連接詞 conjunctions

要連接兩個單字,片語,句子的時候可以用連接詞才連接。要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。

連接詞可分為下面幾種

A 對等詞 coordinators

可分成對等連接詞跟配對連接詞

a 對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions

對等連接詞只有七個字,常用的是 and, but, so, or 其他還有 nor, for, yet。可以用 fanboys 來記:for, and, but, or, yet, so

For 用來表原因:I am very tired, for I worked very hard today.

And 用來表達同等的概念:I am very tired, and I want to rest for a few minutes.

Nor 用來表達否定的選擇:I am not tired, nor am I hungry right now.

But 用來表達對比:I am tired, but I have no time to rest now.

Or 用來表達選擇:I will take a nap, or I will go out jogging.

Yet 用來表達對比:I will take a nap, yet I am unable to relax.

So 用來表達結果:I am tired, so I will take a nap.

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句, 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

S +   V,                  CC S + V.

I was feeling hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

 

練習一:用對等連接詞 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 把下列句子合併成一個句子。

1 The movie was very long , _____ it was very interesting.

2 I’m studying hard, _____ I don’t have much free time.

3 Tom locked the door, _____ he left the room.

4 Are you for the policy, _____ are you against it?

 

b 配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 常見有四個:

1 both … and:用來強調就某件事,某個人,某種狀況來說,不光只是一個是真確的對另外

                       一個也是,也就是兩者皆…的意思

2 not only … but also:用來表達兩件都是真實或發生了的是,特別是令人感到意外的

3 either … or:用來表達兩個或多個選項之一。或用在假如一件事沒發生,則另外一件事會

                        發生

4 neither … nor 用來表達兩者皆非,既不…也不…

 

這些配對連接詞要特別注意主動詞的一致,當主詞用這些配對連接詞連用時,both … and …  的動詞要用複數形,其他 not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor  的動詞則取決於動詞靠近的主詞。假如接近動詞的主詞是單數時則用單數的動詞,主詞是複數的時候則用複數動詞。

Both my mother and my sister are here.

Not only my mother but also my sister is here.

Not only my sister but also my parents are here.

Neither my mother nor my sister is here.

Neither my sister nor my parents are here.

Either Mr. Lee or Ms. Lin is going to teach our class today.

 

練習二: a 練習 在空格中填入 is 或 are

1 Both the teacher and the student __________ here.

2 Neither the teacher nor the student __________ here.

3 Not only the teacher but also the student __________ here.

4 Not only the teacher but also the students __________ here.

5 Either the students or the teacher __________ planning to come.

6 Either the teacher or the students __________ planning to come.

7 Both the students and the teachers __________ planning to come.

8 Both the students and the teacher __________ planning to come.

 

B 從屬詞 subordinator

從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction 是帶領副詞子句的連接詞,如although, when, while, before, after, because, if, as, 等。

它會放在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

SC + S + V, S + V.     or    

S + V + SC + S + V.

Because I was feeling hungry, I made myself a sandwich.

I made myself a sandwich because I was hungry.

 

C 轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中

句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

S + V; CA, S + V.       or    S + V. CA, S + V.

I was feeling hungry; therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. Therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. I made myself a sandwich, therefore.

I was feeling hungry. I, therefore, made myself a sandwich.

 

D 其他others

有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語如in addition to,動詞如cause等也可以用來表示轉折語。這些次沒有特定的標點符號規則,必須注意前後的字詞的用法。

An additional reason for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

要表達同樣的意思時可能有好幾種不同的用法,要決定怎麼樣連接句子就要看用來連接的單字是什麼樣的詞性跟用法。

 

A 對等連接詞

It was on sale, so we went shopping.

and, but, or, so, yet, nor, for 這幾個字只能放在連接句子的中間,對等連接詞的前面一般有逗號,有些語言學家主張沒有,基本上兩個都可以,只要維持ㄧ致就可以。連接的是兩個獨立子句。

He likes beef, but he doesn’t like beef noodles.

 

B 從屬連接詞

Because it was on sale, we went shopping.

We went shopping because it was on sale.

從屬連接詞比方說 if, when, because, although, as soon as 等等,從屬連接詞帶領的是非獨立子句,需要連接一個獨立子句才能成為一個完整的句子。從屬連接詞帶領的子句在前面時需要逗號把兩個子句分開。獨立子句在前面時,從屬連接詞開始一個新的子句,很容易辨識,所以不需要從屬連接詞前不需要逗號。

Although he likes beef, he doesn’t like beef noodles.

 

C 轉折語

It was on sale. Therefore, we went shopping.

It was on sale. We, therefore, went shopping.

It was on sale. We went shopping, therefore.

It was on sale; therefore, we went shopping.

連接副詞比方說 therefore, however, moreover, futhermore, nevertheless 等。連接副詞的用法固定,他們不能連接兩個句子,只能當副詞用,所以要分開成兩個句子,或是用分號來連接兩個句子。

He likes beef. However, he doesn’t like beef noodles.

 

D 其他

We went shopping because of the sale.

Because of the sale, we went shopping.

其他還有一些其他的字像 because of, due to, in spite of, despite 等可能有類似的意義,但是這些字的後面只能接名詞,不能接句子。因為詞性不能會有不同的用法,要特別注意。

Despite liking beef, he doesn’t like beef noodles.

因果,對比,條件的連接詞

ADVERB CLAUSE WORDS

TRANSITIONS

CONJUNCTIONS

PREPOSITIONS

CAUSE AND EFFECT

because, so (that), since, now that

therefore, consequently

so, for

because of, due to

CONTRAST

even though, although, though, whereas, while

however, nevertheless, nonetheless,

on the other hand

but (…anyway),

yet (…still)

despite, in spite of

CONDITION

if, unless, only if, even if, whether or not, in case,

in the even that

otherwise

or (else)

 

用 and, but, or, because, so 來連接下面句子

1 I can sing and dance. I can’t act. (but)

2 Do you prefer pop music? Do you prefer classical music? (or)

3 I can’t buy a car. I don’t have enough money. (because)

4 I like tea. I like coffee. (and)

5 I like tea. I don’t like coffee. (but)

6 I don’t speak Japanese. I don’t speak Korean. (or)

7 Would you like tea? Would you like coffee? (or)

8 We’re going shopping. We don’t have any food. (because)

9 Tom was late for school. He missed the bus. (because)

10 I didn’t eat breakfast. I am hungry. (so)

11 I have a cat. I don’t have a dog. (but)

12 Are you left-handed? Are you right handed? (or)

13 I have two brothers. I have two sisters. (and)

14 Are you married? Are you single? (or)

15 I enjoy watching TV. I enjoy listening to music. (and)

16 I like playing basketball. I don’t enjoy watching basketball. (but)

17 I was late for work. My car broke down. (because)

18 I overslept. I took a taxi. (so)

 

Correct the errors

1 My shoes and pants got muddy. Even though I walked carefully through the wet streets.

2 My neighborhood is quiet and safe however I always lock my doors.

3 Although I usually don’t like Mexican food, but I liked the food I had at the Mexican restaurant

   last night.

4 A little girl approached the cage however when the tiger shows its teeth and growls she run to

   her mother. Because she was frightened.

5 I have to study four hours every day because of my course are difficult.

6 I can’t understand the lectures in my psychology class therefore for my roommate lets me

   borrow here notes.

7 Because my country it is located in a subtropical area, so the weather is hot.

8 I will stay at the united state for two more year. Because I want finish my degree before go

   home.

寫作文法二:用連接詞來連接句子

 

 

 

連接詞的用法

 

快要死掉的潔西不想再繼續躺床上,因為還是蠻生氣的,所以繼續整理寫作時講到的連接詞的部分。fanboys 對等連接詞,for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 這些還好,但是關係連結詞 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor ,只要看到學生的文章出現後面這個關係連接詞頭就很痛,說百分之八十會用錯應該不誇張。

 

因為潔西教的都是比較初級的學生,當然還是有很好的程度的人蠻麻煩就不要對號入座說,老師我明明就沒寫錯,你怎麼可以這樣說我,哈哈。一樣前面廢文後面正文,另外還有不少的練習,文法跟寫作真的就是要清楚用法後,多做練習,多去看母語使用者用在哪裡,然後自己練習出來才能學起來。文法是語言的整理,不是先有文法才有語言的。所以不用死記文法,背了一堆規則卻不知道該用在哪或用錯。然後看到聽到跟上課老師講的文法不一樣的句子也不用太意外,語言是活的跟人一樣,聽歌聽多就知道了,就像沒有所有的人的國語都百分之百正確,說的標準,用字正確一樣的意思。

 

潔西很生氣的主要原因是今天是小寶的畢業典禮,然後潔西調了很多個鬧鐘因為早上八點要到,順便插話,畢業典禮為什麼都要在一早?整死誰啊?反正結果就是鬧鐘一直被潔西按掉,然後頭還大痛,想說再睡一下好了,再次醒來九點半,訊息問老姐,她說畢業典禮已經結束,在拍照,不用過去了。唉!大寶的畢業典禮那天也是頭痛到爆。畢業典禮症候群?頭痛已經很習慣了,但是像今天這樣這麼生氣還是第一次。氣自己還是氣偏頭痛啊?唉。

 

昨天才去跟醫生討論頭痛的問題,醫生有介紹另外一個醫生,潔西預掛幾個星期後,居然還 93 號,早上的門診 93號是要看到幾點?要幾點去啊?昨天其實頭好壯壯,下午看醫生,晚上跟同學吃飯,中間那段期間就去信義誠品混,研究學生教潔西的放空,找個地方坐下來,找本書,翻一翻就整個放空,本來帶了講義想說可以準備,但是覺得累,不想思考,就發呆發呆什麼都不想,還挺舒服的,能什麼都不想就腦袋一片空白也不錯,但是也不容易,對潔西這種人而言。時間也過得很快。晚上跟同學吃很久很想吃一直沒吃的泰國菜。四個人叫了七道菜再加上甜點,吃超飽,真好,難得食慾這麼好,最近都亂吃,也吃不下,常常水果就一餐,蛋糕也可以是一餐。

 

晚上回家不知為何超累,可能是因為星期六上課,星期天上課,星期天上課完後又去聽演奏會,星期一起床後還沒整理到前幾天的一團混亂又出門鬼混。而且回到家突然心情很差,最近不太想看新聞, Orlando Massacre 美國奧蘭多的大屠殺,有的是用 Shooting ,潔西覺得 Massacre 才貼切,49人死亡,53人受傷,潔西剛剛刷FB不小心看到很喜歡的 CNN 記者 Anderson Cooper 在報導相關新聞,第一句話就說他不打算說槍手的名字跟相關訊息,已經被報導的太多了,看過十一季,每季二十多集的犯罪心理美國影集的潔西完全明白他的意思。有不少的人做這樣的事只是想要出名留名,潔西看了這種新聞除了傷心外又生氣,唉,不想談這部分,最近還是遠離新聞比較好些。

 

突然想到前些日子寫的夜店迷思,更難過。潔西還去過一些 gay bar ,先前也寫過,去 foam party 泡泡派對的時候,在舞池旁的超好的帥哥同志還會幫潔西把沾在臉上的泡泡抹掉。有些無知的人又要攻擊去什麼夜店,跑什麼 gay bar ,對某些特定的族群的歧視跟種族的對立就是因為無知的人被利用被煽動,自以為做了正確的事,整個世界才會越來越糟。波斯頓馬拉松受到攻擊的人跟這些在 gay bar 被殺害的人有什麼不同呢?都是人生父母養的孩子啊!又要掉眼淚了。覺得學好英文多出去旅遊多看看世界開拓一下自己的心胸跟視野,當宅男宅女沒什麼不好,但是自己的思考模式價值觀是不是被媒體被特殊的人影響,有沒有在某個不知道的地方偏差掉了?好好用自己的腦子想想,大腦不用也會生鏽的啊!
回來偏頭痛,其實偏頭痛有時候有跡可循,有時候一整個莫名其妙,氣壓的變化已經是有被證實也會影響,所以就很怕突然好天氣突然下雨,一下冷一下熱這種天氣,醫生都知道這種時候病人就會多起來。然後潔西吃藥後的狀況也是時好時壞,頭痛通常會壓下來,只是時間問題,但是有時候吃完藥沒多久又頭好壯壯沒事般,有時候會像今天這樣全身沒力疲憊到不太能動,一整個覺得快要不行了,大概就是只能一直睡。今天一早起來還肩膀酸痛,腰酸背痛,一整個虛到爆。

 

一直睡會更氣,笑了,有時候好氣的?因為就會覺得一事無成啊,所以現在就是躺在椅子上,腳翹在床上跟桌上,把上星期上課的講義再整理分享一下,感覺比較沒有那麼廢,不會對自己那麼生氣。生氣也沒用的事,也不會改變任何事實,能做能改的就去改,對於不能改變的事就是接受,往前進,不用再回頭了,也不用想太多了。只是潔西狀況好的時候就會一直衝,然後完全失智,一直到掉下來,累啊!真的是該來躺一下了。連接詞還真的蠻重要的,用錯語意有時候就錯了。不難,只是容易用錯,尤其是 either … or, nerither … nor 這種。下面講點規則,做做練習應該希望會有點概念。

 

 

英文有八大詞類( the parts of speech)分別是動詞,名詞,代名詞,形容詞,副詞,連接詞,介系詞跟感歎詞。要學好英文,詞性非常重要。學到一個新單字的時候要先注意它的詞性,不同詞性的用法可能不同,適用於不同句型的句子。千萬不可以只是中翻英。

 

其中連接詞 conjunctions可以用來連接單字 (words)、片語 (phrases),子句 (clauses)或句子(sentences)。注意連接詞所連接的詞性必須一致。這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號,連接句子的時候則需要逗號。另外應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

 

連接詞可以分下面幾種

 

a 對等連接詞 coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, yet, so

It was raining, but they still went to the park.

 

b 從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunctions: if, before, because, when

Although John was sick, he still went to work.

 

c 關係連接詞 correlative conjunctions: either…or, neither…nor, both…and,

not only…but also

He’s the kind of person you either love or hate.

 

要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。這也是學生最常犯的錯誤之一,用逗號分開兩個獨立的句子,假如兩個句子關係密切可以用 ; 分號,但是絕對不可以用逗號,需要用對等連接詞來合併句子,形成並合句。

 

對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個:常用的是 and, but, so, or 其他還有 nor, for 跟yet。可用fanboys來記:for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 。潔西去紐約的學生放假回來台灣加強補文法,喔,這也是讓潔西印象深刻的同學,潔西幫她上一對一,她說她以為 fanboys 只是美國老師瞎掰,居然連潔西也這麼說,恩,其實寫作書上都有寫啦。

 

對她印象深刻是因為她只放假回來一個月就要回美國去了,所以時間很趕,很難改時間,潔西有一次幫她上一對一頭痛得很厲害,問說可不可以改時間,她沒辦法,所以潔西就撐著頭痛去上課,坐公車到捷運站一下車就吐得亂七八糟。到了補習班上課勉強上到一半又衝去廁所吐,後來真的上不下去不行,跟學生勉強又約了別的時候然後潔西坐計程車回家睡覺了。在文化推廣部上課的時候有一次也是,頭痛到爆,還有半個小時下課就忍不住衝出去教室去廁所狂吐,然後很抱歉地跟學生說下次再補回時間。頭痛真的是沒痛過的人不知道,這種還是不知道比較幸福。 Ignorance is bliss. 無知是種福氣,潔西又濫用成語了。

 

下面是幾個對等連接詞的用法,要記住什麼時候用的是哪一個,不要用錯了喔。

 

For 用來表原因:I am very tired, for I worked very hard today.

And 用來表達同等的概念:I am very tired, and I want to rest for a few minutes.

Nor 用來表達否定的選擇:I am not tired, nor am I hungry right now.

But 用來表達對比:I am tired, but I have no time to rest now.

Or 用來表達選擇:I will take a nap, or I will go out jogging.

Yet 用來表達對比:I will take a nap, yet I am unable to relax.

So 用來表達結果:I am tired, so I will take a nap.

 

Nor 的句子要特別注意的是,nor 本身有否定的意思,就不要再有 not 了,另外 nor 後面的句子要倒裝,就是要把助動詞放到主詞前面。

 

練習一:用對等連接詞 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 把下列句子合併成一個句子。

1 The shepherd has  cooperative flock of sheep.

They will cheerfully donate their wool.

 

2 The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo.

He is appreciated by the bull riders.

 

3 Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today.

You should get in line early.

 

4 Young Billy will surely get first prize in the science fair.

He has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

 

5 The aardvark does not make a good pet.

It gets rid of ants.

 

6 Are you comfortable?

Shall I turn on the air conditioner?

 

7 The couple liked their new house.

They didn’t like the spiders.

 

8 Children should not play with fire.

They should not play with power tools.

 

9 The entire junior class worked on the project.

Every member should be rewarded.

 

10 After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers.

He can’t remember the names to go with them.

 

 

配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 有四個:

both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor

 

這四個真的很致命,因為跟中文不太一樣的用法,很多人位置放錯,詞性用錯,主動詞一致沒用對。先說明他們的用法

 

1 both … and:用來強調就某件事,某個人,某種狀況來說,不光只是一個是真確的對另外

一個也是,也就是兩者皆…的意思

2 not only … but also:用來表達兩件都是真實或發生了的事情,特別是令人感到意外的

3 either … or:用來表達兩個或多個選項之一。或用在假如一件事沒發生,則另外一件事會

發生

4 neither … nor 用來表達兩者皆非,既不…也不…

 

所以要連接的時候就要想說,是要表達兩個都是相同的狀況,用 both … and 或強調的時候也可以用 not only … but also 。而兩個選一個的時候就用 either … or 。只有在要表達兩者皆非,兩個都不是的時候才會用 neither … nor 。

 

這些配對連接詞知道要選用哪一個後,要特別注意的是主動詞的一致。當主詞用這些配對連接詞連用時,both … and …  的動詞要用複數形,其他 not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor  的動詞則取決於動詞靠近的主詞。所以就記 both … and 因為有兩者,所以那個句子的動詞一定是複數形,而其他的三個用法的動詞就取決其靠近動詞的主詞。假如接近動詞的主詞是單數時則用單數的動詞,主詞是複數的時候則用複數動詞。

 

把下面的句子配合規則看過記一下再做下面練習題就會發現,其實也沒有那麼難喔。

 

Both my mother and my sister are here.

Not only my mother but also my sister is here.

Not only my sister but also my parents are here.

Neither my mother nor my sister is here.

Neither my sister nor my parents are here.

Either Mr. Lee or Ms. Lin is going to teach our class today.

 

練習二: a 練習 在空格中填入 is 或 are

1 Both the teacher and the student __________ here.

2 Neither the teacher nor the student __________ here.

3 Not only the teacher but also the student __________ here.

4 Not only the teacher but also the students __________ here.

5 Either the students or the teacher __________ planning to come.

6 Either the teacher or the students __________ planning to come.

7 Both the students and the teachers __________ planning to come.

8 Both the students and the teacher __________ planning to come.

 

 

練習三:b 改錯

1 Either John will call Mary or Bob.

2 Not only Sue saw the mouse but also the cat.

3 Both my mother talked to the teacher and my father.

4 Either Andy or Bobby are going to clean the room.

5 I enjoy not only reading novels but also magazines.

6 Oxygen is plentiful. Both air contains oxygen and water.

 

 

接下來是練習合併兩個句子,幾個重點

1 找出兩個句子的共同點

2 決定應該用的連接詞

3 把連接詞放在對等的字詞片語子句前面,兩邊的詞性一定要一樣

4 注意主動詞的一致,除了 both … and 連接主詞時用複數動詞外,其他的幾個連接主詞時,動詞都要依照接近的那個主詞的單複數一致。

 

不要用看的,真的,文法看不會的,沒有自己實際寫一寫,不會知道錯在哪裡,然後看得懂,要寫的時候卻又寫不出來,注意一下自己的學習方式,怎麼樣才最有效?潔西是聽說打字動感型的,看書看不下去的時候要用念的才會懂,不然就用打字的,看十分鐘可能在同一頁,但是打字或唸出來大概三五分鐘就可以理解,每個人不同,找出適合自己的方法吧!

 

答案都在最後面

 

練習四:c 合併句子

用 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor 來連接或改寫下面的句子

1 He does not have a pen.

He does not have paper.

 

2 Ron enjoys bungee jumping.

Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

 

3 You can have tea, or you can have coffee.

 

4 Jamie is not in class today.

Lucy is not in class today.

 

5 Ken is absent.

David is absent.

 

6 We can fix dinner for them here, or we can take them to a restaurant.

 

7 She wants to buy a Mercedes Benz or she wants to buy a BMW.

 

8 The leopard faces extinction. The tiger faces extinction.

 

9 The library doesn’t have the book I need.

The bookstore doesn’t have the book I need.

 

10 We could fly, or we could take the train.

 

11 The president’s assistant will not confirm the story.

The president’s assistant will not deny the story.

 

12 Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

 

13 Smallpox is a dangerous disease.

Malaria is a dangerous disease.

 

14 Her roommates don’t know where she is.

Her brother doesn’t know where she is.

 

15 According to the news report, it will snow tonight, or it will rain tonight.

 

 

 

 

答案在下面,不要偷看不要偷看不要偷看,很重要,所以要說三次,有空的時候自己練習一下再對答案吧!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

練習一:用對等連接詞 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 把下列句子合併成一個句子。

1 The shepherd has cooperative flock of sheep.

They will cheerfully donate their wool.

The shepherd has cooperative flock of sheep, and they will cheerfully donate their wool.

 

2 The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo.

He is appreciated by the bull riders.

The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo, but he is appreciated by the bull riders.

 

3 Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today.

You should get in line early.

Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today, so you should get in line early.

 

4 Young Billy will surely get first prize in the science fair.

He has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

Young Bill will surely get first prize in the science fair, for he has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

 

5 The aardvark does not make a good pet.

It gets rid of ants.

The aardvark does not make a good pet, yet it gets rid of ants.

 

6 Are you comfortable?

Shall I turn on the air conditioner?

Are you comfortable or shall I turn on the air conditioner?

 

 

7 The couple liked their new house.

They didn’t like the spiders.

The couple liked their new house, but they didn’t like the spiders.

 

8 Children should not play with fire.

They should not play with power tools.

Children should not play with fire, nor should they play with power tools.

 

9 The entire junior class worked on the project.

Every member should be rewarded.

The entire junior class worked on the project , so every remember should be rewarded.

 

10 After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers.

He can’t remember the names to go with them.

After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers, but he can’t remember the names to go with them.

 

 

練習二: a 練習 在空格中填入 is 或 are

1 Both the teacher and the student are here.

 

2 Neither the teacher nor the student is here.

 

3 Not only the teacher but also the student is here.

 

4 Not only the teacher but also the students are here.

 

5 Either the students or the teacher is planning to come.

 

6 Either the teacher or the students are planning to come.

 

7 Both the students and the teachers are planning to come.

 

8 Both the students and the teacher are planning to come.

 

 

 

練習三:b 改錯

1 Either John will call Mary or Bob.

John will call either Mary or Bob.  / Either John or Mary will call Bob.

 

2 Not only Sue saw the mouse but also the cat.

Sue not only saw the mouse but also the cat.

 

3 Both my mother talked to the teacher and my father.

Both my mother and my father talked to the teacher.

 

4 Either Andy or Bobby are going to clean the room.

Either Andy or Bobby is going to clean the room.

 

5 I enjoy not only reading novels but also magazines.

I enjoy not only reading novels but also reading magazines.

 

6 Oxygen is plentiful. Both air contains oxygen and water.

Oxygen is plentiful. Air contains both oxygen and water.

 

 

 

練習四:c 合併句子

用 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor 來連接或改寫下面的句子

1 He does not have a pen.

He does not have paper.

He has neither a pen nor paper.

(He doesn’t not have a pen or paper)

 

2 Ron enjoys bungee jumping.

Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

Both Ron and Bob enjoy bungee jumping.

Not only Ron but also Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

 

3 You can have tea, or you can have coffee.

You can have either tea or coffee.

 

4 Jamie is not in class today.

Lucy is not in class today.

Neither Jamie nor Lucy is in class today.

Not only Jamie but also Lucy is absent.

 

5 Ken is absent.

David is absent.

Both Ken and David are absent.

 

 

6 We can fix dinner for them here, or we can take them to a restaurant.

We can either fix dinner for them here or take them to a restaurant.

 

7 She wants to buy a Mercedes Benz or she wants to buy a BMW.

She wants to buy either a Mercedes Benz or BMW.

 

8 The leopard faces extinction. The tiger faces extinction.

Both the leopard and the tiger face extinction.

 

9 The library doesn’t have the book I need.

The bookstore doesn’t have the book I need.

Neither the library nor the bookstore has the book I need.

 

10 We could fly, or we could take the train.

We could either fly or take the train.

 

11 The president’s assistant will not confirm the story.

The president’s assistant will not deny the story.

The president’s assistant will neither confirm nor deny the story.

 

12 Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Both coal and oil are irreplaceable natural resources.

Not only coal but also oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

 

13 Smallpox is a dangerous disease.

Malaria is a dangerous disease.

Both smallpox and malaria are dangerous diseases.

 

14 Her roommates don’t know where she is.

Her brother doesn’t know where she is.

Neither her roommates nor her brother knows where she is.

 

15 According to the news report, it will snow tonight, or it will rain tonight.

According to the news report, it will either snow or rain tonight.

 

進階文法L8 第十六章,第十九章 連接詞

這是Azar的Understanding and Using English Grammar的第十六章跟第十九章的重點整理。潔西今天不小心修修改改又弄了一天,怎麼一下子天就黑了,真的是粉會摸啊!早上被吵醒,做點scone比斯吉,然後磨個咖啡豆,打個奶泡,做了三個口味的比斯吉加上黑糖拿鐵,還上傳照片到FB才九點不到,然後開始備課,真的是會摸會拖會改,一整天下來,下午昏迷了不到十分鐘,然後繼續用咖啡跟比斯吉撐,一邊吃比斯吉,一邊覺得,恩,真的很好吃耶,呵呵,就一個老王啊XD

這篇的重點的是希望給同學一個概念,從八個詞性,五個基本句型,三種子句的簡述,四種句子的句型,有了概念後就會知道要如何來連接句子,也比較可以寫出正確的文章。其實也就是整個英文大致上的基本架構,一直以來講了很多文法都是一部份一部份,見樹不見林,可因為這東西很多,每次一講起來同學就暈倒,沒有點概念的聽了可能會一個頭兩個大,今天改了一些,希望可以清楚一點,其實今天主要在說的是怎麼樣把詞性跟做正確的句子的聯結,潔西覺得還是不是寫的很好,但目前也就只能寫到這兒,不然頭又要痛起來了,喝喝。

再次聲明歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但是請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血, 尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:)  又今天摘要使用的練習題來自下面的書,所有版權屬原公司所有。摘自Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar

A. 文章的元素

letter – word – phrase – clause – sentence – paragraph – essay

1. letter 字母:英文有二十六個"字母" ,如”b”

2. word 單字: 一個或一個以上的字母組合就形成單字,如”a”, “book”

3. phrase 片語:兩個以上單字形成片語,有動詞、名詞、形容詞與副詞片語。如“get up”

4. clause 子句: 有一組主詞與動詞與其他必要部分就叫一個子句。

非獨立子句independent clause:子句中有主詞,有動詞,但語意不完整,無法單獨成為

一個完整的句子,一定要要再加上一個主要子句才可。

如: Before I go to bed

獨立子句dependent clause:子句中有主詞,有動詞,語義完整。相當於一個句子。

如: I brush my teeth.

5. sentence 句子: 一個句子有主詞,有動詞,語義完整。一個非獨立子句可以跟一個獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

如:I brush my teeth before I go to bed.

三種非獨立子句都可以與獨立子句結合成完整的句子。

  1. noun clause 名詞子句 I don’t think that’s a good idea.
  2. adjective clause 形容詞子句 I like the cafe which we went yesterday.
  3. adverb clause 副詞子句  If you don’t study hard, you will fail the exam.

6. paragraph 段落:幾個句子就形成一個段落。每個段落都有一個主旨,短的段落可能只有一句,長的可以到十句或更多。常見的段落模式如下

  1. topic sentence 主題句,用來說明段落大意
  2. supporting sentences 支持句,用來闡述說明主題
  3. concluding sentence  結論句,用來結尾

7. essay 文章   幾個有組織的段落就形成一篇文章

B. 八大詞類( the parts of speech)               

要學好英文,詞性非常重要。學到一個新單字的時候要先注意它的詞性,不同詞性的用法可能不同,適用於不同句型的句子。千萬不可以只是中翻英。

翻譯這兩個句子:

他對小孩子沒耐心。 He has no patience with kids. / He is not patient with kids.

我對英文很有興趣。 I’m interested in English. / I have an interest in English.

每個英文單字都可以歸類為英文的八大詞類之一。同一個字可能有好幾種不同的詞性。如: Love is in the air. 與 I love you. 這兩個句子中love 分別是名詞與動詞。同一個字的詞性不同時,意義也可能不同。如:在The exam was really hard.中這個句子的hard是形容詞,表示困難的。work hard, play hard這個片語的hard是副詞,表示程度上很努力地做某事。所以記單字時要一併把詞性跟用法記住才能寫出與說出正確的句子。

八大詞類( the parts of speech) 

分別是動詞,名詞,代名詞,形容詞,副詞,連接詞,介系詞跟感歎詞。

1. 動詞 (verbs):

用來描述一個動作或狀態的字。在英文當中可說是最重要也最困難的。一般放在主詞的後面。英文用動詞來表達時態,主動被動。動詞主要分三種。

a. 行為動詞:用來表達主詞的行為或動作。又可分

(a.)不及物動詞 intransitive verb

不及物動詞表達主詞所作的動作,後面不需要受詞。

Time flies. / Time flies when you’re having fun.

My father shaves. / My father shaves every morning before he goes to work.

(b.)及物動詞 transitive verb

及物動詞把主詞的動作轉移到另外一個名詞,也就是受詞的身上,所以及物動詞後

面一定有一個接受動作的受詞。有些特別的動詞(授與動詞)會有兩個受詞。

He bought a diamond engagement ring.

He bought a diamond engagement ring for his girlfriend last night.

Tim ate three hamburgers.

Tim ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

b. 連綴動詞 linking verb

連綴動詞經常用來表達狀態,或一些小動作。連綴動詞把主詞動詞後面的主詞補語連

接在一起。主詞補語通常是名詞或形容詞。主詞補語為名詞時,會等於主詞。主詞補

語為形容詞是用來修飾主詞。

I feel sick.  / You look tired.

My mother is a housewife.

c. 助動詞 auxiliary verb

助動詞與主要動詞合併起來成為一個動詞片語,用來表達時態或語態等。

The band is coming to Taiwan next month.

He didn’t go to school yesterday.

I can’t swim.

動詞: 動詞的四個面貌:動詞依時態不同會有不同的面貌

  1. Present (V1) 動詞原型: I work from nine to five.
  2. Past (V2) 動詞過去式: I worked late last night.
  3. Past Participle (V3) 動詞過去分詞: I have worked hard.
  4. Present Participle (V-ing) 動詞現在分詞: I am working now.

2. 名詞 (nouns):名詞用來表達人、事、物、地等。英文句子的構成要件就是主詞跟動詞。名詞用來當主詞、受詞與補語。名詞當主詞時放在句首,當受詞與補語時放在動詞後面。主詞一定要是名詞,所以當要表達的字是動詞時,必須把動詞加上ing成為動名詞或加上不定詞to。名詞可以接在其他詞類後形成片語。只有形容詞才可以用來修飾名詞。

如:Peter, Taipei, table, truth..等。

Albert is a nice guy.

Barack Obama is the current President of the United States.

Baking and swimming are my hobbies.

B. 八大詞類( the parts of speech) 

3. 代名詞 (pronouns):是用來取代名詞的字。前面已經提過的名詞或是說話的人彼此都知道的名詞都可用代名詞代替。主要是避免重複。用法與主詞雷同。

如:you, him, herself, everyone, this, which, what…等。

Will you give me your name and phone number?

My father is very tall. He’s one meter 85.

4. 形容詞 (adjectives):用來形容、描述、說明一個名詞或代名詞。形容詞多放在修飾的名詞前或放在連綴動詞後。用時注意形容詞有表達正面的跟表達負面的形容詞,另外有比較級,有最高級。

如:hot, Taiwanese, her, that, some, whose…

The most popular Taiwanese drink is probably pearl milk tea.

The coffee tastes bitter.

5. 副詞 (adverbs):用來修飾動詞、形容詞,副詞,或整個句子,表達程度,次數,頻率等等。副詞不可以修飾名詞。副詞的移動性很高,常放在動詞後,形容詞前,也可放句首或句尾。不同的副詞按照強調的部分不同,可放不同地方,意義也會有所不同。頻率副詞多放一般動詞前,be動詞後。

如:always, usually, sometimes, quickly, late, very…等。

Fortunately, she won the lottery.

It’s appropriate not to take your shoes off at the door.

not為副詞,修飾to take your shoes off at the door,意思是在門口不脫鞋是恰當的。

在有些國家,鞋子可以直接穿進屋子裡,所以在門口不用脫鞋子,這是合宜的做法。

It’s not appropriate to take your shoes off at the door.

not 為副詞,修飾appropriate,意思是在門口脫鞋是不恰當的。

在台灣,可以在門口脫鞋子,可是在有些國家,把門口把鞋子脫掉卻是不合宜的做法。

It’s okay not to take medicine.  不吃藥沒關係。

It’s not OK to take medicine.     吃藥是不可以的。

6. 連接詞 (conjunctions):用來連接單字 (words)、片語 (phrases)或子句 (clauses)。注意連接詞所連接的詞性必須一致。

  1. 對等連接詞 coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, yet, so
  2. 從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunctions: if, before, because, when
  3. 關係連接詞 correlative conjunctions: either…or, neither…nor, both…and,  whether…or, not only…but also

It was raining, but they still went to the park.

Although John was sick, he still went to work.

He’s the kind of person you either love or hate.

B. 八大詞類( the parts of speech)

7. 介係詞 (prepositions):用來表達兩件事物的關係,如位置、方向、空間、時間或因果等。後面一定要加名詞,代名詞或動名詞結合成介係詞片語。

如:about, around, in, on under, of, under, with, between, for… 等。

He arrived in London on Sunday morning.

I get up at 7 o’clock from Monday to Friday.

I’m looking forward to seeing you.

8. 感嘆詞 (interjections):用來表達強烈的情緒或驚訝。

如:oh, wow, yeah, ouch…等。

Oh! I didn’t know that was you.

Wow! It’s unbelievable.

Ouch! You stepped on my foot!

閱讀下列短文,寫出每個詞性的前三個字,不要重複。

Tom thinks Mary is wonderful. He loves her madly, and he dreams of marrying her,

but unfortunately he is too old for her. Today they are at a café with their friends

Mandy and Jack, so Tom can’t get romantic with Mary.

  1. 動詞verb:
  2. 名詞noun:
  3. 代名詞pronoun:
  4. 形容詞adjective:
  5. 副詞adverb:
  6. 連接詞conjunction:
  7. 介系詞preposition:

五大基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns)  

英文有五個基本句型,但是這些句型會加上其他的詞性或子句而形成不同的句型。先記

住基本的句型概念,在解讀句子跟選擇詞性方面都會比較容易。也比較容易寫出正確的

句子。就像蓋房子,先打好地基,再把房子一層層往上蓋會比較容易。

英文是主動詞的語言。就是一個句子至少都要有要有一個主詞,一個動詞。

動詞分a. 行為動詞(action verbs)與b. 連綴動詞 (linking verbs)。

a. 行為動詞:用來描述主詞的動作或狀態:

(a.) 及物動詞 (transitive verbs):此類動詞的後面一定要接受詞,受詞可為人或物。這

概念與中文不太一樣。中文可以說我喜歡,英文不可說I like. 因為like是及物動詞,

後面一定要加受詞。

(b.)非及物動詞 (intransitive verbs):此類動詞的後面不接受詞。

b. 連綴動詞:用來連接主詞與主詞補語,表狀態,其後通常接名詞或形容詞。

S主詞,V動詞,O受詞,SC主詞補語,OC受詞補語,IO間接受詞,DO直接受詞

Sentence Patterns Examples
1. S + V Time flies.
2. S + V + O I love you.
3. S + V + SC You are late.
4. S + V + IO + DO He wrote her a letter.
5. S + V + O + OC We elected Tom class leader.

1. S + V (主詞 Subject + 不及物動詞Intransitive Verb)

因為不及物動詞後不須加受詞,所以只要有主詞與不及物動詞就可以表達一個完整的句

子。但是英文句子一般不會只有兩個字,而會加上修飾語來修飾。

Peter shaves every morning.

The children are dancing happily.

2. S + V + O (主詞 Subject + 及物動詞 Transitive Verb + 直接受詞 Direct Object

及物動詞後要有接受動作的對象,所以一定要加受詞。受詞可以是人也可以是物。

Andrew calls his girlfriend every day.

My mother cleans the house twice a week.

3. S + V + SC (主詞Subject + 連綴動詞 Linking Verb + 主詞補語 Subjective Complement)

連綴動詞是連接主詞語主詞補語的橋樑。補語主要是用來補充說明。主詞補語可為名詞或形容詞,用來說明或描述主詞。

Nancy is a housewife.

The boy became angry.

4. S + Vt + IO + DO = S + Vt + DO + Preposition + IO

(主詞 Subject + 及物動詞 Transitive Verb + 間接受詞 Indirect Object + 直接受詞 Direct Object

=主詞 Subject + 及物動詞 Transitive Verb + 直接受詞 Direct Object + 介係詞 Preposition +

間接受詞 Indirect Object)

有些及物動詞比較特殊,這些動詞又叫授與動詞。授與動詞有兩個受詞,一個為間接受詞,多為人,另一個為直接受詞,多為物。當動詞後先接直接受詞時要加上介係詞才再加上間接受詞。

The secretary made the boss a cup of coffee.

= The secretary made a cup of coffee for the boss.

Kenny bought his wife a diamond ring.

= Kenny bought a diamond ring for his wife.

5. S + V + O + OC

(主詞 Subject + 及物動詞 Transitive Verb + 直接受詞 Direct Object + 受詞補語 Objective Complement)

少數的特殊及物動詞後即使加了受詞,語意還是不完整所以還要再加上受詞補語來讓語意完整。受詞補語可以是名詞或形容詞。這些特殊動詞不多,常用的記住就可以了。如:elect, vote, appoint, consider, label, designate, name, prove, declare, think, call, believe, pronounce…等。

The voters elected Ma Ying-jeou president.

The students considered the class interesting.

將下列句子的主詞、動詞、受詞、補語等標出,並決定該句子為五大句型中的哪一個句型。

1. He writes his girlfriend a love letter every day.

2. My mom enjoys cooking for our family.

3. She bought a necklace for her mother.

4. She felt her heart beating fast.

5. She sells seashells on the seashore.

6. The baby has been crying for an hour.

7. The coffee smells good.

8. The judge proved the woman innocent.

9. Time flies quickly.

10. Time is money.

D. 子句的種類  types of clauses 

子句有三種,分名詞子句、形容詞子句跟副詞子句。

1. 名詞子句noun clause:整個子句當名詞用,不是當句子的主詞就是受詞。

2. 形容詞子句adjective clause:整個子句當形容詞用,一定是用來修飾名詞。

3. 副詞子句adverb clause:整個子句當副詞用,像時間子句,條件子句等都是副詞子句,整個子句當副詞用,用來修飾動詞或整個句子。

1. 名詞子句 noun clause

I   think  that Jessie  is  a crazy teacher.

(    S            V                           )    —noun clause

S    V                 O

That the earth  is  round  is   true.

(         S             V          )                   —noun clause

S                       V   SC

I don’t know where she lives.

(            S   V  )                 —noun clause

S    V              O

名詞子句放在最前面帶領子句的有that,whether,if,疑問詞what、when、where、who等。that除了在句首外一般可以省略,其他的疑問詞等則不可省。

2. 形容詞子句 adjective clause

The book  which  I  read  last night  was  great.

(         S   V                    )             —adjective clause

S                                                 V    SC

I  like  movies   that  make  me laugh.

(  S     V                   )         —adjective clause

S  V    O

I’ll never forget the day when I  got married.

(        S   V              )        —adjective clause

S        V       O

形容詞子句又叫關係子句。而放在最前面帶領形容詞子句的字就叫做關係代名詞,如that、what、who、when、where、whose等。通常做為受詞的關係代名詞如which、whom、that,可以省略,可是在限定子句時又不能省。名詞與副詞子句都有who、what、where這些疑問詞,所以容易混淆。其實只要注意子句本身的功能與修飾的對象,應該就可以分得很清楚了。

D. 子句的種類  types of clauses

3. 副詞子句 adverb clause

He ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

(              S   V                     )     –adverb clause

S  V        O

If you don’t have enough money, you can give it to me next time.

(     S       V                              )               –adverb clause

S     V

He was talking on the phone while he was driving.

(       S       V          )              –adverb clause

S          V

副詞子句一般是大家最熟悉的,種類也最多。副詞子句可以用來表達時間、因果、對比、條件、讓步等等。副詞子句最前面帶領子句的字叫做從屬連接詞subordinating conjunctions,是用來連接主要子句跟副詞子句的橋樑。

當主要子句在前面時,因為很清楚的可以知道副詞子句是由從屬連接詞開始,所以不需要逗號,如第一與第三句。而當副詞子句在句首時,要有一個逗號清楚地把副詞子句跟主要子句隔開來,如第二個句子。當然這些從屬連接詞是都不能省略的囉。

例外:

當while表示對比,或者是though, 或although在中間時,也會有逗號,但是其他連接詞在中間時,則不需要逗號。

Schools in the north tend to be better equipped, while those in the south are relatively poor.

I thought he’d been drinking, though I wasn’t completely sure.

You can copy down my answers, although I’m not sure they’re right.

E. 句子的種類 types of sentences

四個句子的種類

1. simple sentences 簡單句

I love beef.

2. compound sentences 並和句

I love beef, but I hate pork.

3. complex sentences 複合句

Although I love beef, I hate pork.

4.compound-complex sentences 混合句

My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a day.

1. 簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,但整體視為

一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

2. 並合句是由對等連接詞(and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet,可以用fanboys記)將兩個獨立

子句連接而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.

3. 複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(如because, although, when, before等)所帶

領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。可能包

含了一個名詞子句,或形容詞子句,或副詞子句。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

I can’t believe she is only 17.

4. 混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句形成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did

nothing.

轉折語Transitional signals       

要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。

1. 對等詞 coordinators

對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個,可用fanboys來記:  and, but, so, or, nor, for, yet

b.  配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 有五個:

both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor,

whether … or。

這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

Would you rather take a written or an oral exam?

The system is not only complicated but also inefficient.

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句, 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

S + V, CC S + V.

I was feeling hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

2. 從屬詞subordinator

從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction 是帶領副詞子句的連接詞,如although, when, while, before, after, because, if, as, 等。

它會放在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

SC + S + V, S + V.     or    S + V + SC + S + V.

Because I was feeling hungry, I made myself a sandwich.

I made myself a sandwich because I was hungry.

3. 轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

S + V; CA, S + V.       or    S + V. CA, S + V.

I was feeling hungry; therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. Therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. I made myself a sandwich, therefore.

I was feeling hungry. I, therefore, made myself a sandwich.

4. 其他others

有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語如in addition to,動詞如cause等也可以用來表示轉折語。這些次沒有特定的標點符號規則,必須注意前後的字詞的用法。

An additional reason for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

G. 轉折語列表 Chart of Transition Signals                

用法 1. 對等詞 2. 從屬詞 3. 轉折語 4. 其他
additional idea

附加

and

nor

also

besides

furthermore

in addition

moreover

too

another

an additional

compare things

比較

and

both…and

not only …

but also

neither…

nor

as

just as

also

likewise

similarly

too

as…as

like/alike

just like

similar to

be alike

be similar

opposite idea

contrast things

相反

對比

but

yet

although

even though

though

whereas

while

however

nevertheless

nonetheless

on the other

hand

on the contrary

in contrast

instead

in/by comparison

still

despite

in spite of

compared to

compared with

differ from

be different

be dissimilar

be unlike

alternative

選擇

or if

unless

otherwise
cause or reason

理由或原因

for because

since

as

due to

because of

result from

as a result of

effect or result

影響或結果

so thus

hence

therefore

accordingly

as a result

as a consequence

consequently

result in

cause

affect

the cause of

the reason for

example

舉例

for example

for instance

such as

like

an example of

chronological order

時間順序

first, second,

first of all

then, next

now, then, soon

last, finally

meanwhile

gradually

after that

since then

the first

the next

the last

the final

before lunch

after the war

since 1999

explain and restate

解釋或陳述

indeed

that is

emphasize

強調

in fact
order of importance

重要性

above all

first and foremost

most importantly

primarily

the most important

the primary

to conclude

結論

all in all

in brief

in conclusion

in short

in summary

indeed

It is clear

that…

We can see

that..

The evidence   suggests that…

上面的表格提供在連接句子時可以用的字的參考,一定要按照每個字的用法不同,比方說是對等連接詞,從屬連接詞,與轉折語,或其他用字,正確連接兩個句子。

1.  對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句,連接詞一 定放在兩個句子中間。

It is an old car, but it is very reliable.

2. 從屬連接詞帶領非獨立子句來連接另一個 獨立子句,從屬連接詞在句首句子

需要逗號分開,在句中則不需要。

Although I can’t help admiring the man’s courage, I do not approve of

his methods.

This is my responsibility, although I appreciate your offer.

3. 轉折字或連接副詞用來連接兩個獨立子句時,需用分號把子句分開。或可連

接兩個句子。

This is a cheap and simple process. However, there are dangers.

though跟although的用法相同,但though比較非正式。even though跟although相似,但是even though語氣比較強烈。

  1. Exercise

a. Complete the report by putting in correct linking words (but, although, however, even though, in spite of, and despite). There is always more than one possible answer.

1____________ the ground was very wet, it was decided to go ahead with United’s game against City. United were 1-0 winners 2______________ not playing very well.   3____________ the poor conditions, City played some attractive football, 4____________ they just couldn’t score.  5. _______________  they lost, their fans gave the a big cheer.

b. Put in these words: although, because, due to, if, in case, in order to, in spite of, so, so that, unless

  1. __________ it was late, Nick didn’t seem in a hurry to leave.
  2. They put video cameras in shops _____________ stop people stealing things.
  3. We decided to go out for a meal ____________ we were simply too tired.
  4. _____________ you’re ready, we can start now.
  5. Our room was very small, ____________ we didn’t really mind.
  6. No one was watching the television, ______________ I switched it off.
  7. You can’t drive a car ______________ you’ve got a license.
  8. ______________ having absolutely no talent, Guy became a popular TV personality.
  9. I think my answer are right, but can I just check them with yours ___________.
  10. The road was closed ________________ an accident.
  11. Olivia booked a babysitter ______________ she could go out for the evening.

Answer Key

  1. 八大詞類( the parts of speech)
  1. 動詞verb: thinks, is, loves
  2. 名詞noun: Tom, Mary, café
  3. 代名詞pronoun: He, her, they
  4. 形容詞adjective: wonderful, old, romantic
  5. 副詞adverb: madly, unfortunately, too
  6. 連接詞conjunction: and, but, so
  7. 介系詞preposition: of, for, at

五大基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns) 

1. He writes his girlfriend a love letter every day.

S  +  V      +   IO             + DO

2. My mom enjoys cooking for our family.

S         + V      +  O

3. She bought a necklace for her mother.

S     + V      + DO        + prep  +  IO

4. She felt her heart beating fast.

S   + V    + O           + OC

5. She sells seashells on the seashore.

S   + V    +  O

6. The baby has been crying for an hour.

S                + V

7. The coffee smells good.

S           + V     + SC

8. The judge proved the woman innocent.

S         + V          + O          + OC

9. Time flies quickly.

S     + V

10. Time is money.

S    + V + SC

H. Exercise 

a.

1. Although    2. in spite of / despite   3. In spite of / Despite    4. but / although / though   5. Even though / although / though

b.

1. Although   2. in order to   3. because   4. If    5. but   6. so  7. unless  8. In spite of  9. in case   10. due to   11. so that

中高寫作第七課 比較與對比 題目與答案

今天潔西去代課,代寫作課,有點緊張,也不是沒上過,也不是第一次上,但是呢有一陣子沒上課了,所以還是花了不少時間復習,整理跟準備,有一點點緊張,因為老實說東區的課不是很好代,怎麼說呢?因為可能學生要求比較高?還是比較率性?代過幾次課,有時候老師沒跟學生說,有時候學生上不習慣,上課上到一半,或是下課的時候就直接走人,毫不留情,所以老師要心臟很強才承受得住。先前就有代過課,下課的時候學生走掉一堆,啊!大受打擊。還好主管都很能體諒。

 

今天的寫作課,自己備完課覺得應該大致上還可以,大部分講課本然後補充一點練習部分,主要是上比較與對比的段落,然後還有轉折語,有一陣子沒講了,所以剛好再復習一下。其實每個老師上法不同,上完課才知道代的是一個非常資深而且很受歡迎的老師的課,還好上課前不知道,不然壓力更大,呵呵。雖然潔西也是老鳥。不過今天的課潔西是自己上的挺high的,因為同學也都還算配合,很認真的學生,中間下課離開的學生不多,還好,下課後同學說有點快,啊,我的步調通常很快,說話也快,不過希望同學都有收獲。然而潔西的課程跟往常一樣,還是上不完,補充練習的講義有兩頁的答案原本想說可以寫在黑板讓同學對,不過因為接下來有課只好心虛的跟學生說請學生google潔西家,上來找。(其實昨天才在跟同學說有些代課老師都會自我推薦,給學生課表時間拉學生上課,給完部落格馬上想到,冤枉啊,呵呵,潔西現在,恩,沒有課,呵呵,所以沒有拉課嫌疑,只是要給學生答案,呵呵)總之寫完雜記後放在最後面,有興趣的同學也可以看看做做練習。

 

晚上第一次上線上學習課程,剛開始也有點緊張有點壓力,看不到同學,非常的不同,肢體語言有限,只能盡量說慢一點說清楚一點,給多一點的例子。而且主管有交待,要把內容上完,所以呢有點趕,不過同學非常的認真用心,潔西也慢慢放鬆,上的還挺開心的,潔西上完今天的課,走去坐公車的時候腳有點要抽筋的樣子,太虛了,而且快說不出話來,不過呢非常的開心,上課是件開心的事,而且潔西發現自己自high功力好像越來越高了,呵呵,這樣也不錯,上課本來就是要開開心心才學的多學得快,希望同學沒被我嚇到。不過呢上完10點到11點的課,回到家就12點了。三更半夜,肚子餓吃個消夜,看個電視,啊,居然剛好看到在加拿大看得CSI紐約,我在加拿大一個月其實電視看的不多,CSI也只有看到這一集,真的很巧,剛剛電視轉開就看到這一集。

 

吃得飽飽的,來把題目跟答案寫一下,然後就該睡了,想練習的人可以先自己做一下喔。答案在後面

下面是從某本寫作還是文法書裡面摘要出來的,主要再說比較跟對比,在寫作或說話表達的時候都非常的有用,同學可以先看一下例子,再做題目。有些用法不是很清楚的人可以再看一下文法連接詞的講義的連接詞之轉折語,跟寫作第七課的 Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs 有問題在問我:)

 

P3

Comparative and contrastive structures

Using comparative structures  使用比較結構,比較是比相同的,所以這邊是一些比相同東西的用法。最前面是一些常用字,後面是例子跟用法。

and: The man and the woman are tall.

both: Both of the tables have broken legs.

both…and: Both my neighbor and I are selling our cars.

also: The stores are closing for the holiday. The bank is also closing.

too: Kathy is planning to go to the party, and I am, too.

neither…nor: Neither Joe nor Steve went to the meeting last night.

similar to: Their new computer is similar to the one my brother bought.

the same as: Is the restaurant where you had dinner the same as the place where I ate last month?

(just) as + adjective + as: His coat is just as warm as the more expensive one.

likewise: My parents were born in a small village. Likewise, my brothers and I also grew up in a small town.

similarly: There are many parks to visit in that city. Similarly, there are several parks in my hometown, too.

 

3. complete these sentences with phrases from above.  這個練習要填入上面適當的詞語,一題可能有幾個不同的答案都可以

a. The architecture of some modern government buildings is ______________ the type of construction used hundreds of years ago.

b. In recent years, new technology such as cellular telephones has made life more convenient. ______________, the Internet has made a wide variety of information available to everyone.

c. __________ the rivers __________ the lakes are clear and beautiful.

d. The capital city is just ___________ modern __________ the cities in many other countries.

 

P.4

Using contrastive structures   使用對比結構,下面的字是用在對比,比較不同點

These words and phrases are used for writing contrasts:

more/less + adjective/adverb + than: Eating out is usually more expensive than cooking at home.

adjective + er + than: My bedroom is bigger than my sister’s room.

but, while, though: I enjoy eating fruit for dessert, but/while/though my friend likes chocolate.

not the same as: This book isn’t the same as the one you bought.

not as … as: Some people feel that doing exercise isn’t as fun as watching TV.

different from: That style of shirt is different from the styles most people wear.

in contrast: The lake was swam in were very clean and beautiful. In contrast, the lakes in my country are polluted.

however: The new store sells its clothing at low prices. However, other stores have better quality clothing.

on the other hand: My boyfriend likes to play sports. On the other hand, I prefer to do yoga.

 

4. Complete these sentences with phrases from above.  這個練習要填入上面適當的詞語,一題可能有幾個不同的答案都可以

a. Some tourists enjoy taking part in a tour group, ___________ many other tourists prefer traveling on their own.

b. The two books are very __________ each other.

c. The cost of studying in a college or university in the United States is very high. ___________, in many other countries, the cost is much lower.

d. Changes in technology are occurring ______________ quickly _______________ in the past.

 

解答:(不要作弊,全部做完再看喔!假如錯很多的話,就全部劃掉,再重做一次吧!又,畫斜線/是表示兩個答案都可以)

3. complete these sentences with phrases from above.

a. The architecture of some modern government buildings is the same as/similar to the type of construction used hundreds of years ago.

b. In recent years, new technology such as cellular telephones has made life more convenient.  Likewise/Similarly, the Internet has made a wide variety of information available to everyone.

c. Both/Neither  the rivers and/nor  the lakes are clear and beautiful.

d. The capital city is just  as  modern  as  the cities in many other countries.

 

 

4. Complete these sentences with phrases from above.

a. Some tourists enjoy taking part in a tour group,  while/though/but  many other tourists prefer traveling on their own.

b. The two books are very  different from  each other.

c. The cost of studying in a college or university in the United States is very high.  On the other hand/In contrast/However,  in many other countries, the cost is much lower.

d. Changes in technology are occurring not as/more  quickly   as/than in the past.

 

方便同學下載,點入就可以看到文件,我睡覺去,大家晚安

題目跟解答的 Google 文件

表達時間的介系詞,連接詞,副詞

表達時間的介系詞,連接詞,副詞

  1. for後面加一段時間(an hour, three days, five months, a long time)

I lived there for six years.

I studied for 2 hours.

  1. in後面加一個特定的時間點,如月份,年,季節(January, 2010, spring)

We moved in February.

He graduated in 2009.

  1. on後面加一個特定的時間點,如星期,節慶,特定日期( Saturday, weekend, Mother’s Day)

They went dancing on Monday.

I had a big party on my birthday.

  1. from … to …表示從一個時間點到另一個時間點(hour, month, year)

between… and… 在…之間

They traveled in France from March to May.

I worked from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m. yesterday.

From Monday to Friday, I get up at 7, so I always sleep in on weekends.

Between Monday and Friday, I get up at 7.

  1. 時間表達語+ ago 表示多久前(a week ago, seven years ago)

My family moved to Canada five years ago.

I ate lunch ten minutes ago.

  1. until + 子句(主詞加動詞)+ 特定的時間點 表示直到….

I lived in Tainan until I was seven.

He waited until she had finished speaking.

until + 一個特定的時間

We lived there until 1999.

not until 強調一直到某個時間點前某件事都沒有發生或結束

She didn’t get up until noon.

He didn’t show up for work until 10 a.m.

  1. then + 子句或句子(主詞加動詞)

I lived in Tainan. Then I moved to Taipei.

I lived in Tainan, and then I moved to Taipei.

  1. when +子句(主詞加動詞)+ 特定的時間點 表示當…

I started school when I was seven.

They had a lot of fun when they were in high school.

  1. in + 一段時間:表示從現在起一段期間後。在…之內。

I’ll meet you in ten minutes. 我在十分鐘後跟你碰面。

I’ll have the report ready in a week.

by + 時間點:表示不晚於某個時間點後。在…之前

I’ll get there by 9:00.  我會在九點前到。

I’ll have the report ready by Friday.

  1. during, before, after + 一段期間:表示在某段期間中,在某段期間前或後

We left before lunch.

We slept during the flight.

We returned after the concert.

  1. for + 一段其間

since + 時間點

I have worked for this company for three years.

I have worked for this company since 2007/ three years ago.

 

6 連接詞 6.1 轉折語

轉折語Transitional signals
Jessie Lin

 

1.
對等詞 coordinators

a. 對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個,可用fanboys來記: and, but,
so, or, nor, for, yet

b. 配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 有五個:

both …
and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor,

whether …
or

 

這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

Would you rather take a written or an oral exam?

The system is not only complicated but also inefficient.

 

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句, 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

S + V, CC S + V.

I was feeling hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

 

2.
從屬詞subordinator

從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction 是帶領副詞子句的連接詞,although, when, while, before, after, because,
if, as,
等。

它會放在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

SC + S + V, S + V.     or    S + V + SC + S + V.

Because I was feeling hungry, I made myself a sandwich.

I made myself a sandwich because I was hungry.

 

3.
轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive
adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

S + V; CA, S + V.       or    S + V. CA, S + V.

I was feeling hungry; therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. Therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. I made myself a sandwich, therefore.

I was feeling hungry. I, therefore, made myself a sandwich.

 

4.
其他others

有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語如in addition to,動詞如cause等也可以用來表示轉折語。這些次沒有特定的標點符號規則,必須注意前後的字詞的用法。

An additional reason for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

 

轉折語列表 Chart of Transition Signals
Jessie Lin


jessielinhuiching.spaces.live.com

用法 1. 對等詞 2. 從屬詞 3. 轉折語 4. 其他
additional idea

附加

and

nor

also

besides

furthermore

in addition

moreover

too

another

an additional

compare things

比較

and

both…and

not only …

but also

neither…

nor

as

just as

also

likewise

similarly

too

as…as

like/alike

just like

similar to

be alike

be similar

opposite idea

contrast things

相反

對比

but

yet

although

even though

though

whereas

while

however

nevertheless

nonetheless

on the other

hand

on the contrary

in contrast

instead

in/by comparison

still

despite

in spite of

compared to

compared with

differ from

be different

be dissimilar

be unlike

 

alternative

選擇

or if

unless

otherwise
cause or reason

理由或原因

for because

since

as

due to

because of

result from

as a result of

effect or result

影響或結果

so thus

hence

therefore

accordingly

as a result

as a consequence

consequently

result in

cause

affect

the cause of

the reason for

example

舉例

for example

for instance

such as

like

an example of

chronological order

時間順序

first, second,

first of all

then, next

now, then, soon

last, finally

meanwhile

gradually

after that

since then

the first

the next

the last

the final

before lunch

after the war

since 1999

 

explain and restate

解釋或陳述

indeed

that is

emphasize

強調

in fact
order of importance

重要性

above all

first and foremost

most importantly

primarily

the most important

the primary

to conclude

結論

all in all

in brief

in conclusion

in short

in summary

indeed

It is clear

that…

We can see

that..

The evidence   suggests that…

對等連接詞,從屬連接詞,與轉折語的用法:

 

1. 對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句,連接詞一 定放在兩個句子中間。

It is an old car, but it is very reliable.

 

2. 從屬連接詞帶領非獨立子句來連接另一個 獨立子句,從屬連接詞在句首句子

需要逗號分開,在句中則不需要。

Although I can’t help admiring the man’s courage, I do not approve of

his methods.

This is
my responsibility, although I appreciate your offer.

 

3. 轉折字或連接副詞用來連接兩個獨立子句時,需用分號把子句分開。或可連

接兩個句子。

This is a cheap and simple process. However, there are
dangers.

轉折語Transitional signals

轉折語Transitional signals
Jessie Lin

1.  對等詞coordinators

對等詞包含了七個對等連接詞coordination
conjunctions: and, but, so, or, nor, for, yet 與五個配對連接詞
correlative conjunctions: both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither
… nor, whether … or。

當這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。並特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

Would you rather take a
written or an oral exam?

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句(independent clause), 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

Independent Clause, Coordinating Conjunction+ Independent
Clause.

I like hamburgers, but
I don’t like French fries.

2.  從屬詞subordinator

從屬詞也就是從屬連接詞subordinating
conjunction如although, when, before, because 等。它會在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

Subordinating
Conjunction + Dependent Clause, Independent Clause.

Although I like
hamburgers, I don’t like French fries.

I don’t like French
fries although I like hamburgers.

3.  轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

Independent
Clause.  Conjunctive Adverbs,
Independent Clause.

I like hamburgers.
However, I don’t like French fries.

I like hamburgers. I
don’t , however, like French fries.

I like hamburgers. I
don’t like French fries, however.

I like hamburgers;
however, I don’t like French fries.

4.  其他others

有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語如in addition to,動詞如cause等也可以用來表示轉折語。這些次沒有特定的標點符號規則,必須注意前後的字詞的用法。

An additional reason
for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

對等連接詞,從屬連接詞,與轉折語的用法

對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句,連接詞一定放在兩個句子中間。

I was very hungry, so I
ate three hamburgers.

從屬連接詞帶領非獨立子句來連接另一個獨立子句,從屬連接詞在句首句子需要逗號分開,在句中則不需要。

Because I was hungry, I
ate three hamburgers.

I ate three hamburgers
because I was hungry.

轉折字或連接副詞用來連接兩個獨立子句時,需用分號把子句分開。或可連接兩個句子。

I was very hungry;
therefore, I ate three hamburgers.

I was very hungry.
Therefore, I ate three hamburgers.

轉折語列表 Chart of Transition Signals

用法 1. 對等詞 2. 從屬詞 3. 轉折語 4. 其他
additional idea

附加

and

nor

also

besides

furthermore

in addition

moreover

too

another

an additional

compare things

比較

and

both…and

not only …

but also

neither…

nor

as

just as

also

likewise

similarly

too

as…as

like/alike

just like

similar to

be alike

be similar

opposite idea

contrast things

相反

對比

but

yet

although

even though

though

whereas

while

however

nevertheless

nonetheless

on the other

hand

on the contrary

in contrast

instead

in/by comparison

still

despite

in spite of

compared to

compared with

differ from

be different

be dissimilar

be unlike

alternative

選擇

or if

unless

otherwise
cause or reason

理由或原因

for because

since

as

due to

because of

result from

as a result of

the consequence

of

effect or result

影響或結果

so thus

hence

therefore

accordingly

as a result

as a consequence

consequently

result in

cause

affect

the cause of

the reason for

example

舉例

for example

for instance

such as

like

an example of

chronologi-cal order

時間順序

first, second,

first of all

then, next

now, then, soon

last, finally

meanwhile

gradually

after that

since then

the first

the next

the last

the final

before lunch

after the war

since 1999

explain and restate

解釋或陳述

indeed

that is

emphasize

強調

in fact
order of import-ance

重要性

above all

first and foremost

most importantly

primarily

the most important

the primary

to conclude

結論

all in all

in brief

in conclusion

in short

in summary

indeed

It is clear that…

We can see that..

The evidence

suggests that…

轉折語列表 Chart of Transition Signals

用法 1. 對等詞 2. 從屬詞 3. 轉折語 4. 其他
additional idea

附加

and

nor

also

besides

furthermore

in addition

moreover

too

another

an additional

compare things

比較

and

both…and

not only …

but also

neither…

nor

as

just as

also

likewise

similarly

too

as…as

like/alike

just like

similar to

be alike

be similar

opposite idea

contrast things

相反

對比

but

yet

although

even though

though

whereas

while

however

nevertheless

nonetheless

on the other

hand

on the contrary

in contrast

instead

in/by comparison

still

despite

in spite of

compared to

compared with

differ from

be different

be dissimilar

be unlike

alternative

選擇

or if

unless

otherwise
cause or reason

理由或原因

for because

since

as

due to

because of

result from

as a result of

the consequence

of

effect or result

影響或結果

so thus

hence

therefore

accordingly

as a result

as a consequence

consequently

result in

cause

affect

the cause of

the reason for

example

舉例

for example

for instance

such as

like

an example of

chronologi-cal order

時間順序

first, second,

first of all

then, next

now, then, soon

last, finally

meanwhile

gradually

after that

since then

the first

the next

the last

the final

before lunch

after the war

since 1999

explain and restate

解釋或陳述

indeed

that is

emphasize

強調

in fact
order of import-ance

重要性

above all

first and foremost

most importantly

primarily

the most important

the primary

to conclude

結論

all in all

in brief

in conclusion

in short

in summary

indeed

It is clear that…

We can see that..

The evidence

suggests that…