現在簡單式 Simple Present

針對初學者講解的現在簡單式,有說明跟翻譯練習,填充練習,都有影片可以參考對照

現在簡單式的使用時機

現在簡單式多用在表達日常生活的習慣,事實,真理等。

主詞+動詞原型 V1

S + V1

1.  習慣性動作

1 He usually gets up at 6.30. 他總是六點半起床。 I usually get up at 6.30.

2. 永久性狀態

2  I like beef. 我喜歡牛肉。

2 I don’t like beef. 我不喜歡牛肉

3. 永恆性事實

3 The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 太陽從東邊升起從西邊落下。

4. 感覺,感情或信仰的動詞

4 I believe in God. 我相信上帝。

.

(一) 現在簡單式的一般動詞的句型

一般動詞的句型只要在主詞後面加一般動詞。當主詞是第三人稱單數,也就是任何可以用he/she/it代替的主詞時,需要在動詞後面加s。否定句跟疑問句需要助動詞do/does來幫忙。第三人稱單數用does,其他用do。

第一人稱單數 I (I永遠大寫)

第二人稱單數 you

第三人稱單數 he/she/it (my father/his mother/our dog/her best friend)

第一人稱複數 we

第二人稱複數 you (you單複數同形)

第三人稱複數 they (my parents, the cats, our classmates)

.

二 現在簡單式的一般動詞的句型

第三人稱單數的主詞在肯定句時,動詞必須在原型後面加 s 。

1 肯定句                   

   主詞+動詞原型

 S  + V1                      

     I       ride a bicycle.

   You     take a bus.

   He      drives a car.

   She     rides a scooter.

   It       sleeps.

   We     walk.

   You    take the MRT.

   They   take the train.

.

2 否定句  Negative    

    I am hungry. / I am not hungry. 

   否定句需要有助動詞do/does來幫忙,把don’t/doesn’t 放在一般動詞前面。助動詞 do/does 後面要加原型動詞,第三人稱的 s 已經在 does 上表現了,does 後面的動詞要加原型,不可以再加 s 。 

   主詞 + 助動詞 + not   +動詞原型

    S   +   do/does not          +    V1

    I          do not (don’t)             eat beef.

   You        do not              like Japanese food.

   He         does not (doesn’t)      drink coffee.

   She        does not                  cook.

   It           does not                   work.

   We         do not                     get up early.

   You         do not          sleep for eight hours.

   They        do not                   play mahjong.

.

3 Yes/No 問句  Yes/No question

   造問句需要有助動詞do, does來幫忙。把助動詞放在主詞前面造問句。does 後面的動詞也是一樣要用原型。 

    Are you busy? / Are you hungry?

    助動詞    +  主詞     +    動詞原型

    Do/Does  +    S       +    V1

    Do                 I             work hard?

    Do               you           play basketball?

    Does             he            go bowling?

    Does          she           watch sports on TV?

    Does             it              work?

    Do               we             have coffee?

    Do              you            do yoga?

    Do             they            play sports?

.

4 WH問句  WH question

   WH問句也需要助動詞do/does來幫忙造問句。句型是把則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞、主詞、動詞,其他的部份

   WH疑問詞  +   助動詞    +  主詞  + 動詞  +(其他部分)?

    WH    +    do/does   +   S    +  V0   ?

a What 問什麼,可以跟其他的字組合來問不同問題

1 What do you do in your free time? 

1 I play online games in my free time.

2 What do you think of Korean dramas?  

2 I think they are very interesting.

2 What do you think of yoga?

2 I think it is boring. 

3 What kind of food does Lisa like?   

3 She likes Indian food.

.

b Where 問地點   

1 Where do you live?   

1 I live in Tucheng.

2 Where do you go to school?  

2 I go to National Taiwan University.

2 Where did you go to school? 

2 I went to Tungnan University. 

3 Where does your father work?  

3 He works in a bank.

3 Where do you work?

3 I work in a noodle shop. / ramen shop

.

c When 問時間

1 When do you exercise?  

1 I exercise every Monday and Wednesday.

2 When do you visit your grandparents?  

2 I visit them on big holidays.

3 When does Peter go on vacation?  

3 He goes on vacation in August.

.

d Why 問理由

1 Why do you study English?  

1 I study English because it’s an international language. 

2 Why do you like Thai food?  

2 Because I lived in Thailand when I was a child.

2 Why do you like Japanese food?

2 Because I was influenced by its culture. 

3 Why does your father work in China?  

3 Because the pay is better.

.

e Who問誰

1 Who do you live with?  

1 I live with my coworkers.

2 Who do you play badminton with?  

2 I play badminton with my sister.

3 Who does Mary work for?  

3 She works for her aunt.

.

f How 問如何

1 How often do you get a haircut?  

1 I get a haircut twice a year. / every month

2 How long do you use the computer every day?  

2 I use the computer for four or five hours.

3 How much does the dress cost?  

3 It costs NT$2,500.

3 How much is the dress?

3 It is NT$2,500.

Where do you come from? I come from Taiwan.

Where are you from? I am from Taiwan. 

.

特別注意當疑問詞what或who當主詞時,則不需要助動詞,而且動詞應用第三人稱單數。

1 What makes you happy?  

1 Helping people makes me happy.

2 Who cooks dinner for you?  

2 My dad cooks dinner for me.

3 Who do you have dinner with? 

3 I have dinner by myself. 

.

三、現在簡單式的副詞如:every day, every week, once a week, always, usually, often…等。

He is usually late for class. 

He usually comes to class late. 

四、現在簡單式拼字與發音規則

英文在表達現在簡單式時,當主詞為第三人稱單數(任何可以用he、she、it代替的名詞)時,動詞後面要加s。加s的拼字與發音規則如下。

a. 拼字規則

1. 大部分的動詞在字尾加s。

   talk-talks, learn-learns, read-reads, get-gets

2.當動詞字尾是sh, ch, ss, x, z時,則加es。

   wash-washes, watch-watches, kiss-kisses, fix-fixes, buzz-buzzes

3.當動詞字尾為子音加y時,需將y去掉,加ies。

   study-studies, cry-cries, fly-flies, try-tries

4.當動詞字尾為母音加y時,則只要加s,即可。

   say-says, play-plays, pray-prays, pay-pays

5.有幾個特別的變化需記住。

   have-has, do-does, go-goes

b. 發音規則

1. 當動詞字尾是無聲子音如/f/, /k/, /p/, /t/, 時,加s後,應讀做/s/。

 laugh-laughs, cook-cooks, stop-stops, 

meet-meets  

2.當動詞字尾是有聲子音如/d/, /n/, /l/, /v/ 等或母音時,加s後,應讀做/z/。    

   read-reads, learn-learns, sell-sells, live-lives, know-knows, see-sees

3. 當動詞字尾為/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, / dʒ /時,加s後,應讀做/ɪz/時。要注

意的是,發音時看的是最後一個音,而非最後一個字母,如dance就是這一類

miss-misses, buzz-buzzes, wish-wishes, 

match-matches, judge-judges, 

英文字母的母音(vowels)為a, e, i, o, u,其餘為子音(consonants)。

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, 

                                             /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, 

                                         /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /,    

         / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/, / aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

1. save _______ 2. work ______ 3. notice ________ 4. try  _______

5. teach _______ 6. start ______ 7. buy ________ 8. fix  ________

9. have________  10. finish_______

E-a Present Simple Exercise  Fill in the blanks.

1. Julie __________ (speak) Japanese well.

2. Tom __________ (not drink) beer very often.

3. The earth __________ (go) around the sun.

4. What time __________________________ (the banks / close) here?

5. Look at the sentence. What __________________ (the word / mean)?

6. My parents __________ (live) in a very small town.

7. I have a TV, but I __________ (not watch) it much.

8. It __________ me an hour to get to work. 

How long __________ (it /take) you?

E-b Write sentences and questions with the simple present.

he/usually get up late + : He usually gets up late. 

1 Sam/like/music ?

2 She/have a lot of hobbies +

3 I/get along well with my sister –

4 my brother/know me very well –

5 they/have any children ?

6 the movie/finish late ?

7 he/go out twice a week +

8 we/usually talk about politics –

E-c Complete with a verb in the simple present.

get along, not have, listen, live, open, not talk, not work

He lives in an apartment.

1 _________ the banks __________ in the afternoon?

2 My sister __________ many friends.

3 We hardly ever ____________ to the news in the car.

4 She’s very shy. She _______________ much.

5 ____________ Jane ______________ we’ll with her boss?

6 My cell phone is new, but it __________ very well.

.

翻譯練習

1 你有空的時候做什麼?

2 你覺得拉麵如何?

3 你喜歡什麼種類的食物?

4 你住在哪裡?

5 你在哪裡工作?

6 你什麼時候運動?

7 你為什麼學英文?

8 你為什麼喜歡日本料理?

9 你跟誰住?

10 你跟誰打籃球?

11 你多常剪頭髮?

12 你每天睡多久?

13 Tom 說日文。

14 Tom 不喝咖啡。

15 Tom 喜歡音樂嗎?

16 Tom 喜歡什麼種類的音樂?

..

答案

WH + do/does + 主詞+動詞原型

主詞+動詞原型+受詞+地點+時間

1 你有空的時候做什麼?

1 What do you do in your free time?

1 I do yoga in my free time.

1 I dance in my free time. 

.

2 你覺得拉麵如何?

2 What do you think of ramen?

2 I think it is delicious. 

3 你喜歡什麼種類的食物?

3 What kind of food do you like?

3 I like Japanese food. / Thai food / Italian food / American food

4 你住在哪裡?

4 Where do you live?

4 I live in Taipei.

.

5 你在哪裡工作?

5 Where do you work?

5 I work in a ramen shop. 

.  

6 你什麼時候運動?

6 When do you exercise?

6 I exercise every night. 

in the morning, at noon, in the afternoon, in the evening, at night, at midnight

7 你為什麼學英文?

7 Why do you study English?

7 I study English because it is an international language.   

8 你為什麼喜歡日本料理?

8 Why do you like Japanese food?

8 I like Japanese food because I was influenced by its culture.  

.

9 你跟誰住?

9 Who do you live with?

9 I live with my family. 

10 你跟誰打籃球?

10 Who do you play basketball with?

11 你多常剪頭髮?

11 How often do you get a haircut?

11 I get a haircut every month. 

12 你每天睡多久?

12 How long do you sleep every day?

12 I sleep eight hours every day.

13 Tom 說日文。

13 Tom speaks Japanese.

14 Tom 不喝咖啡。

14 Tom doesn’t drink coffee.

15 Tom 喜歡音樂嗎?

15 Does Tom like music?

16 Tom 喜歡什麼種類的音樂?

16 What kind of music does Tom like?

.

E-a Present Simple Exercise  Fill in the blanks.

1. Julie __speaks______ (speak) Japanese well.

2. Tom _doesn’t drink____ (not drink) beer very often.

3. The earth ___goes_______ (go) around the sun.

4. What time __do the banks close_________ (the banks / close) here?

5. Look at the sentence. What ___does the word mean_______________ (the word / mean)?

6. My parents __________ (live) in a very small town.

6 My parents live in a very small town.

7. I have a TV, but I __________ (not watch) it much.

7 I have a TV, but I don’t watch it much. 

8. It __________ (take) me an hour to get to work. 

How long __________ (it /take) you?

8 It takes me an hour to get to work. 

8 How long does it take you?

E-b Write sentences and questions with the simple present.

he/usually get up late + : He usually gets up late. 

1 Sam/like/music ?

1 Does Sam like music?

.

2 She/have a lot of hobbies +

2 She has a lot of hobbies.

.

3 I/get along well with my sister –

3 I don’t get along well with my sister.

.

4 my brother/know me very well –

4 My brother doesn’t know me very well.

5 they/have any children ?

5 Do they have any children?

.

6 the movie/finish late ?

6 Does the movie finish late?

.

7 he/go out twice a week +

7 He goes out twice a week. 

8 we/usually talk about politics –

8 We don’t usually talk about politics. 

E-c Complete with a verb in the simple present.

get along, not have, listen, live, open, not talk, not work

He lives in an apartment.

1 _________ the banks __________ in the afternoon?

1 Do the banks open in the afternoon?

2 My sister __________ many friends.

2 My sister doesn’t have many friends. 

3 We hardly ever ____________ to the news in the car.

3 We hardly ever listen to the news in the car. 

4 She’s very shy. She _______________ much.

4 She’s very shy. She doesn’t talk much. 

5 ____________ Jane ______________ well with her boss?

5 Does Jane get along well with her boss?

6 My cell phone is new, but it __________ very well.

6 My cell phone is new, but it doesn’t work very well. 

1. 大部分的動詞在字尾加s。

   talk-talks, learn-learns, read-reads, get-gets

2.當動詞字尾是sh, ch, ss, x, z 時,則加es。

   wash-washes, watch-watches, kiss-kisses, fix-fixes, buzz-buzzes

3.當動詞字尾為子音加y時,需將y去掉,加ies。

   study-studies, cry-cries, fly-flies, try-tries

4.當動詞字尾為母音加y時,則只要加s,即可。

   say-says, play-plays, pray-prays, pay-pays

5.有幾個特別的變化需記住。

   have-has, do-does, go-goes

b. 發音規則

1. 當動詞字尾是無聲子音如/f/, /k/, /p/, /t/, 時,加s後,應讀做/s/。

 laugh-laughs, cook-cooks, stop-stops, meet-meets  

2.當動詞字尾是有聲子音如/d/, /n/, /l/, /v/ 等或母音時,加s後,應讀做/z/。    

   read-reads, learn-learns, sell-sells, live-lives, know-knows, see-sees

3. 當動詞字尾為/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, / dʒ /時,加s後,應讀做/ɪz/時。要注

意的是,發音時看的是最後一個音,而非最後一個字母,如dance就是這一類

miss-misses, buzz-buzzes, wish-wishes, match-matches, judge-judges, 

英文字母的母音(vowels)為a, e, i, o, u,其餘為子音(consonants)。

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, 

                                             /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, 

                                         /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /,    

         / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/, / aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

  1. save __saves_____ 2. work __works____ 3. notice _notices_______ 4. try  __tries_____

5. teach _teaches______ 6. start _starts_____ 7. buy __buys______ 8. fix  __fixes______

9. have__has______  10. finish_finishes______

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