這一章講的是動詞的被動語態，所以首先要對時態的句型很清楚，不然改被動的時候容易出錯。另外這裡還有說到也是很容易混淆的ed形容詞，ing形容詞，也就是用現在分詞跟過去分詞當形容詞的用法，考試超愛考，超容易弄混淆。這個部分有給了很多例子，也有新的練習。最後也有be used to + V-ing/N表目前已習慣於跟used to + V1的表過去的習慣，但現在已經不錯了。也是容易弄錯的。多做例子應該會比較容易懂。這個部分是用先前寫過的講義。
歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用，但請勿任意轉載或公開使用， 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血， 並且標明出處。雖然校對技巧很差，雖然裡面也可能有錯誤，呵呵，還是要尊重一下原作者喔，謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar，Longman的Grammar Express，Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar，另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.1
jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家
A. 主動與被動The Active and the Passive
Millions of people read the magazine. (The focus is on the people.)
The mouse ate the cheese.
The magazine is read by millions of people. (The focus is on the
They cheese was eaten by the mouse.
The magazine was founded by 1992. (I don’t know who founded it.)
The magazine was sold at newsstands. (We can assume that the newsstand owners and employees sell it. We don’t need to mention them.)
Some mistakes were made in that article. (I know who made the mistake, but I don’t want to blame the person who made them.)
Payment can be made at any post office.
Cars left here will be towed away.
A number of political prisoners have been released.
Talks will be held in London next week.
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.2
Farmers grow corn.
Corn is grown by famers.
David helped me.
I was helped by David.
David helped them.
They were helped by David.
The article was written by John Delgado.
“Romeo and Juliet” was written by William Shakespeare.
Our windows are washed by a robot.
The cake was eaten by a mouse!
John Delgado is a famous sports writer. He has just been hired by National Sports to write a monthly column. (The name of John’s employer is necessary new information.
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.3
Andy bought those flowers.
Those flowers were bought by Andy.
Betty sold those clothes.
Those clothes are sold by Betty.
Cathy smiles all the time.
被動的要素是be + V3。被動一定會有be動詞跟動詞的第三態，過去分詞。依時態不同會有所改變。
It is written in nineteen languages.
It has just printed.
These computers aren’t produced anymore.
Scotch whiskey isn’t made in England.
When is breakfast served in this hotel?
Where was the car repaired.
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.4
主動 S + V + O
被動 S + be + V3 + by + O
The mouse eats the cheese.
The cheese is eaten by the mouse.
The mouse is eating the cheese.
The cheese is being eaten by the mouse.
The mouse has eaten the cheese.
The cheese has been eaten by the mouse.
The mouse ate the cheese.
The cheese was eaten by the mouse.
The mouse was eating the cheese.
The cheese was being eaten by the mouse.
The mouse had eaten the cheese.
The cheese had been eaten by the mouse.
The mouse will eat the cheese.
The cheese will be eaten by the mouse.
The mouse is going to eat the cheese.
The cheese is going to be eaten by the mouse.
The mouse will have eaten the cheese.
The cheese will have been eaten by the mouse.
Decisions should be made too quickly.
It can’t be done.
Reports have to be filed.
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.5
You are telling a friend some news. Use the notes and complete the second sentences. Sometimes you need to use the active and sometimes the passive.
1. (Past Simple: Claude Jennings / win / the quiz competition)
Did you hear about the quiz competition? It ___________________.
2. (Past Simple: Mrs. Miles / do / a parachute jump / last week)
You know Mrs. Miles? She _______________________________.
3. (Present Perfect: a bull / attack / David)
Have you heard about David? He’s__________________________.
4. (Present Continuous: build / the house)
Trevor and Laura have bought a house. It’s still ________________.
5. (Present Simple: Andrew / like / Jessica)
Did I tell you about Andrew? He ___________________________.
6. (Present Perfect: throw away / your stamp collection)
Bad news about your stamp collection. It’s ___________________.
7. (Present Perfect: Martins / kidnap / my neighbors)
Did I mention my neighbors? They’ve _______________________.
8. (Past Simple: five people / see / the ghost)
Did you hear about the ghost? It ___________________________.
9. (Past Simple: Claire / go / to Florida / last month)
You remember Claire? She _______________________________.
10. (Present Perfect: send / our luggage / to Australia)
Bad news about our luggage. It’s __________________________.
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.6
I’m interested in foreign movies.
This table is made of wood.
He is married to Sue. 是表狀態，而飛過去動作，所以不要說He was married to Sue.
1. 現在分詞present participle與過去分詞past participle都可以當形容詞用，描述感情，情緒或反應。
The last Star Wars movie was amazing!
I was amazed by the special effects.
2. 現在分詞present participle / V-ing用來描述某個人或某件事引起的感受或反應。表示描述的人事物”令人感到…”
The actor is always amusing. (He causes amusement.)
These directions are confusing. (They cause confusion.)
3. 過去分詞past participle / V3 (V-ed) 用來描述某個人的經驗感受或反應，表示描述某人”感到…”
We were amused by that actor. (We felt amusement.)
I’m really confused by these directions. (I feel confusion.)
This book is very interesting.
Mike is very interested in UFOs.
She is a boring person.
I have nothing to do. I’m bored.
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.7
a. The two-hour delay was annoying.
The passengers were annoyed about the delay.
b. I didn’t enjoy the party. It was boring.
I went to the party, but I felt bored.
c. The computer has some very confusing instruction.
I got very confused trying to make sense of the instructions.
d. This wet weather is so depressing.
This weather makes me so depressed.
e. It was very disappointing not to get the job.
I was very disappointed not to get the job.
f. The game was really exciting.
The United fans were excited.
g. Going for a jog with Matthew is exhausting.
I’m exhausted after jogging all that way.
h. I thought the program on wildlife was fascinating.
I watched the program on wildlife. I was absolutely fascinated.
i. For one frightening/terrifying moment I thought I was going to fall.
When I got onto the roof, I felt frightened/terrified.
j. I just don’t understand. I find the whole thing rather puzzling.
I must say I’m puzzled. I just don’t understand.
k. Lying in a hot bath is relaxing.
I feel relaxed when I lie in a hot bath.
l. I think the way Jessica behaved was quite shocking.
I was quite shocked to see Jessica behaving like that.
m. The test results were surprising.
I was surprised at the test results.
n. What thrilling news this is! Congratulations!
We were thrilled to hear your good news.
o. The journey took all day and night. They found it very tiring.
After traveling all day and night they were very tired.
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.8
Complete the conversations using a word ending in –ing or –ed.
1. A: That was an ____________(exict…) film, wasn’t it?
2. B: Oh, do you think so? I’m _____________(surpris…) you liked it.
I thought it was rather _______________(disappoint…).
3. A: Well, I was _____________(puzzl…) once or twice. I didn’t
understand the whole story. It was ____________(confus…) in
places. but the end was good.
4. B: I was ___________(bor…) most of the time. I didn’t find it very
5. A: I’m surprised how warm it is for March.
B: Yes, all this sunshine is quite ___________.
6. A: I’m not very fit. I was pretty tired after climbing the mountain.
B: Yes, I think everyone felt _________.
7. A: I think I need to relax.
B: Well, lying by the pool should be _____________.
8. A: It was annoying to lose my ticket.
B: You looked really _____________ when you had to buy another one.
9. A: The cabaret was amusing.
B: Claire was certainly ____________. She couldn’t stop laughing.
10. A: The museum was interesting, wasn’t it?
B: It was OK. I was quite _____________ in those old maps.
11. A: I’m fascinated by these old photos.
B: I always find it _________________ to see what people looked like
12. A: Was it a big thrill meeting Tom Hanks?
B: You bet. It was just about the most _____________ moment of my life.
13. A: You look exhausted. You should go to bed.
B: Driving down from Scotland was pretty ______________.
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.9
L. used to 跟 be used to 的用法與不同
1. S + be used to + V-ing/N：表達現在習慣，某件事不是新事物，也不陌生，後面接的是現在分詞或名詞
I’m used to the weather in Taipei.
I’m used to driving on the right because I have lived in Taiwan for a long time.
2. S + used to + V1：表達過去的習慣，從前固定做某件事，現在不做了，後面接的是動詞原形。
I used to drive to work every day, but these days I usually go by bike.
We used to live in a small village, but now we live in Taipei.
M. 表達現在已經習慣於be + used to 句型
句型：主詞＋be used to ＋現在分詞/名詞
- 肯定句：S+ be used to + V-ing/N
I do the dishes every day, so I’m used to it.
His new job is very busy and he is used to working late until 10 or 11 p.m.
2. 否定句：S + be + not + used to + V-ing/N
He isn’t used to driving on the left.
He wasn’t used to driving on the left, but now he’s used to it.
3. 疑問句: Be + S + used to + V-ing/N
Are you used to your new school?
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.10
N. 表達過去習慣的used to 句型
句型：主詞＋used to＋動詞原形 (S + used to + V1)
1. 肯定句 S + used to + V1：過去曾經…
He used to play basketball five days a week before he hurt his leg.
I used to smoke a lot, but I quit a few years ago.
2. 否定句 S + didn’t use to + V1 / S + didn’t used to + V1
I didn’t use to drink coffee at breakfast, but now I always have coffee in the morning. ( I didn’t used to drink coffee.)
I never used to drink coffee at breakfast, but now I always have coffee in the morning.
(Azar文法書指出didn’t use to 跟 didn’t used to 都可以，但比較常見的是never used to)
3. 疑問句 Did + S + use to + V1? / Did + S + used to + V1?
Did you use to live in Paris? (Did you used to live in Paris?)
Did you use to fight with your brother? (Did you used to fight?)
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.11
O. used to 跟 be used to 的練習題
- Jane is used to _____________ (drive) on the left.
- He used to ________ (live) in New York, but now he lives in a small town.
- Tom used to __________ (drink) a lot of coffee. Now he prefers tea.
- I feel very full after that meal. I’m not used to _________ (eat) so much.
- I wouldn’t like to share an office. I’m used to _________ (have) my own office.
- I used to ________ (have) a car, but I sold it a few months ago.
- When we were children, we used to ___________ (go) swimming every day.
- There used to __________ (be) a cinema here but it was knocked down a few years ago.
- I’m the boss here. I’ not used to ________ (be) told what to do.
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.12
P. be supposed to用法
1. be supposed to可以用來表示現在或未來通常會有的狀況或正確做某事件的方法。也可以用在談論預期會發生的事件。
The guests are supposed to buy flowers for the hostess.
The bus driver needs to concentrate. You’re not supposed to talk to him.
How am I supposed to cook this? – It tells you on the packet.
I’m supposed to get home before midnight.
He is supposed to call me tomorrow.
2. be supposed to 也可以用來表達過去預期，但是沒有發生的事。
It’s eleven o’clock. You were supposed to be here at ten thirty, you know.
The train was supposed to arrive ten minutes ago. It’s late again!
Add a sentence using be (not) supposed to and these words:
leave it outside, report to the police, stand in a queue, take two before meals, watch it
用上面的詞加上be (not) supposed to來完成句子
- I’ve got some pills. ______________________________________
- Foreign visitors can’t travel freely here. ______________________
- Be careful waiting for a bus in England. _______________________
- This file isn’t for under-sixteens. __________________________
- You shouldn’t bring your bike in here._________________________
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.13
Answer Key 解答
- It was won by Claude Jennings.
- She did a parachute jump last week.
- He’s been attacked by a bull.
- It’s still being built.
- He likes Jessica.
- It’s been thrown away.
- They’ve been kidnaped by Martins.
- It was seen by five people.
- She went to Florida last month.
- It’s been sent to Australia.
- surprised, disappointing
- puzzled, confusing
- bored interesting
基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態 Jessie Lin P.14
O. used to 跟 be used to 的練習題
1. driving 2. live 3. drink 4. eating 5. having 6. have 7. go 8. be
10. I used to swim three times a week, but I go jogging.
11. He moved to Taipei last year. At the beginning he felt lonely to live on
his own, but now he is used to living alone.
P. be supposed to用法
- I’m supposed to take two before meals.
- They are supposed to report to the police.
- You are supposed to stand in a queue.
- You’re not supposed to watch it.
- You’re supposed to leave it outside.