Present Perfect and Past Simple 現在完成式跟過去簡單式用法的區別

Present Perfect  現在完成

使用時機

  1. 現在完成把過去跟現在連接在一起。雖然是過去已經完成的動作,但是跟現在相關或是對現在而言很重要。會有一些現在的結果或是個新的訊息或新聞。因為叫做現在完成,所以雖然事情發生在過去,動作也已經完成了,但是跟現在有關,假如是跟現在無關就會用過去簡單式。通常把過去跟現在連在一起的現在完成式的句子可以改成現在簡單式,意思不會差太多。這種時候發生的時間不重要,強調的是過去某個不特定時間發生的事,但跟現在相關。

Past x—————x—————x present     

過去 x—————x—————x 現在

  1. 現在的結果:I can’t walk – I’ve hurt my leg. 我不能走路 – 我腳受傷了。
  2. 現在的結果:Look – he hasn’t eaten his vegetables. 你看 – 他還沒吃他的青菜。
  3. 新消息:Have you heard? He’s arrived! 你聽說了嗎?他已經抵達了!
  4. 新消息:You’ve passed the exam! 你通過考試了!
  5. 現在完成改成現在簡單:He’s lost his keys. = He can’t find them.  他丟了他的鑰匙。=他找不到他們。
  6. 現在完成改成現在簡單:Sally’s come back. = Sally is home. 莎莉回來了。=莎莉在家了。

練習一:把下面現在完成式改成現在簡單式

    He’s gone.  

    The plane has landed. 

    We’ve washed the dishes.

    The dog has died.

  1. 現在完成式常用來宣布消息或新聞,但是當要給更多的詳細內容的時候,通常會改成過去式。
  1. I’ve found my wallet. – Oh, good. Where did you find it? 我找到我的錢包了。- 太好了。你在哪裡找到的?
  2. Your parcel has arrived. The postman brought it at eight o’clock. 你的包裹到了。郵差在八點鐘送來。
  3. Three climbers has died in the Alps. They fell just before reaching the summit on Mont Blanc. 三個登山者死在阿爾斯山。他們在就要抵達白朗峰的頂峰時摔落。
  4. A light passenger plane crashed in Surrey. According to eyewitnesses, the aircraft hit a tree while coming to land. 一台輕型客機在薩里郡墜毀。根據目擊著的話,飛機在降落的時候撞上一棵樹。

練習二:中翻英(用現在完成是跟過去簡單式

  1. 1.彼得(Peter)剛給我一份新工作!他說我正是他需要的人。
  2. 2.世界盃隊伍回家了。五千名粉絲在機場等他們。

當要講一個東西的來源,起源的時候會用過去簡單式,不用現在完成式

  1. Who wrote that? (NOT Who has written that?) 那是誰寫的?
  2. Bill gave me this necklace. 比爾給我這條項鍊。
  3. Did you put this here? 你把這個放在這裡嗎?
  4. Whose idea was it to come here on holiday? 來這裡渡假是誰的主意?
  1. 現在完成式用來描述從過去開始一直持續到現在的狀況 (up to now),特別是當我們要表達持續多長的時間的時候。常會與 since , for 連用。 since 後面可以加主詞,動詞,形成子句,如 since she left school 。 since 後面也可以加一個時間點 (particular time),如:since 1973, since two years ago, since university 等。 for 後面接的是一段時間 (a duration of time),如for two hours, for a very long time, for ages 等。

past –s-i-t-u-a-t-i-o-n->present     

過去—狀—況—>現在

  1. He has lived in Taipei since he was born. 他一出生就到現在都住在台北。
  2. She has run a small business since 2012. 她從2012年開始經營一家小公司。
  3. Helen has played the piano for two years. 海倫開始彈琴到現在兩年了。
  4. I’ve always wanted to go to Greece, but I’ve never had time. 我一直想要去希臘,但是我一直都沒有時間。

不會用現在簡單式來說某件事情持續多久。

  1. I’ve known Tom for 7 years. (NOT I know Tom for years.) 我認識湯姆好多年了。
  2. How long have you been here for? (=’Since when …?’) 你來這裡多久了?(從什麼時候..?)
  3. How long are you here for? (=’Until when …?’) 你要在這裡待多久?(直到什麼時候..?)

練習三:把下列句子中括號裡面的字改成正確的實態,並完成句子。

  1. 1.He (be) unemployed. (ever since he left school)
  2. 2.I (have) trouble sleeping. (all this week)
  3. 3.I (have) trouble sleeping. (all last week)
  4. 4.(you live) in this town? (How long)
  5. 5.I (not learn) much. (in that job)
  6. 6.He was ill before Christmas, but he (be) fine. (since then)
  1. 現在完成式多會用在從過去某個時間到現在重複的活動。重複行為的時間不重要。這種表現方式常會跟著同時出現頻率副詞如:often, sometimes, occasionally, several times, twice, three times 等等。
  1. I’ve sometimes thought of moving to Australia. 我有時候會想要搬到澳洲去住。
  2. Benjamin’s been to Africa several times this year. 班傑明今年去過好幾次非洲。
  3. I’ve written six letters since lunch time. 從午餐時間到現在我已經寫了六封信了。
  4. He’s climbed a lot of mountains, but he’s never been up to Mont Blanc. 他爬過很多座山,但是他從來都沒上去過白朗峰。

練習四:用現在完成式或過去簡單式完成句子。

  1. 1.How many cups of coffee (you drink) today?
  2. 2.Since my brother lost his job, he (write) two books.
  3. 3.I’m not cooking today – I (cook) all the meals yesterday. In fact, I (cook) most of the meals this week.
  4. 4.He (run) away from school three times when he was fourteen.
  1. 現在完成式過去簡單式的時間用詞

現在完成式跟過去簡單式都可以用來表達過去完成的行為。決定用那個時態常常會是看用什麼樣的時間表達語。當時間表達語是已經過去的時間 (finished time),比方說 last night, yesterday, last month, three years ago, then, when 等,會用過去簡單式,不會用現在完成式。而當所表達的時間用語是過去的任何時間到目前為止 (any time up to now) 比方說 ever, never, before, recently, lately, often, already, yet, just 等時間用詞,則用現在完成式。

  1. I saw Kate yesterday. (NOT I’ve seen Kate yesterday.) 我昨天看到凱特。
  2. Have you seen Rob recently. 你最近有看到羅柏嗎?
  3. She studied Chinese when she was at university. 她在大學的時候學中文。
  4. He’s never studied any foreign languages. 他從來沒有學過任何外語。

練習五:選擇正確的時態

  1. 1.‘Who is she?’ ‘I (‘ve never seen / never saw) her before.
  2. 2.I (‘ve done / did) a lot of stupid things in my life.
  3. 3.When (have you got / did you get ) married?
  4. 4.I’m sorry I (haven’t finished / didn’t finish) yet.
  5. 5.He (has caught / caught) the plane at eight this morning.
  6. 6.She (has left / left) school last year. 

   現在完成式用在過去的任何時間到現在,即使沒有用時間用詞,但是從句子中可以推測意

   思,就可以用現在完成式。而過去簡單式用在從句中可以推斷出是表示過去已結束的時間的

   話,雖然沒有時間用詞,還是用過去簡單式。

  1. Have you seen ‘Hamlet’? (= Have you ever seen ‘Hamlet?) 你有沒有看過哈姆雷特? (=你這輩子到現在有沒有看過哈姆雷特?)
  2. Did you see ‘Hamlet’? (It was on TV last night) 你有看哈姆雷特嗎?(昨天晚上電視有演。)
  3. My grandfather did a lot for me. (… when he was alive) 我的祖父為我做了很多。(…在他還活著的時候)
  4. How many times have you been in love? 你談過幾次戀愛?
  1. 現在完成式用在最好的,最差的,第一次,第二次如 this/it/that is the first/second/third/only/best/worst 等句子。
  1. That’s the fifth cake you’ve eaten this morning. 那是你今天早上吃的第五塊蛋糕。
  2. This is the fifth time you’ve asked me the same question. 這是你第五次問我同樣的問題。
  3. It’s one of the most interesting books I’ve ever read. 這是我看過最有趣的一本書。
  4. This is the best movie I’ve ever seen. 這是我看過最棒的電影。

   練習六:翻譯下列句子

  1. 這是我唯一一次看過她哭。
  2. 這是我今年吃過最棒的一餐。
  3. 那是你從早餐到現在喝的第十杯咖啡。
  4. 這是你在這份工作中犯過第三個嚴重的失誤。
  5. 這是你今天第八次你唱這首歌。

該用現在完成式還是過去簡單式?其實上面都有講過,這邊再重新整理複習一下:

  1. 現在完成式:把過去跟現在一起想,也就是過去發生的事,但跟現在有關係的。

過去簡單式:只是描述過去,跟現在不相干的。

My sister has learned French. (She can speak French now.) 我姊姊學了法文。(她現在會說法文。)

Shakespeare probably learned Italian. (NOT Shakespeare has probably learned Italian.)

莎士比亞或許有學義大利文。

We’ve studied enough to pass the exam. (The exam is still to come.) 我們為了通過考試唸了夠多的書了。(考試還沒考。)

We studied enough to pass the exam. (The exam is over.) 我們為了通過考試唸足夠的書。(考試已經結束。)

 (潔西注:中文其實沒有什麼不同,所以還蠻難懂的。)

  1. 現在完成式:時間用詞是到目前為止 (some/any time up to now) 的意思,比方說像 ever, never, before, yet, recently, already 等這些,多半用現在完成式。

過去簡單式:時間用詞是已經結束的過去時間 (finished-time words)時,用的是過去簡單式,比方說像 yesterday, then, when, last week, three years ago, in 2000 等,不可以用現在完成式,要用現在簡單式。

Have you seen Lucy anywhere? 你有沒有看到露西?

I saw Lucy yesterday. (NOT I have seen Lucy yesterday.) 我昨天看到露西。

What have you done with the car keys? I can’t find them. 你對車子鑰匙做了什麼事?我找不到他們。

What did you do then? (NOT What have you done then?) 你當時做了什麼事?

My brother has had an accident. He’s in hospital. 我哥哥發生意外了。他人在醫院。

When did the accident happen? (NOT When has the accident happened?) 意外在什麼時候發生的?

  1. 現在完成式:句子裡沒有提到時間,但是想的是從過去的某個時間一直到現在的就用現在完成式。

過去簡單式:句子裡沒有提到時間,但是想的是過去已經結束的時間的動作用過去簡單式。

Have you even seen ‘Romeo and Juliet’? (=Have you ever seen it? Or Have you seen the present production?) 你看過羅密歐與茱麗葉嗎?(= 你曾經有看過它嗎?或是你有看過現代的製作嗎?)

Did you see ‘Romeo and Juliet’? (It was on TV last night.) 你有看羅密歐與茱麗葉嗎?(昨天晚上電視有演。)

You’ve done a lot for me. (…up to now) 你為我做了很多。(…到目前為止)

My grandmother did a lot for me. (…when she was alive) 我奶奶為我做了很多。(在她生前)

  1. 現在完成式:用來發表新消息,新聞。

過去簡單式:新聞中的詳細內容用過去簡單式。

Joe has passed his exam! He got 87%. 喬通過考試了!他拿了八十七分。

There has been a plane crash near Bristol. Witness said that there was an explosion as the aircraft was taking off. 在靠近布里斯托的地方有一起墜機事件。目擊者說在飛機起飛的時候爆炸了。

  1. 不過美式英語在發表新聞給新訊息的時候常會用過去簡單式,而不是用現在完成式。但是不是所有的現在完成式都可以用過去簡單式代替,所以稍微記一下前面的規則就比較不容易說錯。下面句子前面是美式用法,後面是英式用法。

Uh, honey, I lost  / I’ve lost the keys. 啊,親愛的,我鑰匙不見了。

Lucy just called. / Lucy has just called. 露西剛剛打電話來。

Did you eat already? / Have you eaten already? 你吃飯了嗎?

I didn’t call Bobby yet. / I haven’t called Bobby. 我還沒打電話給巴比。

答案:

1. 練習一:把下面現在完成式改成現在簡單式

    He’s gone.  = He isn’t here. 他離開了。=他不在這裡。

    The plane has landed.  = The plane is on the ground now. 那台飛機著陸了。=那台飛機現在在地面上。

    We’ve washed the dishes. = The dishes are clean now. 我們洗了盤子。= 盤子現在是乾淨的。

    The dog has died. = The dog is dead. 那隻狗已經死了。= 那隻狗是死掉了的。

2.練習二:中翻英(用現在完成是跟過去簡單式

  1. 1.彼得(Peter)剛給我一份新工作!他說我正是他需要的人。

Peter has offered me a new job! He said I was just the person he needed.

  1. 2.世界盃隊伍回家了。五千名粉絲在機場等他們。

The World Cup team has arrived home. Five thousand fans were at the airport.

   3練習三:把下列句子中括號裡面的字改成正確的實態,並完成句子。

  1. 1.He (be) unemployed. (ever since he left school)

He has been unemployed ever since he left school. 他從離開學校(畢業)後就一直沒有工作。

  1. 2.I (have) trouble sleeping. (all this week)

I have had trouble sleeping all this week. 我這個星期都睡不著。

  1. 3.I (have) trouble sleeping. (all last week)

I had trouble sleeping all last week. 我上個星期都睡不著。

  1. 4.(you live) in this town? (How long)

How long have you lived in this town. 你在這個鎮上住了多久?

  1. 5.I (not learn) much. (in that job)

I did not learn much in that job. 我在那份工作沒有學到很多。

  1. 6.He was ill before Christmas, but he (be) fine. (since then)

He was ill before Christmas, but he has been fine since then. 他在聖誕節前上病了,但是從那之後他就一直都很健康。

4練習四:用現在完成式或過去簡單式完成句子。

  1. 1.How many cups of coffee (you drink) today?

How many cups of coffee have you drunk today? 你今天喝了幾杯咖啡?

  1. 2.Since my brother lost his job, he (write) two books.

Since my brother lost his job, he has written two books. 自從我哥丟了工作飯碗後,他已經寫了兩本書了。

  1. 3.I’m not cooking today – I (cook) all the meals yesterday. In fact, I (cook) most of the meals this week.

I’m not cooking today – I cooked all the meals yesterday. In fact, I have cooked most of the meals this week. 我今天不做菜 – 昨天的飯菜全部都是我煮的。說實在的,這星期大部分都是我在做菜。

  1. 4.He (run) away from school three times when he was fourteen.

He ran away from school three times when he was fourteen. 他十四歲的時候,逃學三次。

5 練習五:選擇正確的時態

  1. 1.‘Who is she?’ ‘I (‘ve never seen / never saw) her before.

‘Who is she?’ ‘I’ve never seen her before.’ 「她是誰?」「我從來沒看過她。」

  1. 2.I (‘ve done / did) a lot of stupid things in my life. 

I’ve done a lot of stupid things in my life. 我這輩子做了很多愚蠢的事。

  1. 3.When (have you got / did you get ) married?

When did you get married? 你什麼時候結婚的?

  1. 4.I’m sorry I (haven’t finished / didn’t finish) yet.

I’m sorry I haven’t finished yet. 很抱歉我還沒有完成。

  1. 5.He (has caught / caught) the plane at eight this morning.

He caught the plane at eight this morning. 他搭早上八點的飛機。

  1. 6.She (has left / left) school last year.

She left school last year. 她去年畢業。

   6練習六:翻譯下列句子

  1. 這是我唯一一次看過她哭。This is the only time I have ever seen her cry.
  2. 這是我今年吃過最棒的一餐。This is the best meal I have eaten this year.
  3. 那是你從早餐到現在喝的第十杯咖啡。This is the tenth cup of coffee you have drunk since breakfast. 
  4. 這是你在這份工作中犯過第三個嚴重的失誤。This is the third serious mistake you have made in this job.
  5. 這是你今天第八次你唱這首歌。This is the eighth time you have sung this song today.

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