【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 95 形容詞子句的縮減,分詞構句,分詞片語

因為大家都說每次文法都講很多懶得看,這次特別出了個簡短篇的跟詳細篇的,分別跟不同需要的人參考。要繼續做發音的影片了,所以晚點再來碎碎念。假如有問題歡迎提出,謝謝大家支持。啊,另外假如覺得有幫助的話歡迎利用下面小額贊助的頁面支持潔西,感恩!小額贊助

 

簡短說明形容詞子句縮減的分詞構句

 

 

詳細的說明形容詞子句縮減的分詞構句與練習題解答

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

95 ing 與 ed 片語

 

The person talking to Ken is my brother.

The person who is talking to Ken is my brother.

 

The car parked outside is my neighbor’s.

The car that is parked outside is my neighbor’s car.

 

形容詞子句縮減來的分詞構句

A 分詞構句的形成

分詞構句或分詞片語是由一個分詞加上一些字所組成,可以用來修飾名詞跟代名詞。分詞構句經常是由形容詞子句縮減而來,所以有時也叫做縮減子句(reduced clauses)。

 

縮減方式如下:

1 把形容詞子句中的關係代名詞去掉(只有關係代名詞為主詞時),

2 把動詞的助動詞去掉,主要動詞依主動或被動改為現在分詞或過去分詞,

3 保留原有的標點,

 

A 現在分詞,主動

1

The man who is sitting in front of John is Tom.

The man (who is sitting in front of John) is Tom.

The man sitting in front of John is Tom.

 

2

The girl who is playing basketball is my sister.

The girl (who is playing basketball) is my sister.

The girl playing basketball is my sister.

 

3

Many students who study at this university are from foreign countries.

Many students (who study at this university) are from foreign countries.

Many students studying at this university are from foreign countries.

 

4

Anyone who wants to join us is welcome.

Anyone (who wants to join us) is welcome.

Anyone wanting to join us is welcome.

5

English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters.

English has an alphabet (that consists of 26 letters).

English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters.

 

6

Everyone who will take the TOEIC next month must preregister.

Everyone (who will take the TOEIC next month) must preregister.

Everyone taking the TOEIC next month must preregister.

 

7

My parents, who did not have much money, never went on holiday.

My parents, (who did not have much money, never went on holiday.

My parents, not having much money, never went on holiday.

 

B 過去分詞,被動

1

I only drink juice that is made from fresh fruit that is grown organically.

I only drink juice (that is made from fresh fruit) (that is grown organically).

I only drink juice made from fresh fruit grown organically.

 

2

Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page.

Be sure to follow the instructions (that are given at the top of the page).

Be sure to follow the instructions given at the top of the page.

 

3

The selfie that was taken by my brother is funny.

The selfie (that was taken by my brother) is funny.

The selfie taken by my brother is funny.

 

4

They live in a house that was built in 1890.

They live in a house (that was built in 1890).

They live in a house built in 1890.

 

形容詞跟形容詞片語也有相似的用法

1

Ann is the woman who is responsible for the error.

Ann is the woman (who is responsible for the error).

Ann is the woman responsible for the error.

 

2

There was one seat that was available on the flight.

There was one seat (that was available) on the flight.

There was one seat available on the flight.

 

2 分詞構句的位置與標點符號

分詞構句可用在限定子句或非限定子句。

限定子句中的分詞片語只可接在修飾名詞的後面,不加逗號。

A woman who hurried to catch a bus tripped and fell.

A woman hurrying to catch a bus tripped and fell.

 

非限定子句中的分詞片語,可以放在修飾名詞的後面,或放到修飾名詞的前面,一定要以逗號將分詞片語與整個句子隔開。

Teresa, who hurried to catch a bus, stumbled and fell.

Teresa, hurrying to catch a bus, stumbled and fell.

Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.

 

注意事項:切記分詞片語在前面時,這個片語一定要是修飾後面句子的主詞。

Hoping for an A, my exam grade disappointed me.(X)

                      S            V

Hoping for an A, I was disappointed in my exam grade.(O)

 

Having run out of gas, Tom was late for school. (X)

Because the car ran out of gas, Tom was late for school. (O)

 

修飾整個句子的分詞片語應該用逗號將整個句子與分詞片語隔開。

The team won the championship, which shocked their opponents.

The team won the championship, shocking their opponents.

 

練習:

將下列句子改成分詞構句

1 The man who is talking to John is from Korea.

2 Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.

3 The film that starts at 8 is a drama that is based on a true story.

4 The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary.

5 The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

6 I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

7 The children who attend that school receive a good education.

8 The scientists who are researching the causes of cancer are making progress.

9 The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood.

10  Ham which is made in the traditional way costs more, but tastes better.

11 We have an apartment which overlooks the park.

12 Luggage that is left unattended will be taken away by police.

13 Left-handed children who are forced to write with their right hands often developed psychological problems.

 

翻譯下面的句子

1 你認識那個在跟我爸爸說的話男人嗎?

2 那個正在照顧我媽媽的護士對她很好。

3 我住的公寓是在2005年蓋的。

4 有一台停在外面黑色的車裡有兩個警察坐在裡面。

5 在書裡被呈現的想法很好。

.

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.

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答案

將下列句子改成分詞構句

1 The man who is talking to John is from Korea.

1 The man talking to John is from Korea.

 

2 Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.

2 Our solar system is in a galaxy called the Milky Way.

 

3 The film that starts at 8 is a drama that is based on a true story.

3 The film starting at 8 is a drama based on a true story.

 

4 The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary.

4 The photographs published in the newspaper were extraordinary.

 

5 The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

5 The people waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

 

6 I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

6 I come from a city located in the southern part of the country.

 

7 The children who attend that school receive a good education.

7 The children attending that school receive a good education.

 

8 The scientists who are researching the causes of cancer are making progress.

8 The scientists researching the causes of cancer are making progress.

 

9 The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood.

9 The fence surrounding our house is made of wood.

 

10  Ham which is made in the traditional way costs more, but tastes better.

10  Ham made in the traditional way costs more, but tastes better.

 

11 We have an apartment overlooking the park.

11 We have an apartment which overlooks the park.

 

12 Luggage that is left unattended will be taken away by police.

12 Luggage   left unattended will be taken away by police.

 

13 Left-handed children who are forced to write with their right hands often developed psychological problems.

13 Left-handed children forced to write with their right hands often developed psychological problems.

 

翻譯練習

1 你認識那個在跟我爸爸說的話男人嗎?

1 Do you know that man talking to my father?

 

2 那個正在照顧我媽媽的護士對她很好。

2 The nurse looking after my mother is very kind to her.

 

3 我住的公寓是在2005年蓋的。

3 I live in an apartment built in 2005.

 

4 有一台停在外面黑色的車裡有兩個警察坐在裡面。

4 There’s a back car parked outside with two policemen sitting in it.

 

5 在書裡被呈現 are presented 的想法很好。

5 The ideas presented in the book are good.

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