潔西沒有失戀啊!

“You can’t lose what you never had, you can’t keep what’s not yours, and you can’t hold on to something that doesn’t want to stay." – unknown

你沒法失去從來未曾擁有的東西,你沒法留住不是你的東西,你也沒留住不想留下來的東西。
一聽起來就像是在說感情吧,剛剛看看亦舒的小說,玫瑰的故事,裡面說到 “失去的東西,其實從來未曾真正的屬於你,也不必太惋惜。” 覺得英文聽過類似的,找了一下,果然。

 

人生其實就是這樣的,有些東西從來也不屬於你,又怎麼能失去呢?感情這種東西很奇妙的,恩,不對,奇妙的是人,人可以說變就變,為了種種因素,金錢,權利,名聲,慾望,等等,就這樣,一夕之間,你覺得好像就這麼失去了這個人。

 

但也不只是感情啊,友誼也是,還有家人,同事之間的情誼等等,還有很多東西都是這樣的。年輕的時候有很多為什麼為什麼為什麼?年紀大了就知道,人,其實是很現實的動物,恩,或許是這樣才能跟小強一樣一直從古代活到現代吧,就是朝著對自己有利的方向前進,就像在山上迷路,中途該丟的東西就頭也不回地往後丟,才能一直走下去吧!

 

說實在,這世上,誰也不曾擁有誰,該是你的就會是你的,不是你的也不必強求,珍惜擁有過的美好回憶也就夠了。至少潔西是這樣想的,晚安☺

 

這一文三發看起來更像失戀了吧,潔西剪了短髮,有很短嗎?老弟看到嚇到,說潔西是不是要去嚇學生,然後那天真的有同學開門後又關門,以為走錯教室了,呵呵。沒有啦。然後同學一直說潔西失戀了,所以剪頭髮,呵呵,其實夏天真的很熱啊!所以短髮省洗髮精又方便又涼爽啊!

 

頭痛了兩天,欲哭無淚的頭痛,頭痛到躺在地上不能動好幾個小時,可以躺床上,但是地上比較涼,呵呵。然後痛到想吐。今天小小的願望,明天早上起床不要再頭痛了,英明格再吃下去,要變成笨蛋了啊!加油!

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較

這一章說的是比較級,最高級。用來表較兩樣多樣事情的不同時的用法。還挺實用的,而且不難。口頭禪差點要說簡單,恩,比較時態來說潔西覺得算簡單,但是還是有它複雜的地方。多看例句,多做練習會比較有概念。所以上星期上課因為來不及,所以沒有給很多的練習題。這幾天把練習題都補齊了,所以沒有買課本的人可以做做練習,比較有概念。有課本的人做完練習可以再來做這兒的練習。

Why study? 為什麼要唸書?

The more I study, the more I know. 我唸的越多,我懂得越多。

The more I know, the more I forget. 我懂得越多,我忘得越多。

The more I forget, the less I know. 我忘得越多,我知道的越少。

So why study? 那麼,為什麼要唸書?

這超好用又超好笑,潔西昨天睡不著的時候寫了一堆,

為什麼要吃飯?
我吃得越多,我拉得越多。
我拉得越多,我肚子越餓。
所以為什麼要吃飯?

為什麼要睡覺?
我睡得越多,我越感到累。
我越感到累,我睡得越多。
所以為什麼要睡覺?

為什麼要賺錢?
我賺得越多,我花得越多。
我花得越多,我越沒有錢。
所以為什麼要賺錢?

有夠白癡吧,哇哈哈。

打講義真的要花很多時間,潔西綜合了好幾本書,找出自己覺得比較常用,然後還要好好的想想整理一下,覺得怎麼樣同學比較容易理解,所以,真的需要很多時間,所以可能會有些錯誤,因為用腦過度,呵呵,請大家見諒跟幫忙校對。感激不盡:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用,  潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血, 並且標明出處。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.1

jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A.  形容詞與副詞:程度相同的Adjectives and Adverbs: Equatives

1. 用as + adj + as 來表示比較人,事物,地方等在某方面是相同。

Tom is 180 cm.  Peter is 180 cm.  John is 178 cm.  Gary is 170 cm.

a. as…as : N1 + be + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是相同的

Tom is as tall as Peter.

b. just as…as: N1 + be + just + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是正好相同的。just 用來強調。

Peter is just as tall as Tom.

c. nearly as…as: N1 + be + nearly + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是幾乎相同的。nearly表示差別不大。

John is nearly as tall as Peter.

d. almost as…as: N1 + be + almost + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是幾乎相同的。almost表示差別不大。

John is almost as tall as Tom.

2. 用not as + adj + as 來表示比較人,事物,地方等在某方面是不同的。

a. not as…as: N1 + be + not + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是不同的。N2並不像N1那樣的

Gary is not as tall as Tom.

b. not quite as…as: N1 + be + not + quite + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是不同的,但是之間的差異不大。

John is not quite as tall as Tom.

c. not nearly as…as: N1 + be + not + nearly + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是不同的,但是之間的差異很大。

Gary is not nearly as tall as John.

3. 用as + adv + as 來表示比較行為的程度是相同的

a. as…as: N1 + V + as + adv + as N2. 表示N1的行為跟N2是相同的

He runs as fast as she does. (They run equally fast.)

b. just as…as: N1 + V + just + as + adv + as N2. 表示N1的行為跟N2是正好相同的。just 用來強調。

He rides just as well as she does.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.2

A. 形容詞與副詞:程度相同的Adjectives and Adverbs: Equatives

4. 用not as + adv + as 來表示比較行為的程度是不相同的

a. not as…as: N1 + V + not as + adv + as N2. 表示N1的行為跟N2是不相同的

He doesn’t ride as skillfully as she does.

5. 當意思明顯的時候,不需要比較的雙方都提到,可以省略後面比較的對象。

Tom and Nick are both tall, but Tom isn’t as tall (as Nick).

Tom and Nick both run fast, but Tom doesn’t run as fast (as Nick).

用as…as或not as…as 加上給予的形容詞或副詞來完成句子

1.

A: My old bike wasn’t _______________ (expensive) my new one. Of

course, it doesn’t perform _______________ (well) the new one.

B: And it didn’t look ___________ (good) the new one either.

2.

A: We need a name for this product. It should show this detergent

______________________ (clean/effectively) the others but

______________________ (not be/unfriendly) to the environment.

B: I like “GreenKleen.” It _________________ (sound/exciting) other

product names, and it __________________ the message

_________________ (express/clear) theirs too.

3.

A: The last group I rode with _______________ (be/noisy) a herd of

elephants. I prefer to ride alone, but I know it’s dangerous.

B: Ride with me next weekend. I __________________ (pedal/quietly) a

mouse. I promise.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.3

B. 形容詞與副詞比較級與最高級變化規則

1. 一個音節的形容詞或副詞在字尾加er形成比較級,加est形成最高級。

cheap-cheaper-cheapest, slow-slower-slowest, fast-faster-fastest, hard-harder-hardest

2. 一個音節的形容詞或副詞字尾為e時,只要加r形成比較級,加st形成最高級。

nice-nicer-nicest, safe-safer-safest, close-closer-closest, late-later-latest

3. 一個音節的形容詞或副詞(多為三或四個字母)字尾結構是子音加母音加子音時,則要重複字尾加er來形成比較級,加est形成最高級

big-bigger- biggest, hot-hotter-hottest, slim-slimmer-slimmest

4. 兩個音節的形容詞或副詞字尾為y時,則去y加ier形成比較級,加iest形成最高級。

pretty-prettier-prettiest, friendly-friendlier-friendliest, funny-funnier-funniest

5. 兩個或兩個音節以上的形容詞或副詞則在前面加more形成比較級,加most形成最高級。字尾是ly的副詞通常在前面加more或most。

convenient-more convenient-most convenient, comfortable-more comfortable-most comfortable, skillfully-more skillfully-most skillfully, handsome-more handsome-most handsome

6. 有少數特殊變化需牢記。

good-better-best, bad-worse-worst, far-farther/further-farthest/furthest (兩者都可表物理上的距離,但是只有further可以表更進一步)

7. 有些兩個音節的形容詞或副詞可在字尾加er/est或前面加more/most形成比較級或最高級。

clever, friendly, gentle, handsome, likely, narrow, pleasant, polite, stupid, quiet

gentle-gentler/more gentle-gentlest/most gentlest,

stupid-stupider/more stupid-stupidest/most stupid,

quiet-quieter/more quiet, quietest/most quiet

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.4

B. 形容詞與副詞比較級與最高級變化規則

Write the comparative and superlative forms for the following words.寫出下列單字的比較及與最高級

1. boring  2. cheap  3. fine  4. full  5. funny  6. handsome  7. hard

8. honest  9. interesting  10. lazy  11. light  12. nervous  13. sad

14. safe  15. silly  16. sorry  17. stupid  18. uncomfortable  19. useful  20. violent  21. wet  22. thin  23. late

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

1. 句型:

a. 形容詞比較級:N1 + be + adj-er/more adj + than + N2

這個句型常用來比較人,事物,地點等的不同點,差異性。也可能用形容詞的其它句型

The new menu is bigger than the old menu.

The new waiters are more experienced than the old waiters.

b. 副詞比較級:N1 + V + adv-er/more adv + than N2

這個句型常用來描述動作的不同,差異。也可能用副詞的其它句型。

The Bulls played better than the Lakers.

Jordan played more skillfully than O’Neal.

Write the comparative sentences. 完成句子

  1. Ana is / thin / my sister.
  2. I’m / busy / this week / last week.
  3. Quebec is / far from Toronto / Ottawa.
  4. I did / bad / on the final exam / the midterm.
  5. my new job is / boring / my old one.
  6. Our team played / well / theirs
  7. Hong Kong is / expensive / Bangkok.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.5

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

2. than的使用時機:

當比較級有提到比較的對象時,需要有than,當語意清楚,沒有提到比較對象時,則不需要有than.

The apple pie is better than the cake.

The new desserts are better (than the old desserts.)

Lisa speaks English better than May.

Lisa speaks more fluently.

3. than後面用主格或受格:

a. 在正式英文中,than後面通常會接主格代名詞如I, he, she

I am taller than she is.

You are older than I am.

b. 在非正式英文中,than後面通常會接受格代名詞,如me, him, her,而且後面沒有助動詞。

I am taller than her.

You are older than me.

c. 在than後面也可以用把主詞動詞都表達出來,這時要用主格代名詞,動詞則依時態或語態用助動詞。

I am taller than she is.

He run faster than I do.

She can singer better than he can.

d. 在than後面可接名詞所有格Tom’s ,或所有格代名詞如mine, his, hers

My hair is longer than my sister’s hair.

My hair is longer than my sister’s.

My hair is longer than hers.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.6

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

3. than後面用主格或受格:

用代名詞完成句子,寫出用主格代名詞加助動詞與受格代名詞兩種用法

  1. Anne is 25. I am 18. Anne is older than ______________.
  2. I left at 7:00. Jay left at 7:30. I left earlier than __________.
  3. Mike can run fast, but I can run faster than ______________.
  4. Peter works very hard. However, Simon works harder than ___________.
  5. Tom is 1 meter 85. I am 1 meter 65. I’m much shorter than ________.

 

4. 修飾比較級時可以用much, a lot, far, rather 表示程度大,用a little, a little bit, a bit, slightly來表示程度不大

A computer will do it much more efficiently.

It’s much faster by taxi.

A bus is a lot cheaper than a taxi.

The MRT is far more convenient than a bus.

Business is rather better this year.

This bed is a little more comfortable.

I got up a little bit later than usual.

This month’s figures are slightly better.

5. less是more的相反,所以只有more adj/more adv的句型的相反才可以用less adj/less adv。假如是adj-er/adv-er的句型的相反則要用not as…as的句型。

A taxi is more expensive than a bus.

A bus is less expensive than a taxi.

A bus is cheaper than a taxi.

A taxi isn’t as cheap as a bus.

A taxi is less cheap than a bus.

I feel better today, less tired.

We go out less often these days.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.7

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

6. more與名詞連用

a. more可以當代名詞,也可以當形容詞。表達更多

Would you like some more coffee?

Would you like some more?

Not everyone is here. I expect more people to come later.

b. more跟名詞連用也可以加上than,表達比較完整的句子

There are more people in China than there are in the United States.

 

7. 重複比較級與雙重比較級

a. 重複比較級用來表示改變,程度上的增加或減少

It’s getting harder and harder to find an inexpensive restaurant.

It’s getting more and more difficult.

The queue was getting longer and longer.

As each new problem arose, we felt less and less enthusiastic.

b. 雙重比較級是用下列句型來表示前後文的因果關係。前面是因,後面是果。

The + adj-er/more adj + S + (V),  the adj-er/more adj + S + (V).

The shorter the line, the faster the service. (When the line is shorter, the service is faster.)

The higher the price (is), the more reliable the product (is).

The more the customer complained, the ruder and more unpleasant the manager became.

The sooner we leave, the sooner we’ll get there.

c. 常見的表達詞

The more, the merrier. 人越多越好。

The sooner, the better. 越快越好

The cheaper, the better. 越便宜越

Why study? 為什麼要唸書?

The more I study, the more I know. 我唸的越多,我懂得越多。

The more I know, the more I forget. 我懂得越多,我忘得越多。

The more I forget, the less I know. 我忘得越多,我知道的越少。

So why study? 那麼,為什麼要唸書?

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.8

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

7.重複比較級與雙重比較級

Read these comments about a restaurant. Complete them with the comparative form of the words in parentheses to show cause and effect or a change. 用括號中的字的比較級來完成下列句子,表達因果或改變

1. A: I can’t believe the size of this menu. It’s going to take me forever to choose.

B: ______________ (long) the menu, ________________ (difficult)   the choice.

2. A: They say the food here is getting __________ and ___________ .  (good)

B: And _______________ (good) the food, __________________  (expensive) it is.

3. A: The service seems a little slow tonight.

B: Yes, ____________________ (popular) the restaurant, ________________ (slow) the service.

4. A: The cigarette smoke here is getting ______________ and  ______________ (bad).

B: __________________ (smoky) the room, ________________ (bad) my cough gets.

5. A: It’s pretty loud in here.

B: ____________________ (crowded) the restaurant,   ______________ (noisy) it is.

6. A: They certainly give you a lot of food. I can’t eat another bite.

B: _________________ (big) the portions, ________________ (hard) it is to finish.

7. A: Their desserts keep getting ______________ and _____________. (delicious)

B: And I keep getting ________________ and ____________. (heavy)

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.9

D. 形容詞與副詞最高級 Adjectives and Adverbs Superlatives

1.  句型

a. S + be + the + adj-est/most adj + in ___/of ______ (in/of表示範圍)

這個句型常用來表示特定的人,事物,地點相當突出,而跟其他的人,事物,地點的不同。

You are the best parents in the world.

It’s the most expensive hotel in Oxford.

August is the hottest month of the year.

b. S + be + the adj-est/most adj + n + S + V

S + be + the adj-est/most adj + n + S + have/has + (ever) + V3.

最高級常常搭配形容詞子句使用,尤其是表示經驗地完成式的句子。

That was the most delicious meal that I have ever eaten.

You are the most wonderful friend I have ever had.

You have the loveliest smile I have ever seen.

Mandy is the nicest person you could meet.

c. S + be + one of the adj-est/most adj + Ns + in ____/of_____/ever

He is one of the best students in this class.

Madonna is one of the most famous pop singers ever.

d. S + V + the adv-est/most adv + of _____ 用來表示特定的動作比其他的動作突出特別。

Bryant worked the hardest.

He scored the most frequently of anyone in the team.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.1

D. 形容詞與副詞最高級 Adjectives and Adverbs Superlatives

1.  句型

Complete the sentences with a superlative.

  1. Yesterday was ____________ day of the year. (hot)
  2. This is _______________ time of day to drive downtown. (bad)
  3. She’s _______________ person in the class. (friendly)
  4. This is ________________ part of the test. (difficult)
  5. The _______________ month to visit is September. (good)
  6. It’s ________________ city in the world. (polluted)
  7. The ______________ I’ve ever flown is to Australia. (far)
  8. Is this _______________ city in the world? (noisy)

Write sentences with ever.

9. it / good / movie / I / see

10. he / unfriendly person / I / meet

11. it / hard test / he / take

12. they / expensive shoes / she / buy

13. it / long book / I / read

14. she / beautiful woman / I / see

15. it / bad meal / I / eat

16. it / hot country / I be to

 

2.  never + comparative = superlative

never 加上比較級就相當於最高級

I’ve never taken a harder test. = This is the hardest test I’ve ever taken. 這是我參加過最難的考試。

I’ve never taken a hard test. 我從來沒有考過很難的考試。

 

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.11

E.  same, similar, different, like alike的用法

1. same, similar, different都是形容詞。same表示相同的,前面一定有the,the same可以一起記。similar表示類似的。different表示不同的。可以放在名詞前面,也可以放在連綴動詞的後面。

I have an iPhone 5. Ben has an iPhone 5. Leo has an iPhone 4S.

Tim has an HTC One.

Ben and I have the same phones.

Leo and I have similar phones.

Tim and I have different phones.

Ben’s phone and my phone are the same.

Leo’s phone and my phone are similar.

Tim’s phone and my phone are different.

2. N1 + be + the same + as + N2

N1 + be + similar to + N2

N1 + be + different from + N2

當後面有比較的對象時,必須用the same as, similar to, different from的片語,形容詞後面的介系詞是固定的,要一起記,不要弄混淆。

Ben’s phone is the same as my phone.

Leo’s phone is similar to my phone.

Tim’s phone is different from my phone.

3. the same + N + as:可以在the same跟as中間加入名詞,表示相同的東西。

Ben’s phone is the same price as my phone.

Gary is the same age as my father.

My shoes are the same size as yours.

4. N1 + be + like + N2 = N1 and N2 are alike

like當介系詞時,有像…的意思。後面一定要接名詞。

alike可以當形容詞跟副詞。這個用法是形容詞用法,表示兩者很相似。

Leo’s phone is like my phone.

Leo’s phone and my phone are alike.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.12

F.  same, similar, different, like alike的用法

5. N1 + V + like + N2

like當介系詞,也可以放在某些特定的動詞,尤其是感官動詞後面,表示看起來像,聽起來笑,感覺好像,聞起來像…。介系詞後面一定要加名詞。

She looks like her sister.

It looks like rain.

It sounds like thunder.

The material feels like silk.

That smells like gas.

This chemical tastes like salt.

Stop acting like a fool.

He seems like a nice fellow.

6. N1 and N2 + V + alike

alike可以當副詞,表示兩個動作是很像的時候,接在動作後面。修飾動詞,因為是副詞,所以放在動詞後面,不接名詞。

The twins are alike.

Most four-year-olds act alike.

My sister and I talk alike.

The little boys dressed alike.

Great minds think alike.

用 the same (as), similar (to), different (from), like and alike 完成句子

  1. Ants and fascinating. An ant colony is ____________ a well-disciplined army.
  2. In terms of shape, cabbage looks ______________ lettuce. But cabbage and lettuce don’t taste ___________.
  3. My dictionary is _________________ yours.
  4. A crocodile and an alligator are _____________ in appearance.
  5. Gold is similar __________ silver. They are both valuable metals that people use for jewelry, but they aren’t _________ same. Gold is not ________ same color ________ silver. Gold is also different ___________ silver in cost: gold is more expensive than silver.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.13

Answer Key 答案

A. 形容詞與副詞:程度相同的Adjectives and Adverbs: Equatives

  1. as expensive as,  as well as,  as good as
  2. cleans as effectively as, isn’t as unfriendly, sounds as exciting as, expresses … as clear as
  3. was as noisy as, (will) pedal as quietly as

B. 形容詞與副詞比較級與最高級變化規則

  1. more boring, most boring  2. cheaper, cheapest  3. finer, finest

4. fuller, fullest  5. funnier, funniest  6. more handsome, most handsome

7. harder, hardest  8. more honest, most honest

9. more interesting, most interesting  10. lazier, laziest

11. lighter, lightest  12. more nervous, most nervous  13. sadder, saddest

14. safer, safest  15. sillier, silliest  16. sorrier, sorriest

17. more stupid, most stupid / stupider, stupidest

18. more uncomfortable, most uncomfortable 19. more useful, most useful

20. more violent, most violent  21. wetter, wettest  22. thinner, thinnest  23. later, latest

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

1.  句型:

  1. Ana is thinner than my sister.
  2. I’m busier this week than last week.
  3. Quebec is farther from Toronto than Ottawa.
  4. I did worse on the final exam than the midterm.
  5. My new job is more boring than my old one.
  6. Our team played better than theirs.
  7. Hong Kong is more expensive than Bangkok.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.14

C.形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

3.than後面用主格或受格:

1. I am  2. he did  3. he can  4. he does  5. he is

7.重複比較級與雙重比較級

  1. The longer, the more difficult
  2. better, better, the better, the more expensive
  3. the more popular, the slower
  4. worse, worse, The smokier, the worse
  5. The more crowded, the noisier
  6. The bigger, the harder
  7. more, more delicious, heavier, heavier

D.形容詞與副詞最高級 Adjectives and Adverbs Superlatives

1.句型

  1. the hottest  2. the worst  3. the most friendly  4. the most difficult

5. best  6. the most polluted  7. farthest  8. the noisiest

9. It’s the best movie I’ve ever seen.

10. He’s the most unfriendly person I’ve ever met.

11. It’s the hardest test he has ever taken.

12. They’re the most expensive shoes she has ever bought.

13. It’s the longest book I’ve ever read.

14. She is the most beautiful woman I’ve ever seen.

15. It’s the worse meal I’ve ever eaten.

16. It’s the hottest country I’ve ever been to.

  1. G.  same, similar, different, like alike的用法

1. like/similar to  2. like, alike  3. the same as/similar to/different from/like  4. similar/alike  5. to, the, the, as, from

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞

很多人怎麼樣都弄不清楚的情態助動詞can, could, would, must, may, should等等。其實分開看不難,合在一起大家就瘋了,恩,沒有啦,是弄混淆了。主要是中文很多時候都用相同的字來表達。潔西覺得最好的方式是一個用法一個用法記,知道這個助動詞在什麼地方用,然後多做練習,多注意在什麼樣的場合這些字出現。與其背單字,不如背句子,因為記句子就會連語意一起記住了,不錯吧!

這其實是上星期的講義,配合Azar文法中級課本的第七章的助動詞。但是潔西太忙了,所以做講義的時候沒有附上練習題,想說有空再加上練習題,那沒有用這本書的人也可以做做練習比較有概念,所以就拖了很久。打講義真的要花很多時間,潔西綜合了好幾本書,找出自己覺得比較常用,然後還要好好的想想整理一下,覺得怎麼樣同學比較容易理解,所以,真的需要很多時間,所以可能會有些錯誤,因為用腦過度,呵呵,請大家見諒跟幫忙校對。感激不盡:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用,  潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血, 並且標明出處。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.1

 jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

 

A. 助動詞的定義

什麼叫助動詞呢?顧名思義就是幫助動詞的詞。助動詞用來幫助動詞表達動作的時間(時態),或是說話的人的態度(情態)。也用來幫忙造問句,改否定。

比方說am, is, are, was, were, do, does, did, have, has, can, could, may, might, must, should, will, would等都是助動詞。

He is studying. (表現在進行式)

He must study hard. (表必須)

Where have you been?  (表現在完成式)

You should not go out.  (表應該)

 

B. 助動詞的類別:

1. 表達時態的助動詞

英文的十二個時態中用到的助動詞有 be, have, do, will ,這些助動詞與動詞變化結合用來表達時態,造問句,改否定。其中be, have, do這三個本身都可以當動詞,也可以當助動詞,而be後面可以接V-ing表達進行式,接V3表被動。have當助動詞時,後面的接V3表示完成。而do, will這兩個助動詞要接的是原型動詞。因為不同助動詞後面的接續不同,所以比較容易混淆,須特別注意。

2. 表達情態的助動詞 modal verbs

can, could, had better, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would 這些助動詞用來表達說話者的態度,可能用在表達能力,請求,建議,允許,可能性等不同情態,表達不同語義。相同的字在不同用法中可能表達的不同意思。

C. 表達能力 Ability: can, could, be able to

1. 表示現在的能力可用S + can + V1, S + be able to + V1

I can drive a car.  I can’t drive a truck.  Can you ride a scooter?

She’s able to cook.  He’s not able to ski.  Are they able to swim?

  1. 表示現在多用can,少數表正式的時候才會用be able to
  2. can 的否定可以用can’t, cannot, can not。口語多用can’t,can not比較不常用。

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.2

C. 表達能力 Ability: can, could, be able to

2. 表示未來可能擁有的能力或狀況可用:S + can + V1,  S + will be able to + V1

If we earn some money, we can go on holiday next summer.

If we earn some money, we will be able to go on holiday next summer.

I’m afraid I can’t come to the party next Saturday.

I’m afraid I won’t be able to come to the party next Saturday.

3. 表示過去擁有的能力可用:S + could + V1,  S + was/were able to + V1

He could read when he was four.

He was able to play the piano when he was five.

It was foggy, so the plane couldn’t take off.

The pool was closed, so they weren’t able to have a swim.

Could you describe the man to the police?

Were you able to describe the man to the police?

4. 表示能力時,除了現在跟過去的的時態外,其他全部都用be able to

Jen wants to be able to write programs.

I haven’t been able to sleep well for two weeks.

填空:用can, could, be able to來完成句子,可以用can, could時先用can, could,可能為肯定或否定。

  1. Stefan is enjoying his computer class. Two weeks ago, he __________ even use the mouse, but now he __________ edit his homework. By next wee, he ______________ do research on the Internet.
  2. Eleni misses her family in Greece. She ____________ visit them for years, but they just got an e-mail account, so now they ___________ keep in touch daily.
  3. I ____________ understand how to set up a presentation. The software instructions don’t help. I think I’ll take a professional development course. In a few months maybe I ___________ make that presentation.
  4. Mike and I _____________ get along since we started this business. He _____________ work alone (he needs people), and I __________ work in a group (I have to work alone). I hope we ____________ work out our problems soon.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.3

D. 表達可能性Possibilitymay, might, could, maybe (adv)

1. 表示現在或未來可能發生的事S + may/might/could + V1

It may snow tomorrow. There’s a 60 % chance.

明天可能會下雪。有百分之六十的機會。

I might leave work early. I’ll decide tomorrow.

我可能會提早走。我明天決定。

Schools could close. They usually close for heavy snow.

學校可能會休息。他們通常下大雪時會休息。

2. 表示現在或未來可能不會發生的事S + may not / might not + V1

I may not pass the quiz. I didn’t study.

我小考可能不及格。我沒唸書。

Don’t worry. The quiz might not be hard.

不要擔心。小考可能不會很難。

There are a lot of clouds, but it might not rain.

有很多雲,但是可能不會下雨。

 

3. 表示現在或未來不可能會發生的事S + could not + V1

The quiz couldn’t be hard.

小考不可能很難。

Why don’t you ask John for a ride? I couldn’t do that. He’s too busy.

你怎麼不要求John載你一程?我不可能這麼做。他太忙了。

Vicky is afraid of heights. She couldn’t climb onto the roof.

Vicky怕高。她不可能爬到屋頂上去。

I’m completely unfit. I couldn’t run a marathon.

我是完完全全的不健康。我不可能跑馬拉松。

4. 表示未來可能性的疑問時,用進行式, be going to 或will,而不用may,

might, could來造問句。

Be + S + Ving? / Be + S + going to + V1 ? / Will + S + V1?

When are you leaving?  I may leave now.

Are you going to drive to work tomorrow? I might take the bus instead.

When will it starts snowing?  It might snow around the lunch time.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.4

5當用may (not), might (not), could 在簡答時,表示不確定,但有可能性。在回答的時候通常不用Yes或No來回答。

Will it snow tomorrow?

It may. There’s a 60% chance of snow. (It’s possible that it will snow.)

It may not. There’s only a 20 % chance. (It’s possible that it won’t snow.)

It might not.

6.  maybe 跟may be 的區別:

maybe 是個副詞,不是助動詞,可以表達可能性。常放在句首,句尾。

may be則用在表達可能性的句子,沒有一般動詞,有be 加上名詞,形容詞,

介系詞片語等時用。。

Maybe I will stay home tonight. / I may be home tonight.

Maybe it will be sunny tomorrow.  / It may be sunny tomorrow.

Maybe he’ll take the train.  / He may take the train.

He maybe take the train.

 

改錯,閱讀文章,改正九個錯誤。

Read this student’s report about El Nino. Find and correct nine mistakes in expressing future possibility.

Every few years, the ocean near Peru becomes warmer. Called El Nino, this variation in temperature maybe cause weather changes all over the world. The west coasts of North and South American might to have heavy rains. On the other side of the Pacific, New Guinea might becomes very dry. Northern areas could have warmer, wetter winters, and southern areas could become much colder. These weather changes affect plants and animals. Some fish maybe not survive in warmer waters. Droughts could causing crops to die, and food may get very expensive. El Nino may happen every two years, or it could not come for seven years. Might El Nino get worse in the future? They could be. Pollution holds heat in the air, and it will increase the effects of El Nino, but no one is sure yet.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.5

E. 表達允許Permission: may, can, could

1. 表示請求允許時可用Can + S +V1?/Could + S +V1? /May + S + V1 ?

Can I come in? / Can I use your pen?

Could I sit here? / Could we borrow your ladder, please?

May I ask a question? (Is it OK to ask a question?)

May I see the letter?

這個句型是禮貌地請求允許,表示詢問他人可不可以做某件事,主詞不

會是you。

2. 表示非正式,用在朋友時,用Can + S + V1? / Could + S + V1? 其中could比較有禮貌。

表示正式,用在老師或不認識的成人時,用May + S + V1?  的用法是正式的formal,用在老師或不認識的成人。

Can we swim here?

Could I open the window?

May I start the test now, Mr. Brown?

3. 讓詢問更有禮貌時,可以在動詞前面或最後面加please。

Can/Could/May + S + please + V1 ?/ Can/Could/May + S + V1, please?

Can I please close the door?

Could I please open the window?

May I go to the bathroom, please?

4. 表示請求允許的回答是肯定的時候可以用。Yes, S + can. / Yes, S + may.  但是切記肯定回答的時候不用could這個助動詞。肯定的回答常常不需要用助動詞,多用一些禮貌的表達與如Certainly. / Of course. / Sure. / Go ahead. /Okay. /Uh-huh這些表達語。

A: Can I turn on the TV?              B: Yes, you can.

A: Could I use your computer?         B: Yes, you can.

A: May I sue this phone?              B: Yes, you may.

A: Can I take pictures here?           B: Of course.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.6

E. 表達允許Permission: may, can, could

5. 表示請求允許的回答是否定的時候可以用No, S+ can’t. / No, S + may not. 但是切記否定回答的時候不用而不用 couldn’t這個助動詞。另外記住may 與 not不可縮寫。也可以用No, please don’t. 的表達語。通常在拒絕請求的時候多會先道歉apology,再加上一個原因reason,比較有禮。

A: Could I use my cell phone now?

B: I’m sorry, but it’s dangerous. The plane is going to land soon.

(apology)   (reason)

A: Can I please have a little more time?

B: I’m sorry, but the time is up.

通常假如規則是很明顯的時候,就可以不用道歉或解釋。

Driver: Can I park here?

Officer: No, you can’t.

6. 表示允許做某件事時,可以用S + can + V1. / S + may + V1. 但是切記不可以

用could。

You can wait in my office if you like.

Yes, children, you can have a cookie after dinner.

You may telephone from here. (a written notice寫出來的公告)

You could leave now.  You may leave now.

 

7. 表示不允許做某件事時,可以用S + can’t + V1. / S + may not + V1. 但是切記不可以用couldn’t。

You can’t picnic here.

Members may not bring more than two guests into the club.

8. 當覺得可能打擾到對方時,可以用Do you mind if S + V? 來詢問允許。

回答時說No才是允許做某事,表示不介意。Yes則表示在意,不允許。

Do you mind if I clean up tomorrow?

Yes, actually, I do mind. I hate to see a mess.

Do you mind if I leave the room?

Not at all. (You may leave the room.)

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.7

改錯整段是相關的,必須看前後文回答

  1. Can he comes on the train with me or does he need a ticket?
  2. I’m sorry, he couldn’t. Only passengers can board the train.
  3. Could I changed seats with you? I’d like to sit next to my son.
  4. Yes, you could. Go right ahead. I’m getting off soon.
  5. Mom, may I to have some candy? I’m hungry.
  6. No, you mayn’t. I’m sorry, but you’ve already had enough candy.
  7. Do you mind if he play his computer game?
  8. Yes, I do. He can play if he wants. It won’t bother me.
  9. I’m still hungry. Can we’ll get a sandwich soon?
  10. Not at all. We can go find the club car.

F. 要求別人做某事:禮貌請求Polite Requests: will, would, can, could

1. 表示請求別人為你做某事時,可以用Will/Would/Can/Could you + V1 ?

在這些助動詞後的動詞用原型V1。主詞多為you。

Will you please open the door for me?

Would you help me clean the room?

Can you lend me your pen?

Could you answer the phone?

2. 表示非正式,用在朋友間時,用Will/Can you + V1?

表示正式,用在老師或不認識的成人時,用Would/Could you + V1?

Hey, Sandy. Can you give me a ride?

Could you explain the homework, Professor Smith?

3. 讓請求更有禮貌時,可以在動詞前面或最後面加please。Will/Would/Can/Could you please + V1?

Will you please close the door?

Would you please come here?

Can you close the door, please?

Could you turn down the music, please?

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.8

F. 要求別人做某事:禮貌請求Polite Requests: will, would, can, could

4. 表示禮貌請求的回答是肯定的時候可以用Of course. / Certainly. / No problem. / Sure. 其中Sure. / No problem. 是用在非正式的場合,如朋友,小孩。切記回答的時候不用will, would, can, could這些助動詞。

A: Will you help me with my homework?         B: Sure.

A: Would you please close the window?          B: Certainly.

A: Can you turn on the air conditioner for me?   B: No problem.

A: Could you call me tomorrow?                 B: Of course.

A: I’m cold. Would you shut the window, please?  B: Yes, I would.

5. 表示禮貌請求的回答是否定的時候可以用I’m sorry. I can’t. I ….。否定的回答用只可用I can’t。而不用I won’t, I wouldn’t, I couldn’t這些用法。通常在拒絕請求的時候多會先道歉apology,再加上一個解釋explanation,比較有禮。

A: Could you lend me $10,000?

B: I’m sorry, I can’t. I don’t have that much money.

(apology)          (explanation)

A: Would you take this to Susan Lane’s office for me?

B: I’m sorry, I can’t. I’m expecting an important phone call.

6. 表示客氣地請求時,可以用Would you mind + V-ing? 回答時,肯定回打表示在意,否定回答表示不介意,答應請求。

Would you mind waiting for a few minutes?

Not at all. (OK. I’ll do it.)

選擇最適當的回答

Lorna’s roommate, Joan, is having problems today. Check the appropriate response to each of Joan’s request.

1. Lorna, would you please drive me to class today? My car won’t start.

a. Yes, I would.  b. I’d be glad to.

2. Would you mind lending me five dollars? I’m getting paid tomorrow.

a. Not at all.  b. Yes.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.9

F. 要求別人做某事:禮貌請求Polite Requests: will, would, can, could

3. Lorna, can you take theses books back to the library for me? I’m running late.

a. I’m late too. Sorry.  b. No, I can’t.

4. Could you lock the door on your way out? My hands are full.

a. Yes, I could.  b. Sure.

5. Can you turn the radio down? I need to study for my math quiz this morning.

a. Certainly.  b. Not at all.

6. Will you pick up some milk on the way home this afternoon?

a. No, I won’t.  b. Sorry. I’ll be at work until 8:00.

 

G. 要求別人做某事:祈使句Imperative                   

1. 定義:

祈使句是英文的句子的一種,其主詞通常省略,用來表達命令,給與建議等。

2. 句型:

祈使句的主詞為你或你們,通常主詞省略,動詞皆為原形。

否定句則在動詞前面加 Don’t

Stand up! / Shut up. / Be quiet. / Be careful.

Don’t yell at me. / Don’t think too much.

3. 用法:祈使句常用在下列狀況:

a. 給方向或指示 give directions and instructions

Turn left at the traffic light.

b. 給命令與指令 give orders or commands

Don’t move.

c. 做要求 make requests

Please read this article.

d. 給忠告或建議 give advice or make suggestions

Don’t exercise when you’re sick.

e. 給警告 give warnings

Be careful! Don’t trip!

f. 邀請某人 invite someone

Work out with us tomorrow.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                        Jessie Lin    P.10

G. 要求別人做某事:祈使句Imperative

4. 注意事項:

a. 注意祈使句的你或你們通常省略,有主詞時語氣會變得很不客氣。

You sit down! / You listen!

b. 祈使句可以把說話的對象的人名或稱呼放在句子的最前面或最後面,但

要用逗號與句子分開。

Marla, please get ready.

Get ready, guys.

c. 祈使句表達客氣的語氣時可加please,放在句首不用逗號,放句尾需用

逗號與句子隔開。

Please follow me. / Follow me, please.

填空。

Make complete sentences by filling gaps with phrases from the box. Use each phrase once.

Turn left  Come in  Don’t wait  Don’t forget  Stop the car!  Help me!Have  Don’t listen  Pass  Don’t be late!  Open  Come  Catch  Take

1. _______________ for me. I’m not coming tonight.

2. _______________ an umbrella with you. It’s raining.

3. _______________ a rest. You look tired.

4. _______________ at the end of the road.

5. _______________ I can’t swim!

6. _______________ to take your passport.

7. _______________ There’s a cat in the road.

8. _______________ to my party, please.

9. _______________ your book to page 84.

10. _______________ the salt, please.

11. _______________ to that record. It’s terrible.

12. _______________ The bus leaves at 9 o’clock.

13. _______________and have a glass of lemonade.

14. _______________ the first train in the morning.

 

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.11

H. 表示忠告建議:Advice: should, ought to, had better

1. 表示給予忠告建議時肯定句可以用S + should / ought to / had better + V1.

It’s late. Would should leave soon.

My clothes are dirty. I ought to wash them.

You’d better leave now, or you’ll be late.

You’re driving too fast! You’d better slow down.

had better常縮寫為’d,這個用法比較有急迫性的忠告,你認為假如不這麼

做,可能會有不好的事發生的警告。比方說這裡不開慢一點可能會有車禍或

被開罰單。

2. 表示給予忠告建議時否定句可以用

S + should not + V1. / S + had better not + V1.

You need your sleep. You shouldn’t stay up late.

You’d better not eat that meat. It looks spoiled.

ought to不用在否定句

3. 表示詢問別人的忠告建議時,用Should + S + V1?

Should I apply for that job?

When should I apply?

Should I wear a suit?

ought to, had better不用在疑問句。

4. 當別人沒有問你,是你自己給予忠告建議的時候常用maybe, perhaps或I

think 顯得比較有禮貌。

Maybe you should arrive a little earlier.

I think he should smile a little more.

Perhaps you should go home and get some rest.

5. 除非跟你同等級或比社會階級比你高的人主動問你,否則用給人建議

忠告是不禮貌的。

Friend: Should I shake hands with the interviewer?

You: Yes, you should.

Boss: Where should I take our client to lunch?

You: I think you should go to the Tuscan Grill.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.12

H. 表示忠告建議:Advice: should, ought to, had better

用should, ought to, had better跟括號裡面的,再加上適當的主詞來完成句子,可能是肯定,否定,疑問句。

Kim Yee’s boss has invited him to dinner at his home. Complete Kim’s conversation with his friend.

1. A: __________________ (How/dress?) In a suit?

2. B: You don’t have to wear a suit. _________________ (look/neat), but

you can wear casual clothes.

3. A: ________________________________ (What time/arrive?)

4. B: It’ really important to be on time. Your boss and his wife are

expecting you at 7:00, so ________________________ (arrive

after 7:15). It’s OK to be a little late, but don’t make them wait too

long for you!

5. A: ____________________________ (bring a gift?)

6. B: Yes, but get something small. __________________________ (buy

an expensive gift). It would embarrass them.

7. A: I think ___________________________. (get some flowers)

 

I. 表達提議做某件事Suggestions: Let’s, Why don’t, How about

1. 表示提供建議做某件事或不要做某件事時可以用Let’s + V1. / Let’s not + V1.   Let’s = Let us 讓我們,多用縮寫Let’s。Let是使役動詞,所以後面要接動詞原型。 Let’s not後面接原型表示建議不要做某件事。

Let’s go to the park.

Let’s take the bus.

Let’s not walk. We don’t have enough time.

2.  表示提供建議做某件事時,也可以用Why don’t + I/you/we/they + V1?        Why doesn’t + he/she/it + V1?  本身沒有否定的意思。第三人稱單數he/she/it或其他可以用這些代名詞代替的主詞用Why doesn’t…?,其他用Why don’t…?的句型。因為有助動詞do/does,所以後面接動詞原型。

It’s a beautiful day. Why don’t we go to the park.

It’s going to rain. Why don’t you bring your umbrella?

Why doesn’t your brother come with us?

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.13

I. 表達提議做某件事Suggestions: Let’s, Why don’t, How about

3. 表示提供建議做某件事時,也可以用How about + V-ing? 這個句型中about是介系詞,後面必須接名詞,所以要把動詞加上ing變成動名詞。

How about taking a taxi?

How about walking?

How about having some ice cream?

J. 表達必須性Necessityhave to, have got to, must

1. 表示必須做某件事時可以用

S + have to + V1. / S + have got to + V1. / S + must + V1.

have to 用在當狀況讓某些事情變的是必須時。

have to的第三人稱單數用has to。

have to 比must常用。have got to 只用在非正式的口語中。

I have to exercise. (The doctor told me.)

We have to be quiet. (That’s the rule.)

I have to buy a newspaper. The boss asked me to get one.

Mark has to get the car repaired. There’s something wrong with the

brakes.

Bye now! I’ve got to go. My wife’s waiting for me. I’ll call you later.

must 用在說話的人覺得某件事是必須的。或表達個人的願望。must的語氣

表較強烈,可能是老師或家長對學生或小孩子,或是用在書面指示或規定條

文中。

You must exercise. (I’m telling you.)

We must be quiet. (I’m telling you.)

I must buy a newspaper. I want to see the racing results.

All passengers must present their passports at custom upon arrival.

 

2. 表示過去必須做某件事時用 S + had to + V1.

I had to study last night.

They had to work late yesterday.

過去式只用had to,have got to跟 must只用來表達現在跟未來。

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.14

J. 表達必須性Necessityhave to, have got to, must

3. 表示詢問某件事是否是必要的時候疑問句用 Do/Does + S + have to + V1?

Does Paul have to drive?

When will he have to leave?

疑問句用have to很少用have got to 或must

4. 表示某件事是不必要的。是有選擇性的,可以用S + don’t have to + V1.

You don’t have to finish this now. You can give it to me tomorrow.

He doesn’t have to turn here. He can turn at the next intersection.

You don’t have to drive. I can do it.

5.表示某件事是違反規則的,不可以做,是禁止的,是沒有選擇性的用

S + must not + V1.  在口語的時候常用 S + can’t + V1。

Students must not leave the building during school hours.

You must not enter the room without wearing a mask.

You mustn’t take off your seat belt while the car is driving.

We can’t park here. It’s a tow-away zone.

依下列不同狀況放入最適當的用字,填入must, have to, 或has to

  1. You ______________ lock the door when you go out. There’ve been a lot of break-ins recently.
  2. Daniel ______________ go to the bank. He doesn’t have any money.
  3. I ______________ work late tomorrow. We’re very busy at the office.
  4. You really ______________ make less noise. I’m trying to concentrate.
  5. I think you ______________ pay to park here. I’ll just go and read that notice.
  6. You really ______________ hurry up, Vicky. We don’t want to be late.
  7. I ______________ put the heating on. I feel really cold.
  8. I ______________ go to the airport. I’m meeting someone.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.15

J. 表達必須性Necessityhave to, have got to, must

填入must, mustn’t或 don’t have to

9.  A: You ______________ take an umbrella. It isn’t going to rain.

B: Well, I don’t know. it might do.

A: Don’t lose it then. You ______________ leave it on the bus.

10. A: Come on. We ______________ hurry. We ______________ be late.

B: It’s only ten past. We ______________ hurry. There’s lots of time.

11. A: My sister and I are going a different way.

B: Oh, you ______________ go off on your own. It isn’t safe. We ______________ keep together in a group.

12. A: I’ll put these cups in the dishwasher.

B: No, you ______________ put them in there. It might damage them.

In fact, we ______________ wash them at all. We didn’t use them.

13. A: I ______________ forget to type this letter.

B: Yes, it ______________ go in the post today because it’s quite urgent. But the report isn’t so important. You

______________  type the report today.

K. 表達合邏輯的推論Logical Conclusion: must

1. 表示合邏輯的推論時,可以用must

Nancy is yawning. She must be sleepy.

She must not feel well. She looks pale.

2. 表示合邏輯的推論推論跟表示必須的must

Amy plays tennis every day. She must like to play tennis.

If you want to get into the movie theater, you must buy a ticket.

 

3. 表示合邏輯的否定推論與表示禁止

Eric ate everything on his plate except the pickle. he must not like pickles.

There are sharks in the ocean near our hotel. We must not go swimming there.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.16

L. 表達偏好Preferenceprefer, like…better, would rather

1. 表示比較兩件東西中的偏好時可以用下面句型來表示比較喜歡前面的那一樣

S + prefer + N + to + N. / S + prefer + V-ing + to + V-ing.

S + like + N + better than + N. / S + like + V-ing + better than + V-ing.

S + would rather + V1 + than + V1.

I prefer coffee to tea.

I prefer watching TV to studying.

I like coffee better than tea.

I like watching TV better than studying.

I would rather drink coffee than drink tea.

I would rather watch TV than study.

would 本身是助動詞,would rather…than的句型不可以直接加名詞,would

後面只可以用原型動詞。

2. 表示比起其他事物,比較喜歡某些事物時,可以用

S + prefer + N. / S + prefer + to + V1. / S + prefer + V-ing.

S + would rather + V1.

I usually prefer the newspaper.

Bill prefers to read magazines.

Tom prefers watching TV.

I’d rather stay home tonight.

would可以跟主詞縮寫成’d

3. 表示詢問對方的偏好時可以用Would you rather + V1?

Would you rather eat at home or eat out? I’d rather eat at home.

改正六個錯誤

For my study, I interviewed fifty men and women. There was no difference in men’s and women’s preferences for TV. I found that everyone prefers watching TV than going to movies. Men and women both enjoy news programs and entertainment specials. However, men would rather watching adventure programs and science fiction, while women prefer soap operas. Men also like to watch all kinds of sports, but women would rather see game shows to sports. Reading preferences differ too. Men prefer to reading newspapers, while women would rather read magazines and books. When men read books, they prefer read nonfiction and adventure stories. Women are preferring novels.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.17

M. be

a. be 當動詞

V1: be 本身是原型動詞,但是它的現在式為am, is, are。

V2:過去式為was were。V3: 過去分詞為been。V-ing現在分詞為being。

be為句子裡的主要動詞時,其後可以接名詞,形容詞,地點,時間,數字等。但是不會有另外一個動詞

句型為S + be + noun/adjective/preposition + place

現在簡單式  I am a teacher. / He is hungry. / My parents are at home.

過去簡單式 I was in Japan last month. / They were not busy yesterday.

未來式 I will be happy if you can join us. / She will be home soon.

現在完成式 He has never been to the United States.

現在進行式You’re being silly.

 

b. be當助動詞

be當助動詞時,是用來幫助後面的動詞形成特別的時態或語態,所以後面一定跟著別的動詞。用在進行式後面接現在分詞be + V-ing表進行,用在被動則接過去分詞be + V3表被動。

進行式 I am teaching English.

They were dancing and singing.

He will be waiting.

They have been running for two hours.

被動   The plant is watered every day.

Romeo and Juliet was written by Shakespeare.

be going to 是個片語,用來表達未來的計畫或預測。be在這兒也是當助動詞。

未來: We are going to attend her wedding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.18

N. do

a. do 當動詞

do 當動詞時有做的意思,也常常跟其他字結合成片語。do exercise 做運動, do laundry 洗衣服, do yoga做瑜伽, do the dishes洗碗盤

V1:do/does, V2: did, V3:done,V-ing: doing

現在簡單式 I hardly ever do my homework.

She does laundry twice a week.

過去簡單式 Tom did a good job.

Lisa did me a favor last week.

未來式 A hot bath will do you good.

現在完成式 You have not done anything wrong.

過去進行式 She was doing the dishes when the phone rang.

b. do 當助動詞

do 當助動詞時,用在現在簡單式跟過去簡單式中的否定句跟疑問句,後面一定接原型動詞V1,現在簡單式的第三人稱用does。

1. 現在簡單式: I don’t understand.  / Do you live with your family?

2. 過去簡單式: Vicky didn’t answer the phone. / How did that happen?

3. 表示強調:do/did + V1 可以用來表示強調該動作。

I do like you. / They did believe that story.

4. 代替前面說過的動詞:do/did也可以單獨使用,用來代替前面說過的動詞。

A: I want to speak English well.   B: So do I.

I did not like the food and neither did her.

 

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.19

O. have

a. have當動詞有擁有,吃,得到某個疾病等意思,也常跟其他字結合成片語。如:have fun玩得開心, have a baby生小孩等。have是一個及物動詞,後面一定要接名詞。第三人稱單數用has。

V1: have/has, V2: had, V3: had, V-ing: having

現在簡單式 I have two brothers. / She has a house in Taipei.

過去簡單式 They had dinner together last weekend.

未來式 If you eat too much candy, you will have a toothache.

現在完成式 Have you ever had your own business?

現在進行式 I am having a good time.

have to 形成一個片語,是必須的意思,其後一定加動詞原型。

I have to go now.  /  Do you have to wear a uniform?

We will have to leave early tomorrow. / They had to walk home.

b. have當助動詞

have當助動詞時,後面接過去分詞V3,表完成式。接been V-ing表完成進行式。表否定時在have後加上not;造問句時把have移到主詞前即可。

現在完成式 I have lived in Taipei for 30 years.

過去完成式 The ticket had already sold out when we arrived.

現在完成進行式 She has been teaching English since 1999.

過去完成進行式 He had  been thinking about it for a long time.

另外had better 是一個助動詞,後面加原型動詞,表示應該的意思。

You had better watch out. You had better not cry.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.20

P. Will

  1. 1.  用在未來式,其後接動詞原型,但是假如接其他助動詞跟主要動詞時,第一個助動詞為原型,其餘按照各時態變化有所不同。

She will arrive at midnight.

You will be sleeping when she arrives.

I will have finished the assignment by Friday.

  1. 2.  表達百分之百的確定性。以下所有用法其後皆接原型動詞。

She will be here at 8:00. (只用在未來式)

  1. 3.  表達意願。

The phone’s ringing. I’ll get it. (我來聽)

  1. 4.  表達客氣的請求。

Will you pass the salt, please?

  1. 5.  還有一些其他的用法其後也都接原型。

Accidents will happen. / You will do as I say.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.21

練習題答案 Answer Key

C. 表達能力 Ability: can, could, be able to P.2

1. couldn’t, can, will be able to  2. hasn’t been able to, can

3. can’t, will be able to  4. haven’t been able to, can’t, will be able to

D. 表達可能性Possibilitymay, might, could, maybe (adv)

Every few years, the ocean near Peru becomes warmer. Called El Nino, this variation in temperature may cause weather changes all over the world. The west coasts of North and South American might have heavy rains. On the other side of the Pacific, New Guinea might become very dry. Northern areas could have warmer, wetter winters, and southern areas could become much colder. These weather changes affect plants and animals. Some fish may not survive in warmer waters. Droughts could cause crops to die, and food may get very expensive. El Nino may happen every two years, or it might/may not come for seven years. Will El Nino get worse in the future? They could. Pollution holds heat in the air, and it may/might/could increase the effects of El Nino, but no one is sure yet.

E. 表達允許Permission: may, can, could

  1. Can he come on the train with me or does he need a ticket?
  2. I’m sorry, he can’t. Only passengers can board the train.
  3. Could I change seats with you? I’d like to sit next to my son.
  4. Yes, you can. Go right ahead. I’m getting off soon.
  5. Mom, may I have some candy? I’m hungry.
  6. No, you may not/can’t. I’m sorry, but you’ve already had enough candy.
  7. Do you mind if he plays his computer game?
  8. No, I don’t. / Not at all. He can play if he wants. It won’t bother me.
  9. I’m still hungry. Can we’ll get a sandwich soon?
  10. Yes, we can. / Sure. / Certainly. We can go find the club car.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.22

F. 要求別人做某事:禮貌請求Polite Requests: will, would, can, could

1. b  2. a  3. a  4. b  5. a   6. b

G. 要求別人做某事:祈使句Imperative

1. Don’t wait   2. Take  3. Have  4. Turn  5. Help me!  6. Don’t forget  7. Stop the car!  8. Come  9. Open  10. Pass  11. Don’t listen

12. Don’t be late!  13. Come in  14. Catch

H. 表示忠告建議:Advice: should, ought to, had better

  1. How should I dress?
  2. You should (You ought to ) look neat
  3. What time should I arrive?
  4. you shouldn’t (you’d better not) arrive after 7:15
  5. Should I bring a gift?
  6. You shouldn’t (You’d better not) but an expensive gift.

 

J. 表達必須性Necessityhave to, have got to, must

1. must  2. has to  3. have to   4. must  5. have to  6. must  7. must

8. have to  9. don’t have to, mustn’t  10. must, mustn’t, don’t have to

11. mustn’t, must  12. mustn’t, don’t have to

13. mustn’t, must, don’t have to

L. 表達偏好Preferenceprefer, like…better, would rather

For my study, I interviewed fifty men and women. There was no difference in men’s and women’s preferences for TV. I found that everyone prefers watching TV to going to movies. Men and women both enjoy news programs and entertainment specials. However, men would rather watch adventure programs and science fiction, while women prefer soap operas. Men also like to watch all kinds of sports, but women would rather see game shows than sports. Reading preferences differ too. Men prefer to read/ reading newspapers, while women would rather read magazines and books. When men read books, they prefer to read/ reading nonfiction and adventure stories. Women prefer novels.

放鬆的技巧

潔西昨天晚上應該是太緊張了,半夜小腿抽筋,痛到一個滾下床去,超級宇宙無敵痛,應該眼淚都痛出來了吧!完全沒有上回睡到一半腳抽筋的印象,而且也很久沒有了,雖然是一個還算容易抽筋的人。

 

上網看了一下,就是太緊張吧,其他昨天也沒運動,也應該沒缺什麼礦物質。上網找了一些資料,找到個網頁,有十個放鬆技巧,可以參考一下,最後附上兩個潔西自己愛用的。

 

http://www.webmd.com裡面出來,大標,內容一半解釋一半潔西自己詮釋

 

Blissing Out: 10 Relaxation Techniques To Reduce Stress On-the-Spot

大大開心:十個放鬆的技巧讓你能在當場馬上減輕壓力

 

1. Meditate

冥想

其實不必要打坐才可以冥想。任何重複性的活動都可以作為冥想的一部分,比方說走路,游泳,畫畫,等等,可以讓你的注意力集中在當下。所以有人抖腳也是嗎?呵呵,潔西忍不住懷疑。其實從前潔西很喜歡的瑜伽老師也說過,等公車,排隊都可以做瑜伽可以冥想,躺在床上也可以冥想,睡著也沒關係。讚吧!其實潔西覺得就是要讓自己放空,越不要想什麼事,其實就會越去想,但是有時候做一些重複性的動作時會忘掉那些讓你煩惱的東西。真的又想起來,就拋到腦後重新開始。所以數數,數羊是個不錯的方式,真的。用英文,要集中注意力,就會忘了其他事。下次睡不著用英文數數看,呵呵,再跟潔西說你可以蜀道哪XD

 

2. Picture Yourself Relaxed

想像你自己放輕鬆的畫面

這潔西遇過不少諮商師都很喜歡用的,潔西本人不愛,可能是想像力不夠豐富。就是想像你自己在一個非常放鬆的地方的情境,做白日夢吧,跟小叮噹在天空中一起躺在雲朵上之類的幻想。潔西果然是幼稚派的,哈哈。要幻想美女也可以,就是逃離現實,自由想象發揮,也就是所謂的space out吧,潔西不少學生都很在行,呵呵。那個比賽的想像打贏的畫面也是不錯。

 

3. Breathe Deeply

深呼吸

這就說到放鬆大家最會的,其實實際上也有效,但是呢呼吸跟吐氣都要慢,真正緊張的時候呼吸很快,吸氣的時候慢慢吸氣,數到時,可以的話,慢慢的把氣吸到肚子裡,讓肚子慢慢鼓大,然後停住呼吸幾秒,吐氣的時候,一樣慢慢吐出來,數到十,可以的話,讓肚子慢慢變成平的,甚至凹進去,然後停住呼吸幾秒,在重複,共十次,因為要數啊數,所以專心好好慢慢做,應該有點效果。

 

4. Look Around You

看看你的周遭

活在當下的最好方式就是像小孩子一樣充滿好奇心,觀察周遭的一切,看天上的藍天白雲的形狀,看樹葉的形狀。假如在室內,看看室內的擺設,看看裝潢的模式,仔細看看每個細節,是否有平常沒有看到的東西,觀察周遭的人。不要老是多工,一次要做很多事,停下來睜大眼睛好好看看這世界。專心于現在發生的事,就比較容易忘記壓力喔J 潔西覺得坐捷運是個很好觀察世界的方式,很好玩。然後很喜歡跟小小孩玩,他們真的好可愛,上回有個小孩被媽媽抱著,一直把身體伸出來要跟潔西玩,媽媽喬回去抱正,他要在伸出來,太可愛!

 

5. Drink Hot Tea

喝熱茶

不要喝咖啡,可以喝綠茶。潔西個人覺得薄荷茶非常有放鬆的效果,而且喝下熱茶,尤其是不含咖啡因的花草茶,整個身心都感到安寧,非常的舒服。 緊張的時候喝可樂咖啡等含咖啡因飲料絕對整個人更緊張,但是卻通常是大家喝的啊!

 

6. Show Some Love

表現愛意

友愛,家人之間的愛,寵愛小動物的愛。抱抱你家小狗小貓,給朋友家人一個大大的擁抱,跟朋友聊些開心的事。這些都可以減低壓力。研究顯示這些類似的社交互動會讓你的大腦的思慮更清晰,讓你看到新的解決問題的方式,讓你的血壓降低,讓你的緊張賀爾蒙降低。下次看到潔西請給個大擁抱,謝謝J

 

7. Try Self-Massage

試著自我按摩

當你的肌肉緊繃,但又沒時間去看醫生時,試著自己簡單的自我按摩。不知道怎麼按的人隨便壓壓捏捏也有效果。潔西個人覺得做一些簡單的伸展也是很不錯。尤其是張開雙手做V勝利標誌的伸展。有專家研究顯示這是high power pose 高姿態姿勢,對於要考試要面試要比賽的人員,做個兩分鐘,能夠建立信心,在面試比賽考試等有更好的成效。還有把手往後伸展,抬頭等,從前瑜伽老師教的,因為現代人都是低著頭,縮成一團,所以要往後打開,可以放鬆平常緊繃的肌肉。

 

8. Take a Time-Out

暫停

當你覺得快要爆炸的時候,找個安靜的地方,坐下或躺下,把壓力先擺到一旁,封鎖起來。深呼吸,放空,放慢心跳。廁所有時候是個不錯的選擇。不過潔西有次上洗手間隔壁廁所傳來陣陣哭聲讓潔西有點毛。有時候反其道到最吵鬧的地方,百貨公司,夜市讓自己不能思考也不錯。

 

9. Try a Musical Detour

試著改走音樂大道

聽音樂是很多人會選擇的方式,潔西也常把音樂開得震天響,擋住一些不想聽到的聲音。研究顯示聽30分鐘的古典音樂相當於服用10毫克的鎮定劑。潔西剛吃的是250毫克,不然可能要聽到天亮,哇哈哈。聽自己喜歡的音樂其實都有放鬆的效果吧!

 

10. Take an Attitude Break

態度放輕鬆

從很有壓力到放鬆只要三十秒。專家說,讓你自己做正面積極思考的動作,想一下好的事物,你喜歡的東西人事物,讓你的態度變的正面積極鎮定放鬆。當我們想到喜歡的人事物的時候,多半是眉開眼笑的吧。想像可能發生最好的事,即便在一團亂中。

 

潔西提供幾個瑜伽老師還有諮商師心理醫生給過的潔西自己喜歡,覺得效果也不錯的放鬆放式。

 

11. 先運動在放鬆

很少人可以說放鬆就放鬆,但是呢假如有運動候就會自然而然放鬆,這是大家都有的經驗,所以很緊張的時候看看有沒有地方跑步,爬樓梯,快走個十分鐘後,很自然就會放鬆了。萬一沒時間,不能跑出去呢,潔西做瑜伽的一個潔西喜歡的是先把全身繃緊,然後放鬆,接下來身體的每個部分,皺緊眉頭,再放鬆。把臉皺成一團,在放鬆,恩,怕皺紋的可以跳過。雙手握拳十秒,再放鬆,全身做過一次。潔西自己頗喜歡的方法,但從來都不記得做,等等睡前來做一下。

 

12. 自我催眠放鬆

這瑜伽也常見,就是自己告訴自己大腦放鬆,頭放鬆,眼睛放鬆,鼻子放鬆,耳朵放鬆,嘴巴放鬆,一個個數,然後數的時候就集中注意力在那個部位,盡可能的讓自己放鬆。也有點效,數到後面常常睡著了,也不錯,呵呵。

 

潔西從前去看中醫,醫生很用力地按下去,問潔西不痛嗎?痛啊!但是還可以認受。醫生說,因為按下去應該是會很痛,一般病人痛的反應都是非常的激烈,肌肉緊繃,但是潔西的肌肉卻是鬆弛的。真的嗎?應該是瑜伽老師教得不錯,印餵做瑜伽的時候會感受到身體的某些部位非常得緊,然後要試著自己放鬆。身心靈啊!不容易。

 

明早要上課,睡覺去。希望今天小腿不要再抽筋了,先催眠放鬆,再冥想,然後一夜好夢,最近又開始做怪夢了。Good night and sweet dreams J

乳房攝影沒有那麼痛啦

FB的文一文二發,所以前面有生日感謝,沒有祝潔西生日快樂的也是很感謝啦:)

 

首先要謝謝大家的生日祝福,恩,沒錯是一個星期前了,呵呵,因為一整個瘋狂忙碌又事多,想說的話又多,一直沒時間寫。應該會寫很長,英文會比較短,所以放前面。

 

Thank you all for the warm birthday wishes. It’s a bit late but it has been a crazy summer. There’s  a lot I want to say but  I just couldn’t find enough time to write down my thoughts. Anyway, I was gonna say, “What? I just turned 42? There must be something wrong. Shoot! Where’s the pause button? Or even better, the rewind button!" Haha. I really have a bad sense of humor. But that’s okay. As long as I am having fun, nothing else matters 😉

 

This year, I have a very good present for myself.  Maybe I shouldn’t say finally, but I have to admit that before I didn’t like myself like I do now and it’s good that finally I appreciate myself as who I am, what I am. I know I’m not perfect. I make mistakes, a lot of them, bad ones, stupid ones, but that’s just who I am. “I’m just a flawed man. Man, I fucked up." I love this line from Starting Over by Macklemore and Ryan Lewis. Not using this as an excuse but to remind myself to forgive and forget, and then move on. To the point! I digress so easily 😉 I want to thank my family, friends, coworkers, students and people who came into my life. It’s really difficult to put my appreciation into words. I really think I’m blessed to have met so many nice people in my life and without your help, your love, your care, your support, I don’t know how I can survive until today. It sounds like a cliche even to me but I really think all the good things, bad things, and all the people who came into my life all together made me who I am and what I am, and I’m truly thankful. It’s good that after 42 years, I started to like myself more and more every day. Thanks a million:)

 

FB很煩,改版變成把生日集中一個事件,就要一個個點進去才能回或點讚,因為很多,要一個個點進去,所以就都沒回了,非常不像我啊,現在回又覺得太沒誠意,然後呢,想說的太多,因為想感激的人真的太多了,所以集中統一,呵呵。自己有收到一個自己給的生日大禮,就是,我想,我越來越喜歡自己了,能接受自己的優點缺點,能比較主觀地去看待自己,給自己鼓勵提醒自己,包容自己的錯誤,不去苛責自己。而這一切真的是要大大感謝家人,朋友,同學,網友,還有進入潔西生命中的人,給予很多的支持,鼓勵,照顧,非常榮幸跟感恩有這麼多的貴人來到我的生命中。這一路真的是跌跌撞撞過來,發生了許許多多的事,但是非常幸運的一直得到很多幫助,家人,朋友,甚至是陌生人,真的是非常感動,沒有這些人的話,潔西真的不知道現在會在何方。雖然很真心,不過聽起來很官腔,恩,潔西中文不好,大家自己感受飄揚在空氣中寫滿了謝謝的氣球,空氣中洋溢着的滿滿感謝的氣氛吧,請自行想象,呵呵!

 

感謝完又要發牢騷了,這就是潔西啊!顆顆。潔西很愛說,超愛說,常常什麼有的沒的,該說的不該說的,想說就說,雖然現在好一點了,就一整個是自曝其短,自己爆自己料,很多私人的事也通通說出來,啊個性就是不說不快型的,雖然有時候說了事後後悔,但是當下不說又忍不住。因為真的覺得不說會得癌症啊!不過說了好像也沒差?機率有低一點?沒人知。又要爆料了,沒錯,爆自己料。

 

其實有考慮了很多下,分析了一下說不說的優缺點,但是因為很焦慮,不說等等上課哭出來也不是很好,說了也不是不會不哭出來,因為本來就愛哭,至少就不用解釋那麼多,也是分享一下經驗,每四個的癌症的女生就有一個人得的是乳癌,還是要知道一下比較好,女性朋友們。潔西上星期去做乳房超音波,因為潔西已經吃賀爾蒙一年多了,自己跟醫生建議。排時間照了,檢驗師一邊檢查一邊問潔西的醫生是誰?婦科醫生。潔西回答。檢驗師非常熱心地推薦了一個外科醫生,因為婦科醫生不一定會看片子,還是要靠影像攝影師解讀打字,需要比較久的時間,假如潔西看那位醫生雖然不是專攻乳房外科,但是非常的細心,而且就不用等那麼久的報告。然後還非常熱心地寫下那個醫生的名字,看診時間。潔西非常感謝,但是呢心都冷了一半。潔西算是個敏感的人,大概知道應該沒什麼好事。

 

這兩天嚴重焦慮,吃不好,睡不好,今天下午非常忐忑的去看醫生,一坐下來跟醫生說是來看報告,醫生一邊看報告,一邊寫下一些數字,潔西一邊跟自己做心理建設,眼淚卻是快掉下來,心跳差點沒停,完蛋了。然後醫生說,兩邊各有一個腫瘤,不過看起來都像是良性的(忘記問多大了),只要半年追蹤一次就可以。潔西問說需要做乳房攝影嗎?醫生說應該不用,健保局給付45歲以上婦女做,潔西還不到年紀。潔西說沒關係,可以自費。醫生說,但是從xxx看起來,忘記說什麼了,總之就是看起來應該是不到要做乳房攝影的程度。然後潔西說,可是我已經吃一年多的賀爾蒙,是不是做一下比較好。醫生一聽到潔西吃賀爾蒙,二話不說,馬上開單。醫生認為站在外科醫生的立場,吃賀爾蒙的乳癌風險大大提高,國外有很多研究都有顯示,完全不建議吃,但是婦科醫生的立場又不同,所以也說得很保留。暈倒啊!

 

潔西吃賀爾蒙是因為卵巢早衰,頭痛的一大主因是賀爾蒙失調,一停吃賀爾蒙就超嚴重,失眠,頭痛,而且非常之憂鬱。吃了狀況好很多,但是副作用也很多,現在要面對的是最嚴重的一個,所以感覺未來頭可能就要讓它痛了。唉!

 

潔西的超音波當時是排比較久,等一個星期左右,這次乳房攝影約莫只要等一個多小時,就剛好有空擋,還好上課還來得及,所以就等了。因為這是聽說很痛的檢查,潔西超緊張,打去跟做過的老姐問一下。她說會痛,但是還可以忍耐。潔西先前在這醫院有點不太愉快的經驗,挺緊張的。不過呢,真的非常好運,也很感激,這次遇到大好人,檢驗師從頭到尾非常的客氣,非常得有耐心,先跟潔西說流程,會用板子夾住乳房,所以會有些痛,一直跟潔西說不要緊張,放鬆點就不會那麼痛,請潔西忍耐一下,照完後都還會問還好嗎?在幫忙喬位置在過程中也都非常的溫柔,讓潔西很安心。假如台灣的醫護人員都能像這樣,真的就太完美了。因為病人非常的緊張害怕又無助,但是呢醫生護士檢驗師的多一分體貼跟關心真的是非常的溫馨。

 

照完潔西跟檢驗師說覺得沒有想像中的痛,聽到都是說很痛,我姐也說頗痛,但其實還好,檢驗師說因為潔西夠放鬆,檢驗師真的人很好,都會說,這裡太緊張,要放鬆,所以潔西就試著放輕鬆。檢驗師說假如不能放鬆就會比較痛。除了要歸功檢驗師,還要感謝瑜珈,還有先前的瑜伽老師。因為潔西在做瑜伽的時候都會不自覺皺眉,老師都會提醒,肌肉會緊繃,老師還教了很多放鬆的方式。下次再來說放鬆,非常之重要每個人都應該要學的人生重要技巧。最後檢驗師還跟潔西說,提醒老姐下次放輕鬆,就不會那麼痛了。老實說,潔西去按摩按胸部時比這還痛呢。所以千萬記得要放鬆做,就沒那麼痛了。

 

檢查的結果?要等星期一看報告。潔西不敢問檢驗師,應該也不會說。今天崩潰好幾次,好在晚上上課沒崩潰。上網看了一下資料,乳房的腫塊算常見,說法各不同。先前看中文網頁的時候說要定期追蹤,因為有可能變成惡性,有些變成惡性腫瘤也就是癌症就是因為掉以輕心,沒有追蹤。有那種感覺有腫瘤就完蛋了,因為遲早變成癌症的錯誤印象。剛剛看一些英文網站,從來沒有比這種時候更感激自己英文不錯的時候了,學好英文就是用在這種時候啊!看了幾個網站說明,尤其是英國衛生局有詳細的解說,甚至還有乳癌攝影與乳房超音波影片,就跟潔西做的一樣,要做的人先看一下,可能會有點概念,比較不害怕。潔西的算是 breast lumps,網頁上寫說乳房腫塊不會增加未來癌症的風險,也不會變成乳癌。寫得很肯定,讓潔西放心不少,但是,太肯定了吧,明明乳癌就是腫塊惡化不是嗎?其中之一,還有別的原因。總之,現在很錯亂,無法看太多,看不進去。然後呢,很緊張,星期一晚上對不起同學,因為要去看報告,所以要請假。因為再拖怕緊張型的潔西會大崩潰。

 

潔西這幾天一方面緊張也可能被傳染,胃痛,肚子痛到個不行,很有腸胃炎的徵兆。昨天下午看完醫生,吃了藥,躺在老姐的店裡兩三個小時不能動。應該也是焦慮吧。不過晚上上課的時候,雖然六人的小班有兩個人請假,只有四個同學出現,但是大家都很認真很瘋狂,明明先前是有點文靜安靜的同學不知怎麼都一個個露出馬腳,哈哈,沒有啦,是老師跟同學一起失控非常開心,潔西也笑到肚子痛。但一下課,馬上不行,胃痛,頭痛,肚子痛。所今天早上就請假了。今天晚上上課看到同學也是很開心,自high,一開始忘記為什麼了就笑到一個肚子痛說不出話來,學生一如往常還是不太理潔西,也認了。自己一直說冷笑話,自己搞笑演出,還說錯頁數,明明37頁,黑板寫47頁,讓同學找不到。造句還造I like to kill cockroaches. 整個就是失控大演出,最後還把割到手的大繃帶甩出去。同學都快暈倒了吧,呵呵,哪根筋不對勁?所有都不對勁吧!

 

該睡了。不然神智不清胡言亂語要開始了,恩,不是開始很久了嗎?大家心照不宣,不要揭潔西的底。這幾天有空會去廟裡走走,人是需要信仰的,謝謝眾多神明跟天上媽媽爺爺奶奶祖先們一直以來的保佑。謝謝大家一直以來的照顧。不知道還能讓大家照顧多久,還有機會的話也請多多指教。呵呵。我也不太知道我究竟有沒有事?祈禱平安無事中。有事就再好好面對,反正玩也玩過,想做的事也大都做過。還好,慶幸一直有走自己想要的路。人生不知道在哪裡轉個彎有時候就無法挽回了。所以有想做的事,想說的話,不要等到來不及的時候才說喔。接下來好像是上台領獎後下台一定要說的?呵呵,我是很真心的啦!謝謝大家!我愛大家!