【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 102 關係子句 主格 講解講義

今天的照片看得出來是哪裡吧?很有名的水都,威尼斯。當年看的電視介紹說再過幾年可能會被淹沒,所以一定要趕快去看看,所以就選了義大利,因為在威尼斯很驚險,所以呢本來除了羅馬之外還要去翡冷翠,也叫做佛羅倫斯,翡冷翠聽起來美多了吧。總之呢就沒有去了。真的是可惜。那一年本來要去巴黎,但是呢歐洲一個月到最後真的懶了,就沒去了,不過還好去年去了。記得在哪裡聽過,旅遊留點遺憾是下次再去的動力,類似這樣的話。驚險的威尼斯就改天再跟大家說了。要出門去了。

下面是講解影片

下面是練習與翻譯影片

形容詞子句 Adjective Clause 又叫關係子句 Relative Clause 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。

關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有 who, whom, which, that 跟 whose。關係副詞有 when, where, why。

先行詞:形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多緊接在先行詞後面。

I have a friend who works in Japan. 我有一個在日本工作的朋友。

主要子句:I have a friend

形容詞子句:who works in Japan

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:friend

形容詞子句常常是兩個句子的合併。

I have a friend who works in Japan.

(I have a friend. My friend works in Japan.)

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that 緊跟著在先行詞後,在句首帶領形容詞子句,用來當形容詞子句的主詞,提供更多有先前提到某人或某事的資訊。

who 用來代表人

Hank is the man who has a big dog. 漢克是那個有一隻大狗的男人。

The guy who sits next to me in class is from Canada. 在課堂上坐我隔壁的人是來自加拿大。

that 也可以用來代表人,但是比較少用

Yo-yo Ma is the musician that plays the cello. 馬友友是那個彈大提琴的音樂家。

The woman that lived here before us is a writer. 那個在我們之前住在這裡的女人是作家。

which 跟 that 都可以用來代表事物

that 比較口語

The computer that cost $50,000 is broken. 花了五萬元的電腦壞掉了。

I like to read books that have good endings. 我喜歡看有好結局的書。

which 比較正式

There are some restaurants which do Sunday brunches. 有些餐廳賣星期天早午餐。

Twitter is the company which was taken over last year. 推特是那個去年被接收的公司。

關係代名詞主格為人 who 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 The police have found the man. The man robbed the bank. 

1 The police have found the man who robbed the bank. 

2 I talked to the boy. The boy won the race. 

2 ______________________________________________.

3 I thanked the doctor. The doctor saved my mother’s life. 

3 ______________________________________________.

4 I’d like to have a boss. The boss has a good sense of humor. 

4 ______________________________________________.

5 I’d prefer a roommate. The roommate is quiet and neat. 

5 ______________________________________________.

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was very rude. The man stepped on my foot. 

1 The man who stepped on my foot was very rude. 

2 The man wanted my advice. The man wrote to me.

2 ______________________________________________. 

3 A man is called a journalist. A man writes newspaper articles. 

3 ______________________________________________.

4 The woman is funny. The woman lives next to us. 

4 ______________________________________________.

5 The girl told me a heartwarming story. The girl sat in front of me. 

5 ______________________________________________.

關係代名詞主格為物 which 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 I like the car. The car won the race.

1 I like the car which won the race. 

2 This is the dog. The dog attacked me.

2 ______________________________________________.

3 Tokyo is a city. The city never sleeps.

3 ______________________________________________.

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The bus was fifteen years old. The bus crashed. 

1 The bus which crashed was fifteen years old. 

2 The dog belonged to Mr. Lin. The dog bit me. 

2 ______________________________________________.

3 The article won a prize. The article discussed puppy love. 

3 ______________________________________________.

翻譯練習

1 我喜歡有幽默感的男生。

2 一個幫人剪頭髮的女生叫做美髮師。

3 這就是贏得獎項的電影。

4 我知道一家賣好吃的義大麵的餐廳。

5 我不喜歡太嚴肅的老師。

答案:

關係代名詞主格為人 who 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 The police have found the man. The man robbed the bank. 

1 The police have found the man who robbed the bank. 

2 I talked to the boy. The boy won the race. 

2 I talked to the boy who won the race. 

3 I thanked the doctor. The doctor saved my mother’s life. 

3 I thanked the doctor who saved my mother’s life. 

4 I’d like to have a boss. The boss has a good sense of humor. 

4 I’d like to have a boss who has a good sense of humor. 

5 I’d prefer a roommate. The roommate is quiet and neat. 

5 I’d prefer a roommate who is quiet and neat. 

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was very rude. The man stepped on my foot. 

1 The man who stepped on my foot was very rude.

2 The man wanted my advice. The man wrote to me.

2 The man who wrote to me wanted my advice. 

3 A man is called a journalist. A man writes newspaper articles. 

3 A man who writes newspaper articles is called a journalist. 

4 The woman is funny. The woman lives next to us. 

4 The woman who lives next to us is funny. 

5 The girl told me a heartwarming story. The girl sat in front of me. 

5 The girl who sat in front of me told me a heartwarming story. 

關係代名詞主格為物 which 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 I like the car. The car won the race.

1 I like the car which won the race. 

2 This is the dog. The dog attacked me.

2 This is the dog which attacked me. 

3 Tokyo is a city. The city never sleeps.

3 Tokyo is a city which never sleeps. 

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The bus was fifteen years old. The bus crashed. 

1 The bus which crashed was fifteen years old. 

2 The dog belonged to Mr. Lin. The dog bit me. 

2 The dog which bit me belonged to Mr. Lin. 

3 The article won a prize. The article discussed puppy love. 

3 The article which discussed puppy love won a prize .

翻譯練習

1 我喜歡有幽默感的男生。

1 I like guys who have a good sense of humor.  

2 一個幫人剪頭髮的女生叫做美髮師。

2 A woman who cuts hair is called a hairdresser. 

3 這就是贏得獎項的電影。

3 This is the movie which won the prize. 

4 我知道一家賣好吃的義大麵的餐廳。

4 I know a restaurant which sells good pasta.  

5 我不喜歡太嚴肅的老師。

5 I don’t like teachers who are too serious. 

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