjectives):用來形容、描述、說明一個名詞或代名詞。形容詞多放在修飾的名詞前或放在連綴動詞後。

如:hot, Taiwanese, her, that, some,
whose…

The beautiful woman is wearing an ugly hat.

The coffee tastes bitter.

 

5.   
副詞 (adverbs):可以修飾動詞、形容詞與其他副詞。副詞的移動性很高,按照強調的部分不同可放在不同地方。

   如:always, usually, sometimes,
quickly, late, very…
等。

   She takes a taxi to work
sometimes.

   She usually has to work late.

   Fortunately, she won the lottery.

 

6.   
連接詞 (conjunctions):用來連接單字
(words)
、片語 (phrases)或子句 (clauses)

片語是兩個以上的字一起組合而成。子句是一些字中有主詞與動詞。

如:and, but, for, if, before,
because, when, either..or, both… and…
等。

George and Mary like to go shopping
together.

He’s the kind of person you either love or
hate.

Although John was sick, he still went to
work.

 

 

7.   
介係詞 (prepositions):其後加名詞或代名詞結合成介係詞片語,用來表達兩件事物的關係,如位置、方向、空間、時間或因果等。

如:about, around, in, on under, of,
under, with, between, for…
等。

The sun rises in the east and sets in the
west.

I get up at 7 o’clock from Monday to
Friday.

 

 

8.   
感嘆詞 (interjections):用來表達強烈的情緒或驚訝。

如:oh, wow, yeah, ouch…等。

Oh! I didn’t know that was you.

Wow! It’s unbelievable.

0 基礎 0.2 文章的元素

英文的結構                                                   Jessie

 在學習任何一個新語言的時候,首先要有一個認知 就是每個語言有各自的特色跟不同的文化背景,所以不能完全的把自己母語的認知與規則放入新的語言中。而且要記住,文法只是一些由人們整理出來的規則,語言 本身是活的,所以很多時候沒有所謂的為什麼,為什麼英文要把時間放到最後面?因為本身語言就是這麼說,外國人學中文時就會問,為什麼中文的時間要放在主詞 後面而不是最後面,呵呵。但是文法對語言學習者來說有很大的幫助,把基礎打好可以讓你舉一反三,自由運用一個新語言。 

我試著從一個活用與非常基礎的角度來思考如何幫助我的學生學好英文,因為大部分學生都是基礎、初級或中級的學生。基本的東西打好基礎再來應該就不難了吧!會走路走的穩健之後,又跑應該也不是問題了吧,呵呵。

恩,先從頭開始,要認知英文是一個不同的語言。

letter 字母: 英文的最小組成元素是字母(letter),英文總共也只有二十六個字母(the alphabet),所以一點也不難,呵呵,這是騙人的。a就可以是一個字(word)

word : 但是通常一個字是由幾個字母形成的,例如說shower

phrase 片語:兩個以上的字就可以組成片語(phrase),例如說take
a shower
。片語就是幾個字合在一起表達一個語意與一個詞性。有名詞片語、動詞片語、形容詞片語、副詞片語等。所以take
a shower
是一個動詞片語,表達淋浴的意思,整個當作動詞看。

clause 子句:片語或字的組合就可以變成子句(clause),一個子句的主要元素就是有一個主詞跟一個動詞,但是語意不一定完整。例如說when
he takes a shower
,這是個子句,有主詞he,有動詞takes,但語意不完整,當他洗澡的時候,然後呢?應該有更多的資訊才能完成一個句子(sentence)。

sentence句子:可是假如是He takes a shower in the morning.就是一個完整的句子,有主詞,有動詞,語意也完整。

paragraph段落:再來呢許多的完整句子就組合成一個段落(paragraph)。一個英文的段落都會表達一個主要概念(main
idea)
,不同的概念就會放到不同的段落。

essay文章:許多段落的組合呢就變成了一篇文章(essay)。呵呵,那就大功告成了!

 

所以呢英文的作文書上會看到

letter->word->sentence->paragraph->essay

這樣有清楚嗎?名詞,動詞,主詞還弄不清楚沒關係啦,我覺得先有一個基本概念,然後一步一步來,繼續往下看後再回來看就清楚一點了!

文章的元素

letter    字母   b            
英文有二十六個"字母"

 

word     單字  
book         
一個或一個以上的字母組合就形成單字

 

phrase   片語   English book   兩個以上的單字可形成片語,有動詞、名詞、形容詞與副詞片語。

 

clause    子句   Because I love English 一個句子有一組主詞與動詞與其他必要部分就叫一個子句,子句的語意不完整時叫非獨立子句。

sentence 
句子   This is an English book. 一個子句的語意完整時叫獨立子句,可以自己成為一個句子。

                
Because I love English, I became an English teacher.

            

  一個非獨立子句可以跟一個獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

 

   noun clause 名詞子句       
Everyone knows that I love beef.

 

   adjective clause 形容詞子句 My sister who
lives in Canada loves beef.

 

   adverb clause 副詞子句     Although I love beef,
I hate pork.

 

paragraph 段落  幾個句子就形成一個段落。每個段落都有一個主旨,短的段落可能只有一句,長的可以到十句或更多。常見的段落模式如下

                
topic sentence      
主題句,用來說明段落大意

                
supporting sentences
支持句,用來闡述說明主題

                
concluding sentence 
結論句,用來結尾

 

essay     文章  
幾個有組織的段落就形成一篇文章

 

0 基礎 0.3 五大基本句型

五大基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns)           Jessie Lin   
P.1  

 

英文的句型比起中文來說真的簡單許多,總共只有五個。有了這個基本句型的概念後,在解讀句子跟選擇詞性方面都會比較容易。

 

英文是主動詞的語言。就是一個句子至少都要有要有一個主詞,一個動詞。

動詞分行為動詞(action verbs)與連綴動詞
(linking verbs)
。而行為動詞又可以分及物動詞 (transitive verbs)與非及物動詞
(intransitive verbs)

動詞  行為動詞:用來描述主詞的動作或狀態

及物動詞:此類動詞的後面一定要接受詞,受詞可為人或物。概念與中文不太一樣。中文可以說我喜歡,英文不可說I like. 因為like是及物動詞,後面一定要加受詞。

不及物動詞:此類動詞的後面不接受詞。

連綴動詞:用來連接主詞與主詞補語,表狀態,其後通常接名詞或形容詞。

 

一、  
主詞 + 不及物動詞

Subject + Intransitive Verb

因為不及物動詞後不須加受詞,所以只要有主詞與不及物動詞就可以表達一個完整的句子。但是英文句子一般不會只有兩個字,而會加上修飾語來修飾。

Peter shaves every morning.

The children are dancing
happily.

 

二、  
主詞 + 及物動詞
+
直接受詞

Subject + Transitive Verb +
Direct Object

及物動詞後要有接受動作的對象,所以一定要加受詞。受詞可以是人也可以是物。

 Andrew calls his girlfriend every day.

 My mother cleans the house twice a week.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

五大基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns)           Jessie Lin   
P.2

三、  
主詞 + 及物動詞
+
間接受詞 + 直接受詞

主詞 + 及物動詞 + 直接受詞
+
介係詞 + 間接受詞

Subject + Transitive Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object

Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object + Preposition +
Indirect Object

有些及物動詞比較特殊,這些動詞又叫授與動詞。授與動詞有兩個受詞,一個為間接受詞,多為人,另一個為直接受詞,多為物。當動詞後先接直接受詞時要加上介係詞才再加上間接受詞。

 

 The secretary made the boss a cup of coffee.

 = The secretary made a cup of coffee for the boss.

 Kenny bought his wife a diamond ring.

 = Kenny bought a diamond ring for his wife.

 

四、  
主詞 + 及物動詞
+
直接受詞 + 受詞補語

Subject + Transitive Verb +
Direct Object + Objective Complement

少數的特殊及物動詞後即使加了受詞,語意還是不完整所以還要再加上受詞補語來讓語意完整。受詞補語可以是名詞或形容詞。這些特殊動詞不多,常用的記注就可以了。

如:elect,
vote, appoint, consider, label, designate, name, prove, declare, think, call,
believe, pronounce…
等。

The voters elected Ma Ying-jeou
president.

The students considered the
class interesting.

 

五、  
主詞 + 連綴動詞
+
主詞補語

Subject + Linking Verb +
Subjective Complement

連綴動詞是連接主詞語主詞補語的橋樑。補語主要是用來補充說明。主詞補語可為名詞或形容詞,用來說明或描述主詞。

Nancy is a housewife.

The boy became angry.

 

Sentence Patterns

Examples

1.    
S + V

Time flies.

2.    S + V
+ O

I love you.

3.    S +
V + IO + DO

Tim asked the teacher a question.

4.    S +
V + O + OC

We elected Leo class leader.

5.    S +
V + SC

Jimmy is an engineer.

0 基礎 0.4 子句的種類

 

 

子句的種類  types of clauses                       Jessie Lin  P.1

 

子句有三種,分名詞子句、形容詞子句跟副詞子句。

名詞子句noun clause整個子句當名詞用,不是當句子的主詞就是受詞。

形容詞子句adjective clause就是整個子句當形容詞用,一定是用來修飾名詞。

副詞子句adverb clause當然是當副詞用,像時間子句、條件子句等這些都是副詞子句,整個子句當副詞用,用來修飾動詞或整個句子。

 

不過子句跟句子究竟有什麼不同呢?

一個句子sentence一定有主詞跟動詞,而且語意完整。而子句clause也有主詞跟動詞,語意完整子句叫獨立子句independent clause,也就是相當於一個句子。主要我們這裡說的子句都是非獨立子句dependent clause,雖然有了主詞跟動詞,但是語意不完整,需要其他成分來幫助它成為一個完整的句子。也就是它要犧牲小我,充當名詞、形容詞、或副詞,來幫助形成一個完整的句子。看下面的例子可能會更清楚。

 

一、名詞子句 noun clause

I   think  that Jessie  is  a happy teacher.

(S     V               )    —noun clause

S    V                 O

 

That the earth  is  round  is   true.

(            S              V       )                   —noun clause

S                                               V   SC

 

I don’t know where she lives.

(       S   V  )                 —noun clause

S           V               O

 

名詞子句放在最前面帶領子句的有that,whether,if,疑問詞what、when、where、who等。that除了在句首外一般可以省略,其他的疑問詞等則不可省。

 

 

二、形容詞子句 adjective clause

 

The book  which  I  read  last night  was  great.

(      S   V           )             —adjective clause

S                                                                   V      SC

 

I  like  movies   that  make  me laugh.

(  S     V            )         —adjective clause

S   V      O

 

I’ll never forget the day when I  got married.

(    S   V        )        —adjective clause

S                  V           O

 

形容詞子句又叫關係子句。而放在最前面帶領形容詞子句的字就叫做關係代名詞,如that、what、who、when、where、whose等。通常做為受詞的關係代名詞如which、whom、that,可以省略,可是在限定子句時又不能省。名詞與副詞子句都有who、what、where這些疑問詞,所以容易混淆。其實只要注意子句本身的功能與修飾的對象,應該就可以分得很清楚了。

 

 

三、副詞子句 adverb clause

He ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

(      S   V           )     –adverb clause

S   V        O

 

If you don’t have enough money, you can give it to me next time.

(     S                V              )                            –adverb clause

 

S            V

 

He was talking on the phone while he was driving.

(           S     V    )              –adverb clause

S        V

 

 

副詞子句一般是大家最熟悉的,種類也最多。副詞子句可以用來表達時間、因果、對比、條件、讓步等等。副詞子句最前面帶領子句的字叫做從屬連接詞subordinating conjunctions,是用來連接主要子句跟副詞子句的橋樑。當主要子句在前面時,因為很清楚的可以知道副詞子句是由從屬連接詞開始,所以不需要逗號,如第一與第三句。而當副詞子句在句首時,要有一個逗號清楚地把副詞子句跟主要子句隔開來,如第二個句子。當然這些從屬連接詞是都不能省略的囉。

 

 

真的很想哭耶,我很少直接在部落格寫講義,剛剛不知為什麼想不開,很順手的就寫了起來,寫了起碼一個多小時。剛剛firefox突然發瘋,一下子自動關機,所有的東西都不見了,我辛辛苦苦打的字,還有想出來的例子。啊啊啊!想罵人。

 

 

頭好痛喔,寫太久了,太摸了。頭暈暈的校對無效,所以明天在校對一次。有問題也請大家隨時提出。對了,主要是參考Understanding and Using English Grammar這本AZAR的第三個系列這本書,但是例句我都改過了。這本書對初學者來說太難,而且非常細。基礎不好的人可以先從簡單點的文法書開始看才不會馬上陣亡。

 

看這篇最好先把前面的文法第一、二、三天的英文結構、詞性跟基本句型看過後比較有概念。應該就知道為什麼五大句型都那麼簡單,而看到的句子常常是漏漏長,這就是因為可以在一個句子中把所有的子句放進去,子句中還可以放子句,所以有無限的可能性。呵呵,不要嚇大家了,其實子句結構弄清楚,再怎麼長的句子都可以一一拆開來,弄得很清楚,就會變簡單了,呵呵。

 

 

其實想寫的東西昨天晚上睡不著的時候就在腦海理想了一遍,大致知道要怎麼寫,可是今天不太舒服,繼中暑、感冒之後,這次是生理期,很不想動,不舒服,整個人。唉,這個老師毛病真多,我自己說。

 

 

廢話不說了,原本希望今天能寫完,趕快上床睡覺的,試試囉。

 

 

 

0 基礎 0.5 句子的種類

句子的種類
types of sentences                      by
Jessie Lin  P.1

            

 

文章的元素

letter    字母   b
英文有二十六個字母

 

word     單字
book         
一個或一個以上的字母組合就形成單字

 

phrase   片語   English book   兩個以上的單字可形成片語,有動詞、名詞、形容詞與副詞片語。

 

clause    子句   Because I love English 一個句子有一組主詞與動詞與其他必要部分就叫一個子句,子句的語意不完整時叫非獨立子句。

sentence
句子   This is an English book. 一個子句的語意完整時叫獨立子句,可以自己成為一個句子。


Because I love English, I became an English teacher.


  一個非獨立子句可以跟一個獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

 


noun clause
名詞子句        Everyone knows that I love beef.

 


adjective clause
形容詞子句 My sister who lives in
Canada loves beef.

 


adverb clause
副詞子句     Although I love beef, I hate pork.

 

paragraph 段落  幾個句子就形成一個段落。每個段落都有一個主旨,短的段落可能只有一句,長的可以到十句或更多。常見的段落模式如下


topic sentence      
主題句,用來說明段落大意


supporting sentences
支持句,用來闡述說明主題

                 concluding
sentence 
結論句,用來結尾

 

essay     文章
幾個有組織的段落就形成一篇文章

 

 

 

 

 

句子的種類
types of sentences                      by
Jessie Lin  P.2


jessielinhuiching.spaces.live.com

 

英文的句子主要有四個種類

simple sentences               簡單句 I love beef.

 

compound sentences            並和句 I love beef, but I hate pork.

 

complex sentences             複合句 Although I love beef, I hate pork.

 

compound-complex sentences   混合句My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a
day.

 

 

簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,但整體視為一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

 

並合句是由對等連接詞(and,
but, so, for, or, nor, yet)
將兩個獨立子句連接而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.

 

複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(because,
although, when, before
)所帶領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

 

混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句而形成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I
should do, so I did nothing.

0 基礎 0.6 標點符號

Minimum
Essentials of English   Second
edition   by Fred Obrecht

 

Punctuations

 

A.   
THE
COMMA

Among its many functions, the comma is used
to set off independent clauses, items in a series, coordinate adjectives,
parenthetical expressions, and nonrestrictive phrases or clauses.

 

1.    
Use
a comma to separate independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction
(and, but, for, or, nor, or yet)

 
He wanted to be a salesman but no jobs were available.

 
The people refused to send their children to school, and the school
building stood empty the entire year.

 

2.   
Use
commas to separate items in a series

 
Friendly, small, and innovative are adjectives that accurately
characterize this college.

 
He went to the basement, set the trap, and returned to the kitchen to
wait.

 

3.   
Use
a comma to separate coordinate adjectives modifying the same noun

     He washed his new, black, shiny pickup.

     Himalayan cats have long, silky, heavy
fur.

 

4.   
Use
a common to set off an introductory phrase or clause from the main clause

PARTICIPAL PHRASE:

 
Having spent his last penny, Luster tried to borrow a quarter from his
boss.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE:

 
At the beginning of each game, a noted singer gives his rendition of “The
Star-Spangled Banner.”

ADVERBIAL CLASUE:

 
When the composer was finished with the prelude, she began work on the
first movement.

 

 

 

5.   
Use
a pair of commas to set off nonrestrictive (amplifying or explanatory) phrases
and clauses inserted into a sentence

     Mary Jennings, who was my best friend,
dropped the class.

     The first offer on the Blake house, which
had been on the market for almost a month, was very disappointing.

     My son, a soldier in the 82nd
Airborne Division, spends most of his time at Fort Bragg, N.C.

 

6.   
Use
a comma to set off nonrestrictive phrases and clauses that follow the main
clause

     Jessica wanted to see the ice show, not
the circus.

     Few fans thought the reigning heavyweight
champion cloud win, although he was superior to the challenger in every
category.

 

7.   
Use
commas to set off an appositive

An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that
renames or explains the noun it follows.

 
The novel, a mystery about a secret island off the Washington coast, was
an instant bestseller.

 

8.   
Use
commas to set off words in direct address

Words in direct address identify the one
being spoken to.

 
Excuse me, Beth, but aren’t you late for your tennis lesson?

 

9.   
A
comma can take the place of an omitted word or phrase

 
The Capitol Bank is located in a shopping mall; the investors Bank, in
the heart of town.

 

10. 
A
comma is sometimes needed for clarity

     Ever since, we have taken the plane rather
than the train.

     In May, Marcia went to Washington, D.C.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.   
THE
SEMICOLON

The semicolon is generally used to separate
coordinate elements in a sentence, that is, items of the same grammatical
nature. Most often, it is used between related ideas that require punctuation
weaker than a period, but stronger than a comma. In addition, the semicolon
divides three or more items in a series when the items themselves contain
commas.

 

1.    
Use
a semicolon between related independent clauses not joined by a coordinating
conjunction

     A mature male gorilla may be six feet tall
and weigh 400 pounds or more; his enormous arms can span eight feet.

     New York has twelve major stadiums; Los
Angeles has fifteen.

 

2.   
Use
a semicolon between independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb

Frequently, two independent clauses are
joined, not by a coordinating conjunction, but by a transitional word
(conjunctive adverb) introducing the second clause. A semicolon must be used
between the clauses because these transitional words (such as accordingly,
also, consequently, finally, furthermore, however, indeed, meanwhile,
nevertheless, similarly, still, therefore, thus, and the like) are not
connecting words.

 
A female coyote will not bear pups if her diet consists of fewer than
fifty rodents a week; thus, Mother Nature achieves a population balance.

 

3.   
Use
a semicolon to separate coordinate clauses (joined by a cording conjunction) if
the clauses themselves have several commas

     The warranty on the car covered extensive
repairs to the electrical system, front end, transmission fuel injection
system, and valves; but the amount of time and inconvenience involved in
returning each time to the dealer cannot be ignored.

 

 

 

 

 

4.   
Use
a semicolon to separate items in a series when the item themselves contain
internal punctuation

Normally, three or more items in a series
are set off by commas; however, when they are made more complex by commas and
other punctuation, they are separated by semicolons.

 
The trio was composed of a cellist named Grosz, who had been a European
virtuoso for many years; a pianist who had won a major music festival in 1954,
1955, and 1958; and a violinist who had studied in Budapest, Vienna, and
Munich.

 

C.   
THE
COLON

The colon is a signal that something is to
follow: a rephrased statement, a list or series, or a formal quotation. Use a
colon in a sentence if you can logically insert namely after it.

 

Use a colon at the end of a complete
statement to show anticipation – that is, to show that amplifying details
follow, such as a list, a series of items, a formal quotation, or an
explanation.

 
Of all the gauges in an airplane cockpit, three are crucial: the
altimeter, the gas gauge, and the crash-warning indicator.

 
After five minutes of silence, the actor uttered those famous words: “To
be or not to be; that is the question.”

 
A popover has four common ingredients: flour, milk, salt, and butter.

 

    Problems that occur in the
use of the colon usually result form lapses in the following rules:

1.    
Only
a complete statement (independent clause) should precede the colon.

Incorrect:

 
Tasks that I must complete today: mow the lawn, read two chapters of
history, and tidy my room.

Correct:

 
I must complete several tasks today: mow the lawn, read two chapters of
history, and tidy my room.

 

 

 

 

2.   
A
colon should not separate essential parts of a sentence.

Incorrect:

 
In updating my computer, I added: a hard disk, a laser printer, and a
fine-resolution monitor. (The colon separates the verb from its direct
objects.)

Correct:

 
In updating my computer, I added some new components: a hard disk, a
laser printer, and a fine-resolution monitor.

 
In updating my computer, I added a hard disk, a laser printer, and a
fine-resolution monitor.

 

3.   
There
should not be more than one colon in a sentence.

Incorrect:

 
The success of the action depended upon three variables: that the
weather would hold out, that the supplies would arrive on time, and that the
enemy would be short on three things: planes, ammunition, and food.

Correct:

 
The success of the action depended upon three variables: that the
weather would hold out, that the supplies would arrive on time, and that the
enemy would be short on planes, ammunition, and food.

 

D.  
THE
HYPHEN

The hyphen has two main uses: to divide
syllables at the end of a line and to link words in certain combinations. It is
also used in compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine.

 

Hyphenate a compound adjective (an
adjective made up of two or more words) when it precedes the noun it modifies.
The hyphen is ordinarily not used when the words follow the noun.

 
She wore a well-used raincoat.

 BUT  Her raincoat was well used.

 
The past-due bill lay unnoticed behind the couch.

 
BUT  The bill, past due, lay
unnoticed behind the couch.

 

 

 

E.   
THE
APOSTROPHE

In addition to indicating possession, the
apostrophe is used to take the place of omitted numbers (class of ’87) and
omitted letters or words in contractions (wasn’t [was not], o’clock [of the
clock]), and sometimes to indicate plurals (A’s, I.D.’s).

 

Use an apostrophe to show the possessive
case of nouns and indefinite pronouns.

1.    
The
possessive case of singular nouns (either common or proper) is indicated by
adding an apostrophe and an s.

     George’s speech, the senator’s campaign,
the boss’s office

2.   
The
possessive case of plural nouns ending in s is formed by adding only the
apostrophe.

     The girls’ softball team, the waitresses’
union, the Harrisons’ antique cars, the Wiesses’ party

 

F.   
THE
DASH

The main function of the dash, like the
parentheses, is to enclose information within a sentence. Dashes are generally
more forceful and therefore should be used sparingly, since they highlight the
ideas and items they enclose.

 

Use dashes to indicate hesitation, or a
sudden break in thought or sentence structure, or to set off appositives and
other explanatory or parenthetical elements. The dash adds emphasis to any part
of a sentence that can be separated from the rest of the sentence.

 
The skydiver—in spite of his broken leg—set a new record for endurance.

Some specific uses of the dash follow:

  1. To interrupt continuity of
    prose

     “I rally can’t tolerate—Well, never mind.”

  1. To emphasize appositives

     The items she had asked for in the new car—tape
deck, mileage computer, stick shift—were all included.

 

 

 

 

  1. To set off phrases or
    clauses containing commas

When a modifier itself contains commas,
dashes can make its boundaries clear.

 
General Motors—which has manufactured tanks, cannons, and mobile cranes—has
always been far more than an automobiles assembler.

  1. To set off parenthetical
    elements

     The child was sitting—actually sprawling—at
the desk.

 

G.   
THE
QUESTION MARK

A question mark indicates the end of a
direct question. A question mark in parentheses signals doubt or uncertainty
about a fact such as a date or a number.

 

Use a question mark after a direct
question.

 
When are we going to eat?

 
Ask yourself, what are the odds of winning?

 
(It is also correct to capitalize the word what.)

A question mark in parentheses may be used
to express doubt.

 
The Dean’s notes, published in 1774 (?), are considered the novel’s
origin.

NOTE:

The use of the question mark as a mark of
irony or sarcasm is not usually considered proper: The superintendent’s
important (?) announcements took all morning.

A question mark should never be combined
with a comma, period, exclamation point, or other question mark. Most often,
the question mark assumes the functions of other marks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H.  
THE
EXCLAMATION POINT

An exclamation point is an indicator of
strong emotional feelings, such as anger, joy, shock, surprise, or fear. It may
also be used to express irony or emphasis. Like the dash, it should be used
sparingly.

 

Use an exclamation point after a command,
an interjection, an exclamation, or some other expression of strong emotion.

COMMAND:

 
Stop!

INTERJECTION:

 
Wow! Fire! Help!

EMTOIONAL EXPRESSION:

     Don’t tell me you did
it again! How wonderful!

 

I.   
THE
QUOTATION MARKS

One of the main uses of quotation marks is
to signal the exact words of a writer or speaker. Quotation marks are also used
to enclose the titles or short literary or musical works (articles, short
stories or poems, songs), as well as words used in a special way.

 
“Ozmandias” by Percy Bysshe Shelley is an example of an Italian sonnet.

Enclose direct quotations in quotation
marks.

 
“We will wage war wherever it takes us,” Winston Churchill pledged.

Quotation marks should enclose only the
exact words of the person quoted.

 
Winston Churchill pledged that “we will wage war wherever it takes us.”
(NOT…pledged “that we will…”)

NOTE:

When a quoted sentence is interrupted by a
phrase such as he said or she replied, two parts of quotation marks must be
used, one for each part of the quotation. The first word of the second part of
the quoted material should not be capitalized unless it is a proper noun or the
pronoun I.

  “There are two
sorts of contests between men,” John Locke argued, “one managed by law, the
other by force.”

 

 

 

NOTE:

When a quotation is a structural part of
the sentence, it begins with a lowercase letter, even though the original
quotation is a separate sentence beginning with a capital.

 
F.D.R. told a worried nation that “there is nothing to fear but fear
itself.”

However, when the quotation is not
structurally integrated with the rest of the sentence, the initial letter is
capitalized.

 
F.D.R.’s sage words of wisdom, “There is nothing to fear but fear
itself,” soothed a worried nation.

 

   Commas and periods always belong
inside quotation marks; semicolons and colons, outside. Question marks and exclamation
points are placed inside the quotation marks when they are part of the quotation;
otherwise, they are placed outside.

     What did he mean when
he said, “I know the answer already”?

     “The case is closed!”
the attorney exclaimed.

 

J.   
THE
PARENTHESES

Parentheses, like dashes, are used to set
off words of explanation and other secondary supporting details—figures, data,
examples—that are not really part of the main sentence or paragraph.
Parentheses are less emphatic than dashes and should be reserved for ideas that
have no essential connection with the rest of the sentence.

 

Use parentheses to enclose an explanatory
or parenthetical element that is not closely connected with the rest of the
sentence.

 
The speech that she gave on Sunday (under extremely difficult
circumstances, it should be noted) was her best.

If the parenthetical item is an independent
sentence that stands alone capitalize the first word and place a period inside
the end parenthesis. If it is a complete sentence within another complete
sentence, do not begin it with a capital letter or end it with a period. A
question mark or exclamation point is part of the parenthetical element should
be placed inside the parenthesis.

 
On Easter, I always think of the hot cross buns I used to buy for two
cents apiece. (At the time, the year was 1939, and I was three years old.)

A speech decrying the lack of basic skills
on campuses today was given by Congressman Jones (he was the man who once
proposed having no entrance standards for community college students).

The absurd placement of the child-care
center (fifteen feet from a classroom building!) was amateur architecture at
its worst.

 

K.   
THE
ITALICS/UNDERLINING

Italic type is the slanted type used for
titles and special emphasis (Moby Dick).
In handwritten or typed text, italics are indicated with underlining (Moby
Dick
).

Use italics to designate or draw attention
to:

1. Titles of complete or independent works,
such as books, periodicals newspapers, plays, films, television programs, long
poems (long enough to be published as separate works), long musical
compositions, albums, paintings, and statues. Do not underline the title at the
head of a term or research paper.

 

 

 

 

 

 

0 基礎 0.7 大寫

Minimum
Essentials of English   Second
edition   by Fred Obrecht

 

USAGE/MECHANICS

 

CAPITALIZATION

 

A.
Proper
names

Note that common nouns like boulevard,
heights, university, park, and store are capitalized when they accompany proper
nouns.

1.
Names
of persons or specific entitles or trademarks

Johan Lennon, William the Conqueror, the
Constitution, English 101, the Statue of Liberty

2.
Geographical
names

New York, Niagara Falls, Rocky Mountains,
Asia, Cape Fear

3.
Specific
nations, cultures, ethnic groups, and languages

Mexican, Thai, Afro-American, Koreans,
Iranians, Chinese

4.
Schools,
institutions, government divisions and agencies, companies

UCLA, Library of Congress, Red Cross,
Rotary Club, Coast Guard

5.
Days,
months, commemorative days, or holidays

Monday, March, Veterans’ Day, Father’s Day,
Thanksgiving

6.
Significant
events or periods, historical documents

the Fourteenth Amendment, Middle Ages,
Operation Desert Storm, the Great Depression

7.
Religious
references to documents, holidays, personages or deities

the Bible, Koran, Genesis, Revolutions,
Easter, Christmas, Hindu

8.
Words
used in a special sense

We all know that Time waits for no man.

Only the all-consuming obsessive drive for
Money remains as a motivation.

 

B.
Abbreviations
and acronyms

Capitalize abbreviations or shortened forms
of capitalized words


USC, NBC, IBM, AT&T, CA, NYC, UNESCO

 

 

 

 

 

C.
Capitalize
titles indicating rand or relationship

Capitalize titles and words denoting family
relationship that precede the name but not those that follow it.


Mama McCaslin; President William Clinton; George Bush, the president of
the United States; General Taylor; Adrienne, my aunt

When words indicating family relationships
are substituted for proper names, they are usually capitalized:

    Well, Father, you certainly did well on the
course today!

D.
Capitalize
the first word and all other important words in titles

Articles (the, a, an), coordinating
conjunctions (and, but, for, or yet), prepositions (in, to, for, around, up,
under), and the to in infinitives are not normally capitalized, unless they are
the first word in the title.

E.
Always
capitalize the first word in a sentence and the first word in directly quoted
speech

      Never have so
many viewers tuned in to one program.

      Are you sure?
Well, then, let’s cancel the wedding. I’m serious.

      Father Mike
often says, “Blessed are those who are funny.”

      Without
hesitation, Elizabeth shouted, “Down with the Bruins!”

   Keep in mind this handy rule:
common (uncapitalized) nouns are often preceded by articles (a, an, the) or by
limiting words like each, many, several, every, some.

F.
Capitalization
review chart

Capitals No
Capitals
Lieutenant
Cameron Winston
the lieutenant
in charge every lieutenant
the
Korean War
the
gas wars of the 70’s
German,
Swedish, Tagalog
foreign
languages
East-West
University
your
local university
the
U.S. Army
a
rough and ready army
March,
St. Patrick’s Day
spring,
holidiay
the
Midwest, Midwesterners
to
fly west, midwestern states
the
Retail Merchants Association
an
association for merchants
Tay-Sachs
disease
cancer,
colds, pneumonia
a
Himalayan, Toyota trucks
cats,
small trucks
several
Republican hopefuls
democratic
movements
our
Declaration of Independence
the
women’s declaration of independence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capitalization
Rules
大寫規則

 

一個句子的第一個字要大寫。I永遠大寫。其他規則如下

 

G.
Proper
names
專有名詞的第一個字要大寫

1.
人名、頭銜、商標、地標等

Jessie Lin, President Barack Obama, Coca-
Cola, Taipei 101

2.
地理名稱。如國家、城市、路名、區域、山川、海洋、河流等

Taiwan, Taipei, Zhongshan Road, Xinyi
District, Jade Mountain

3.
特定國家的人、文化、種族、語言、宗教等

Taiwanese, Hakka, Asian, Mandarin, Buddhism

4.
學校、政府部門與機構、公司的名稱

National Taiwan University, Government
Information Office, Republic of China, Red Cross, First Bank

5.
星期、月份、紀念日、假日

Monday, March, Father’s Day, Thanksgiving

6.
特定活動或期間,歷史性文件

the Fourteenth Amendment, Middle Ages, Operation
Desert Storm, the Great Depression

7.
宗教性著作、假日、人物

the Bible, Koran, Easter, Christmas, God,
Allah

8.
在句子中有特別意義的字

We all know that Time waits for no man.

9.    學校課程名稱

Chemistry 101

 

H.
縮寫、首字縮寫要大寫

 IBM, WTO, AIDS

 

I.
報章雜誌、書籍、電影等標題的第一個字與其他重要的字都要大寫。冠詞(the, a, an), 連接詞(and,
but, for, or yet),
介係詞(in, to, for, up, under)等除非在第一個字,否則不必大寫。

The Lord of the Rings

 

 

1 動詞 1.1 動詞接續

 

 

動詞的接續 Jessie Lin  P.1

 

英文的動詞後面的接續依不同動詞,後面所要接續的詞性也會有所不同。

一、 有些動詞後面可以加不定詞(to+V1),也可以加動名詞(V-ing),意思都不變。

如:start, begin, continue, love, like, hate, can’t stand, can’t bear, prefer

EX: I like to watch TV. = I like watching TV.

I prefer staying home to going to the movie.

I prefer to stay home than go to the movie.

二、 有些動詞後面只能接動名詞

如:enjoy, finish, quit, miss, feel like, avoid, admit, advise, appreciate, acknowledge, can’t help, consider, celebrate, delay, deny, discuss, dislike, endure, escape, explain, forgive, give up, keep, imagine, mind, postpone, practice, prevent, prohibit, propose, recall, recommend, regret, report, resent, resist, risk, suggest, support, tolerate, understand

EX: He quit smoking.

三、 有些動詞後面只可以接不定詞

如:ask, decide, want, need, hope, intend, learn, refuse, plan, wish, promise, afford, agree, appear, ask, attempt, can’t afford, can’t wait, choose, decide, deserve, expect, fail, grow, manage, need, offer, pay, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, remind, request, require, tell, urge, warn, wish, would like

EX: They decided to stay home.

四、 有些動詞後面加不定詞與加動名詞後的意義不同

如:remember, forget, stop

EX: I stopped to watch TV.  這一句是說我停下原本做的事去看電視。

I stopped watching TV.  這一句則是說我停下看電視這個動作。

She remembered to lock the door. 她記得去關門。(記得去做某件事)

She remembered locking the door.  她記得關了門。(記得做過某件事)

He forgot to mail the letter.  他忘記去寄信了。(忘記去做某件事)

He forgot mailing the letter.  他忘記做過寄信這個動作。(忘記做過某件事)

I tried to control my voice.  我試著控制我的聲音。(企圖做某件事)

Try logging off and logging on again. 試試看登出再登入。(嘗試,測試)

五、 感官動詞後面可以加動詞原型(V1)或動名詞(現在分詞)或過去分詞。

語意有點不同。接原型表示看到或聽到某動作從開始到結束,而接動名詞表示只看到或聽到某個時間點,接過去分詞表示受詞正被加諸某行為。

如:see, watch, listen, hear, feel, notice

EX: I saw him watching TV.

I saw him watch TV.

I saw him scolded by his mother.

動詞的接續 by Jessie Lin  P.2

六  使役動詞Causative Verbs是表示要求某人去做事,或讓某一件事被完成。

1. 使役動詞接原型動詞     S + CV + O + V1

make, let, have 這三個使役動詞後的受詞常為人,表達要求某人做某事時,

接原型動詞

Her mother made her stay home.

She had the doctor check her leg.

Her father does not let her go out at night.

2. 使役動詞接不定詞       S + CV + O + to + V1

除 make, let, have 之外的使役動詞如: get, want, permit, allow, order, 等後面

接了受詞(人)後要先接不定詞 to 再接動詞原型

I got Ben to mail the letter.

The girl wants her boyfriend to apologize.

I am not allowed to tell you the secret.

3. 使役動詞接過去分詞     S + CV + O + V3

have, get 或其他使役動詞後面接的受詞(多為事物,也可為人)表達了接受其後

的動作,也就是被動地完 成了某事時,受詞後接的是過去分詞V3 (past participle)

I had my car washed.

She got her hand burned.

We had our customers satisfied.

4. 使役動詞加動名詞      S + CV + O + V-ing

have, get 後面加結果,可能是預期的,也可能是不想要的結果,通常是主詞

無法控制時,後面加動名詞。

The baby had everyone in the room laughing.

Tom got the machine running.

5. make

I could not make myself understand.  我沒法瞭解。

I could not make myself understood.  我沒法讓自己被理解。

6. let 後面要接 be +V3 Let the work be done immediately.

七  授予動詞是一些特殊動詞,其後有兩個受詞。先接人(直接受詞)再接物(間

接受詞)時,不需介係詞。反過來先接物在接人就要在人前加介係詞。

加to的授予動詞有: bring, hand, give, lend, offer, pass, post, read, sell, send, show, sell, tell, teach, throw, write

EX: She sent a letter to her boyfriend. /She sent her boyfriend a letter.

加for的授予動詞有: buy, build, cook, cut, do, draw, fetch, find, get, keep, leave, make, order, pick, save

EX: My mom cooks dinner for me. / My mom cooks me dinner.

動詞的接續 by Jessie Lin  P.3

八  連綴動詞是一些特殊動詞,如be,感官動詞與一些表達變化或狀態沒有變化的動詞。

其後面接形容詞或名詞

如:be, seem, appear, feel, look, smell, taste, sound, become, get, turn, grow, come, keep, stay, remain

EX: Dreams come true.  We became friends.  Please keep quiet.

九  Subjunctive Noun Clauses

在某些特定的獨立子句中的動詞與形容詞是用來表達緊急urgency,勸告

advisability,必須necessity,與慾望desirability時,其後的that名詞子句中的動

詞必須用動詞原型。表達否定則在動詞前面加not。

動詞:advise, ask, command, demand, direct, insist, move, order, prefer,

propose, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge,等。

形容詞:advisable, better, desirable, essential, imperative, important,

mandatory, necessary, urgent, vital, 等。

The company president urged that the market department be more aggressive.

She insisted that the company not lose any customers to its competitors.

It’s necessary that each salesperson work long hours.

It was recommended that the department not hire new staff at this time.

From Writing Academic English Longman