0 基礎 0.1 八大詞類

八大詞類( the parts of speech)                by  Jessie Lin    P.1

每一個英文單字都可以歸屬為英文的八大詞類之一。同一個字可能有好幾種不同的詞性。如: Love is a wonderful thing. I love
you.
這兩個句子中love 分別是名詞與動。在記單字時要一併把詞性記住才能寫出與說出正確的句子。

 

1.    
動詞 (verbs):用來描述一個動作或狀態。可分為行為動詞 (action verbs)、連綴動詞 (linking verbs) 與助動詞
(auxiliary verbs)

a. 行為動詞:用來描述主詞的動作或狀態,絕大部分的動詞屬於這一類。

      如:fly,
wash, smile, wait, live…
等。

      They walk to
school every day.

      Tom lives in
America.

b. 連綴動詞:用來連接主詞與主詞補語。主詞補語用來補充說明主詞,可能為名詞或形容詞。只有少數的動詞如be動詞,感官動詞等為這一類。當主詞補語為名詞時,主詞應該會等於主詞補語。如:Jessie is my teacher. 其中Jessiemy
teacher
是一樣的。當主詞補語為形容詞時,會用來描述、形容主詞。如I feel tired. tired是用來描述I

       如:
am, is, are, was, seem, look, taste, appear, turn, feel…
等。

       Mary is a
good student.

       Rita
looks very happy.

   c. 助動詞: 其功用是與主要動詞結合成動詞片語而來表達特定時式或特殊語氣。

     如:be,
have, do(
注意這三個也可當一般動詞); will, would, can, could,

        
may, might…
等。 

      I will call you
when I get home.

      I haven’t had
anything all day. I am starving. I could eat a horse!

 

2.   
名詞 (nouns):名詞顧名思義是人、地、物甚至是抽象概念的名字。可作為主詞、受詞與補語。也經常接在其他詞類後形成片語。

如:Peter,
Taipei, table, truth..
等。

Jessie is an English teacher.

My boyfriend bought some flowers for me on
my birthday.

 

3.   
代名詞 (pronouns):是用來取代名詞的字。前面已經提過的名詞或是說話者彼此已知的名詞都可用代名詞代替。主要是避免重複。

如:you,
him, herself, everyone, this, which, what…
等。

These are not my books.

Linda’s husband gave her a diamond. It cost
NT50,000.

 

八大詞類( the parts of speech)               by  Jessie Lin    P.2

 

4.   
形容詞 (adjectives):用來形容、描述、說明一個名詞或代名詞。形容詞多放在修飾的名詞前或放在連綴動詞後。

如:hot, Taiwanese, her, that, some,
whose…

The beautiful woman is wearing an ugly hat.

The coffee tastes bitter.

 

5.   
副詞 (adverbs):可以修飾動詞、形容詞與其他副詞。副詞的移動性很高,按照強調的部分不同可放在不同地方。

   如:always, usually, sometimes,
quickly, late, very…
等。

   She takes a taxi to work
sometimes.

   She usually has to work late.

   Fortunately, she won the lottery.

 

6.   
連接詞 (conjunctions):用來連接單字
(words)
、片語 (phrases)或子句 (clauses)

片語是兩個以上的字一起組合而成。子句是一些字中有主詞與動詞。

如:and, but, for, if, before,
because, when, either..or, both… and…
等。

George and Mary like to go shopping
together.

He’s the kind of person you either love or
hate.

Although John was sick, he still went to
work.

 

 

7.   
介係詞 (prepositions):其後加名詞或代名詞結合成介係詞片語,用來表達兩件事物的關係,如位置、方向、空間、時間或因果等。

如:about, around, in, on under, of,
under, with, between, for…
等。

The sun rises in the east and sets in the
west.

I get up at 7 o’clock from Monday to
Friday.

 

 

8.   
感嘆詞 (interjections):用來表達強烈的情緒或驚訝。

如:oh, wow, yeah, ouch…等。

Oh! I didn’t know that was you.

Wow! It’s unbelievable.

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