在我參考的這本寫作書上，是通通叫做分詞片語 participle phrase。 比方說 The man standing over there is her boyfriend. 這裡的 standing over there 是分詞片語。分詞片語可以是從形容詞子句來，從副詞子句來。而分詞構句 participle clause 句這裡有 clause 感覺應該是個子句。不過呢，我剛剛仔細查了一下，BBC 是說，分詞構句必須是從副詞子句來的，而且主詞要相同。所以比分說 Hoping for an “A", I was disappointed in my exam grade. 這個句子的 Hoping for an “A" 是分詞構句。但是呢，我參考這本美國出版的寫作書的話是把他們全部放在一起。 所以這一篇有包含了分詞片語跟分詞構句。只要是主詞相同，從副詞子句縮減過來的，可以叫做分詞構句。
Participial Phrases 分詞片語 Jessie P.1
摘要自Writing Academic English
現在分詞(present participle)是由主動動詞(active verb)而來，有ing的結尾。
The custom fascinates me.
The fascinating custom has been the subject of many books.
過去分詞(past participle)是由被動動詞(passive verb)而來，常有ed結尾，也就是動詞的第三態。
My leg was broken in three places.
My broken leg is healing slowly.
A pedestrian who had been hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.
A pedestrian hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.
An ambulance that was summoned by a bystander came quickly.
An ambulance summoned by a bystander came quickly.
The taxi driver, who did not realize what happened, continued on.
The taxi driver, not realizing what happened, continued on.
A woman hurrying to catch a bus tripped and fell.
Teresa, hurrying to catch a bus, stumbled and fell.
Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.
Hoping for an A, my exam grade disappointed me. (X)
Hoping for an A, I was disappointed in my exam grade.
The team won the championship, shocking their opponents.
Many students who study at this university are from foreign countries.
Many students studying at this university are from foreign countries.
Students who are taking calculus must buy a graphing calculator.
Students taking calculus must buy a graphing calculator.
The team members, who looked happy after their victory, were cheered by the fans.
The team members, looking happy after their victory, were cheered by the fans.
The crowd, which was cheering wildly as the game ended, would not leave the stadium.
Cheering wildly as the game ended, the crowd would not leave the stadium.
Everyone who will take the TOEFL next month must preregister.
Everyone taking the TOEFL next month must preregister.
Lab reports that are not handed in by Friday will not be accepted.
Lab reports not handed in by Friday will not be accepted.
The proposed law, which was opposed by the majority of the people, did not pass.
The proposed law, opposed by the majority of the people, did not pass.
When you enter a theater, you should turn off your cell phone.
When entering a theater, you should turn off your cell phone.
You should turn off your cell phone when entering a theater.
- 保留after, while, when，假如這些從屬代名詞放在主要子句後面。當這些從屬代名詞放在主要子句前時，可保留也可省略。
- 省略表示理由的because, since, as與表示時間的as。
Before student chooses a college, he or she should consider several factors.
Before choosing a college, a student should consider several factors.
A student should consider several factors before choosing a college.
After he had passed the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman in college.
After passing the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman in college.
Because Carlos came from a very conservative family, he was shocked at the U.S. system of coed dormitories.
Coming from a very conservative family, Carlos was shocked at the U.S. system of coed dormitories.
As he gradually got used to the way of life in the United States, he became less homesick.
Gradually getting used to the way of life in the United States, he became less homesick.
1. While shopping in the supermarket, I ran into an old friend.
2. Before leaving for work, I ate breakfast.
3. Since working for this company, she has learned a lot.
4. Lacking the necessary qualification, he didn’t get the job.
5. Being unable to afford a car, I bought a scooter.