【潔西家】限定與非限定形容詞子句

2020/10/4 Sunday

昨天加重藥量,醫生說潔西可以自行調整,看了超過十年的醫生了吧,所以他相信潔西的判斷力?目前吃得樂途達 Latuda 是40毫克一顆,潔西昨天吃了兩顆,醫生說最多可以吃到四顆,的確今天看了藥盒裡面的仿單的確也是這麼說,不過裡面說跟食物,還要三百五十卡以上的話藥效吸收會有三倍,這麼誇張?但是這是睡前吃的藥,白天吃了會很想睡,睡前吃三百五十大卡也太不健康了嗎?今天果然吃了兩顆就睡到不知道人去。先試試看這個劑量吧,至少今天覺得精神突然好蠻多的。

上次做影片是9/25,十天前耶,最近真的蠻墮落的啊,唉。不過今天就不如前幾天,非常有精神的做了影片,才多吃了一顆,馬上這麼有效,是剛好還是藥效可怕呢?繼續觀察。

今天放的照片是去羅馬,不對不對,忘了名字了,是在威尼斯的一個大教堂前拍的,時間太久了,沒有自信,不過覺得應該是在威尼斯,超多的人,超多的鴿子,很多人坐在戶外 cafe 吃吃喝喝,一位難求,相信現在完全不是這個樣子了。何時大家才能從新回到原本的生活,何時才能出國旅遊呢?都還是未知數。不過每個國家都一樣,總不能鎖國一輩子吧?聽說日本已經開始開放商務跟求學的旅客進入日本了。台灣先前也有讓商務旅客進來,而且居家隔離的時間似乎比一般本國民眾回台的還短,真的是對外國人非常友善的國家。

放了四天大家去哪裡玩了嗎?回鄉下回老家了嗎?潔西台北人,現在住新北,但是在台北市出生的,從小就沒有鄉下可以回去,小時候超羨慕人家寒暑假有鄉下可以回去玩。台北小孩一整個暑假寒假都在做什麼呢?忘了耶。潔西上課一天,跟大寶吃飯一天,兩天宅在家裡面打混摸魚,時間就這麼過去了。這個星期真的做的事真的很少,發呆的時間比較多,偶一為之無仿,常常這樣就糟糕了。

人要不生自己的氣,其實不太容易,也或許跟個性有關,潔西覺得有憂鬱症的人應該都是容易對自己生氣的人吧?在某些方面要求也不是完美,可能比一般人要高一點?總之呢,就會很容易看不順眼自己的所作所為,這裡沒做好,那裡沒做好,又一事無成,浪費時間了。這真的是潔西很長的感受,但是呢又要鼓勵自己激勵自己往前行,因為對自己生氣也沒用,會心情越來越糟,每天心裡的小劇場,自己都覺得好笑啊。

不管是玩得開開心心還是跟潔西一樣大部分都宅在家的人都要面對明天又要開始上班的現實了。不過沒關係,下星期雙十節又是三連假,日子應該會過得特別快特別開心吧?潔西是跟一般人相反的,喜歡工作,因為有錢賺,上課本身也是件開心的事,大部分的時候,這星期心情不好也說不定是純粹就是沒課上?但是還是有很多的工作必須做,卻也無法去做。而且人很奇怪,無所作為的時候也不能放心的享受。一直想看得半澤直樹2的下半部都完結了,明明很多時間卻也不去看。也是有點好看的東西捨不得看,因為看完就沒了的那種感受吧?想趁機看村上春樹的1Q84,想了很久,也沒走到書架去拿書。心情煩躁的時候只看短篇,為什麼呢?我也不知道啊。

要來去整理衣櫃跟房間,找一下我消失的眼鏡了,放在眼鏡盒的眼鏡是不小的東西,卻怎麼也找不到也太奇怪了,就是沒仔細整理,用力尋找順便整理去。今天講得是很多人有很多疑問的關係子句的限定跟非限定。我喜歡講形容詞子句,因為整個子句就是當形容詞用,但是似乎是關係子句比較多人說,都是一樣的東西啦。今天把舊的講義整理改了一下,用比較的方式介紹給大家,希望有比較容易懂。 下次再聊囉!收假愉快!

限定與非限定講解影片

翻譯練習講解影片

形容詞子句可以分為限定 identifying 跟非限定 non-identifying 。

A

限定

1 用來限定,定義句子所描述的一個人或一個團體或一件事物。句子的意思沒有限定形容詞子句的話不完整。當我們要包含重要的資訊時,會用限定形容詞子句。

I have three dogs. The dog which is in the yard is Mike. 我有三隻狗。在庭院的那隻狗是麥可。(限定)

非限定:

1 用來給予額外的資訊。這資訊不是用來定義或描的名詞。

I have a dog. The dog, which is in the yard, is Mike. 我有一隻狗。那隻狗,現在在庭院,叫做麥可。(非限定)

B

限定:

2 限定形容詞子句沒有逗號。

The old lady who lives next door is very strange. 那個住在隔壁的老太太非常奇怪。(限定)

非限定:

2 當非限定形容詞子句在句尾時,關係代名詞前需要一個逗號。假如形容詞子句在句子的中間時,前後都要用逗號跟主要子句分開來,需要兩個逗號。

Nobody likes Mrs. Black, who lives next door.  沒人喜歡住隔壁的布萊克太太。

Mrs. Black, who lives next door, is very strange. 住在隔壁的布萊克太太是個怪人。(非限定)

C 

限定:

3 限定形容詞子句,關係代名詞為受格時可以省略

The man who you were talking to last night is my boss.

The man you were talking to last night is my boss. 你昨天晚上跟他講話的人是我的老闆。

非限定:

3 非限定形容詞子句的關係代名詞通通不可以省略,都是必要的

James, who you were talking to last night, is my boss. 你昨天跟他講話的詹姆士是我的老闆。

D 

4 限定:

限定形容詞子句可以用 that 為首,在最高級跟數量的時候會用 that。但是非限定子句不可以用 that。

Stacy’s boyfriend bought the gift that she wanted. 史黛西的男朋友買了她要的禮物。

非限定:

4 非限定形容詞子句不可以用 that 在句首,需要用其他關係代名詞。

Barack Obama, who you saw on TV, was the president of the United States. 你在電視上看到的歐巴馬曾經是美國總統。

E

限定:

5 限定形容詞子句可以用在口說,也可以用在寫作

This is the best movie that I’ve ever seen. 這是我看過最棒的電影。

非限定:

5 非限定形容詞子句比較正式。通常用在寫作,新聞報導。口說大部分會分成兩個句子說。

I lent him ‘The Catcher in the Rye’, which is my favorite book. 我借給他我最喜歡的書:麥田捕手。

I lent him ‘The Catcher in the Rye’. It’s my favorite book. 我借給他麥田捕手。那是我最喜歡的書。

F

非限定:

6 專有名詞後面的形容詞子句都是非限定形容詞子句。因為專有名詞我們已經知道了,所以不需要定義或說明,這時候都是給予額外資訊。

This is Tom Jones, who works with my brother. 這位是湯姆瓊斯,他跟我的弟弟一起工作。

G

7 非限定which 的用法

which 可以帶領形容詞子句來對於前面的主要子句做評論,這時候一定是非限定,需要再 which 帶領的形容詞子句前面加逗號。

Steve helped me finish my homework, which is very kind of him. 史蒂夫幫我完成作業,他人真好。

I don’t have to work tomorrow, which made me happy. 我明天不用上班真開心。

翻譯練習

1 不回訊息的人讓我感到很生氣。

2 吸引了很多的遊客的九分(Jiufen),在週末的時候非常擁擠。

3 女神卡卡(Lady Gaga)的音樂是布萊恩最喜歡的,她出了張新專輯。

4 我收到我先前學生給我的喜帖。

5 我有些好的建議來自於王醫生(Dr. Wong),他已經當我的醫生十年了。

6 你覺得我們昨天晚上喝的酒如何?

7 幫我做頭髮的莎莉(Sally)剛剛生了小孩。

8 我借了老人與海(The Old Man and the Sea),很容易讀。

9 珍妮(Jenny)被開除這件事嚇到我們。

10 有壞脾氣的山姆(Sam)對服務生大吼。 

翻譯練習答案

.

.

.

1 不回訊息的人讓我感到很生氣。

1 People who don’t reply messages upset me. 

2 吸引了很多的遊客的九分(Jiufen),在週末的時候非常擁擠。

2 Jiufen, which attracts a lot of tourists, is very crowded on weekends. 

3 女神卡卡(Lady Gaga)的音樂布萊恩最喜歡的,她出了張新專輯。

3 Lady Gaga, whose music Bryan likes best, released a new album. 

4 我收到我先前學生給我的喜帖。

4 I got a wedding invitation which my former student sent me. 

5 我有些好的建議來自於王醫生(Dr. Wong),他已經當我的醫生十年了。

5 I had some good advice from Dr. Wong, who has been my doctor for ten years. 

6 你覺得我們昨天晚上喝的酒如何?

6 What do you think of the wine which we drank last night?

7 幫我做頭髮的莎莉(Sally)剛剛生了小孩。

7 Sally, who does my hair, has just had a baby. 

8 我借了老人與海(The Old Man and the Sea),很容易讀。

8 I borrowed ‘The Old Man and the Sea’, which is really easy to read. 

9 珍妮(Jenny)被開除這件事嚇到我們。

9 Jenny got fired, which surprised us. 

10 有壞脾氣的山姆(Sam)對服務生大吼。 

10 Sam, who has a bad temper, shouted at the server. 

【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 102 關係子句 主格 講解講義

今天的照片看得出來是哪裡吧?很有名的水都,威尼斯。當年看的電視介紹說再過幾年可能會被淹沒,所以一定要趕快去看看,所以就選了義大利,因為在威尼斯很驚險,所以呢本來除了羅馬之外還要去翡冷翠,也叫做佛羅倫斯,翡冷翠聽起來美多了吧。總之呢就沒有去了。真的是可惜。那一年本來要去巴黎,但是呢歐洲一個月到最後真的懶了,就沒去了,不過還好去年去了。記得在哪裡聽過,旅遊留點遺憾是下次再去的動力,類似這樣的話。驚險的威尼斯就改天再跟大家說了。要出門去了。

下面是講解影片

下面是練習與翻譯影片

形容詞子句 Adjective Clause 又叫關係子句 Relative Clause 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。

關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有 who, whom, which, that 跟 whose。關係副詞有 when, where, why。

先行詞:形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多緊接在先行詞後面。

I have a friend who works in Japan. 我有一個在日本工作的朋友。

主要子句:I have a friend

形容詞子句:who works in Japan

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:friend

形容詞子句常常是兩個句子的合併。

I have a friend who works in Japan.

(I have a friend. My friend works in Japan.)

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that 緊跟著在先行詞後,在句首帶領形容詞子句,用來當形容詞子句的主詞,提供更多有先前提到某人或某事的資訊。

who 用來代表人

Hank is the man who has a big dog. 漢克是那個有一隻大狗的男人。

The guy who sits next to me in class is from Canada. 在課堂上坐我隔壁的人是來自加拿大。

that 也可以用來代表人,但是比較少用

Yo-yo Ma is the musician that plays the cello. 馬友友是那個彈大提琴的音樂家。

The woman that lived here before us is a writer. 那個在我們之前住在這裡的女人是作家。

which 跟 that 都可以用來代表事物

that 比較口語

The computer that cost $50,000 is broken. 花了五萬元的電腦壞掉了。

I like to read books that have good endings. 我喜歡看有好結局的書。

which 比較正式

There are some restaurants which do Sunday brunches. 有些餐廳賣星期天早午餐。

Twitter is the company which was taken over last year. 推特是那個去年被接收的公司。

關係代名詞主格為人 who 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 The police have found the man. The man robbed the bank. 

1 The police have found the man who robbed the bank. 

2 I talked to the boy. The boy won the race. 

2 ______________________________________________.

3 I thanked the doctor. The doctor saved my mother’s life. 

3 ______________________________________________.

4 I’d like to have a boss. The boss has a good sense of humor. 

4 ______________________________________________.

5 I’d prefer a roommate. The roommate is quiet and neat. 

5 ______________________________________________.

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was very rude. The man stepped on my foot. 

1 The man who stepped on my foot was very rude. 

2 The man wanted my advice. The man wrote to me.

2 ______________________________________________. 

3 A man is called a journalist. A man writes newspaper articles. 

3 ______________________________________________.

4 The woman is funny. The woman lives next to us. 

4 ______________________________________________.

5 The girl told me a heartwarming story. The girl sat in front of me. 

5 ______________________________________________.

關係代名詞主格為物 which 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 I like the car. The car won the race.

1 I like the car which won the race. 

2 This is the dog. The dog attacked me.

2 ______________________________________________.

3 Tokyo is a city. The city never sleeps.

3 ______________________________________________.

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The bus was fifteen years old. The bus crashed. 

1 The bus which crashed was fifteen years old. 

2 The dog belonged to Mr. Lin. The dog bit me. 

2 ______________________________________________.

3 The article won a prize. The article discussed puppy love. 

3 ______________________________________________.

翻譯練習

1 我喜歡有幽默感的男生。

2 一個幫人剪頭髮的女生叫做美髮師。

3 這就是贏得獎項的電影。

4 我知道一家賣好吃的義大麵的餐廳。

5 我不喜歡太嚴肅的老師。

答案:

關係代名詞主格為人 who 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 The police have found the man. The man robbed the bank. 

1 The police have found the man who robbed the bank. 

2 I talked to the boy. The boy won the race. 

2 I talked to the boy who won the race. 

3 I thanked the doctor. The doctor saved my mother’s life. 

3 I thanked the doctor who saved my mother’s life. 

4 I’d like to have a boss. The boss has a good sense of humor. 

4 I’d like to have a boss who has a good sense of humor. 

5 I’d prefer a roommate. The roommate is quiet and neat. 

5 I’d prefer a roommate who is quiet and neat. 

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was very rude. The man stepped on my foot. 

1 The man who stepped on my foot was very rude.

2 The man wanted my advice. The man wrote to me.

2 The man who wrote to me wanted my advice. 

3 A man is called a journalist. A man writes newspaper articles. 

3 A man who writes newspaper articles is called a journalist. 

4 The woman is funny. The woman lives next to us. 

4 The woman who lives next to us is funny. 

5 The girl told me a heartwarming story. The girl sat in front of me. 

5 The girl who sat in front of me told me a heartwarming story. 

關係代名詞主格為物 which 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 I like the car. The car won the race.

1 I like the car which won the race. 

2 This is the dog. The dog attacked me.

2 This is the dog which attacked me. 

3 Tokyo is a city. The city never sleeps.

3 Tokyo is a city which never sleeps. 

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The bus was fifteen years old. The bus crashed. 

1 The bus which crashed was fifteen years old. 

2 The dog belonged to Mr. Lin. The dog bit me. 

2 The dog which bit me belonged to Mr. Lin. 

3 The article won a prize. The article discussed puppy love. 

3 The article which discussed puppy love won a prize .

翻譯練習

1 我喜歡有幽默感的男生。

1 I like guys who have a good sense of humor.  

2 一個幫人剪頭髮的女生叫做美髮師。

2 A woman who cuts hair is called a hairdresser. 

3 這就是贏得獎項的電影。

3 This is the movie which won the prize. 

4 我知道一家賣好吃的義大麵的餐廳。

4 I know a restaurant which sells good pasta.  

5 我不喜歡太嚴肅的老師。

5 I don’t like teachers who are too serious. 

【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 50 名詞子句 講解講義

每天都在翻照片,今天翻出這張是大小寶跟潔西在餵奈良的鹿,而且不知為什麼所以的鹿都往潔西這邊來,潔西跟鹿兒們說了什麼好聽的話吧?

好聽的話大家都愛聽,潔西也是啊,謝謝大家三不五時的留言。潔西收到 YouTube 影片覺得最讓潔西開心的留言是有在美國念語言學校的中國學生,說在學校上課不懂的文法,回家看了潔西的影片秒懂。超感動的。因為外國人用英文教文法難懂是正常的吧,看了潔西的影片就可以懂,表示潔西有講清楚文法的用法,哈哈哈,得意的笑了。當然要加強的部分還是很多。

昨天學生說他的主管問他是不是有學英文,感覺寫郵件有進步了,謝謝學生跟潔西說,好開心喔。說真的,有在練習方法對,真的就會進步。看到學生進步,通過考試真的是最開心的事。

其實當老師家長的不要太過分誇張,但是適時地讚美小孩學生會讓他們對自己更有信心,對於學習更有興趣。我發現我上日文課的老師有些,特別是女老師,就比較會讚美學生,而且不是每個人隨便地讚美,是特別你回答對,或說得流暢的時候,讚美一下,真的會讓學習的人更有信心更有興趣,也更願意花努力去加強吧!

今天講得是有點難的名詞子句。所以分了三隻影片講,還有一隻翻譯練習的影片。另外還有一課講轉述,他說了什麼,會是在下一課。有時間的時候再一隻一隻慢慢看吧。

 

IMG_1332

 

下面是名詞子句的影片跟講義

 

a that 帶領的名詞子句

 

b WH 疑問詞帶領的名詞子句

 

c if/whether 帶領的名詞子句

 

翻譯練習講解

 

 

名詞子句

名詞子句顧名思義是一個用來當名詞的子句。這個子句本身有主詞,有動詞,但是語意不完整,所以稱作非獨立子句,需要加上一個獨立子句,也就是主要子句才能結合成完整的一個句子。

名詞子句:where he lives

主要子句:I don’t know something.

1 完整的句子: I don’t know where he lives. 我不知道他住在哪裡。

名詞子句的功用是把整個句子當名詞用,所以當主詞,受詞,主詞補語等。

 

2 當主詞:That the earth is getting warmer is true. 地球變得更溫暖了是真的。

 

3 當受詞:I wonder why he didn’t show up. 我在想他為什麼沒有出現。

 

4 當主詞補語:Tom’s problem is that he works too hard. 湯姆的問題是他工作太努力了。

名詞子句的主要三種型態

a 用 that 帶領的名詞子句

5 I’m sorry that I skipped class yesterday. 我很抱歉我昨天翹課。

 

b 用 WH 疑問詞帶領的名詞子句

6 I remember what he said. 我記得他說了什麼。

c 用 if 或 whether 帶領的名詞子句

7 He wants to know if she will join us. 他想要知道她是否會加入我們。

 

a 用 that 帶領的名詞子句

that 子句的位置可以在不同的地方

(a) 在獨立子句的最前面當主詞,這時候 that 不可以省略

8 That he said nothing didn’t surprise me. 他什麼都沒說嚇到我了。

9 That the earth is round is true. 地球是圓的是真的。

 

(b) 在獨立子句的動詞後面當受詞

10 Do you ever feel that you might be in danger? 你曾經覺得你可能有危險嗎?

11 She said that she would be late.  她說她會遲到。

 

(c) 在特定形容詞後面。如:happy, glad, pleased, upset, worried, surprised, sure等。

12 I’m surprised that he passed the test. 我很訝異他通過考試。

13 I’m worried that COVID-19 is getting worse. 我擔心新冠肺炎變得更糟。

 

(d) 在特定名詞後面。如:idea, thought, statement, belief, opinion, problem 等。

14 I was faced with the problem that I had no money. 我面對了我沒有錢的這個問題ㄡ

15 It is my belief that nuclear weapons are immoral. 我相信核能武器是不道德的。

 

 

嵌入問句 embedded questions

英文當要表達對於某些事情不了解或要客氣地問一些問題時,常會用嵌入問句。也就是把一個原本的問句改成直述句,放入句子當中。嵌入問句可分成由 WH 疑問詞帶領的名詞子句跟 if/whether 帶領原本為 Yes/No 問句改過來的名詞子句。

(a) 嵌入問句本身為直述句,所以要先把原本的問句改為直述句才是一個嵌入問句。

WH 疑問句:Which way is the MRT station?

直述句:      which way the MRT station is

主要子句:   He wants to know something

16 完整的句子:He wants to know which way the MRT station is. 他想要知道捷運站在哪邊。

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Is there an MRT station nearby?

直述句:      there is an MRT station nearby

主要子句:   He wants to know something

17 完整的句子:He wants to know if there is an MRT station nearby. 他想知道附近有捷運站嗎?

 

(b) 嵌入問句不影響原本主要子句的標點符號。原主要子句是直述句時,句尾用句號,原主要子句是疑問句時,句尾用問號。

WH 疑問句: Whose bag is this?

直述句:      whose bag this is

主要子句直述句: I don’t know something.

主要子句問句   : Do you know something?

18 完整的直述句: I don’t know whose bag this is. 我不知道這是誰的袋子。

19 完整的問句   : Do you know whose bag this is? 你知道這是誰的袋子嗎?

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Is he married?

直述句:           He is married.

主要子句直述句: I don’t know something.

主要子句問句  : Do you know something?

20 完整的直述句: I don’t know if he is married. 我不知道他是不是結婚了。

21 完整的問句   : Do you know if he is married? 你知道他結婚了嗎?

 

 

B 用 WH 疑問詞帶領的名詞子句

WH 疑問詞也就是 what, where, when, why, who, how, which, whose 等疑問詞所帶領的名詞子句。

WH 的疑問句要由原本的疑問句型(助動詞放在主詞前面),改回直述句(主詞加動詞的形式)。

(a) WH 疑問句的疑問詞本身是主詞時,不需要做任何改變。因為疑問詞本身是問句的時候就不會把助動詞放到主詞前面造問句,所以跟直述句的排列方式是一樣的。

名詞子句:   What happened?

主要子句:   Tell me something.

22 完整的句子:Tell me what happened. 告訴我發生什麼事了?

 

名詞子句:   Who took my umbrella?

主要子句:   Tell me something.

23 完整的句子:Tell me who took my umbrella. 告訴我誰拿了我的雨傘。

 

名詞子句:   Whose phone is ringing?

主要子句:   Tell me something.

24 完整的句子:Tell me whose phone is ringing. 告訴我誰的電話在響。

 

(b) 當 WH 疑問詞帶領的子句中的原問句 WH 疑問詞本身不是主詞時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述

句。當助動詞為do/does/did時必須省略。也就是當時態為現在簡單式或過去簡單式的時候,因為

改問句需要 do/does/did 來幫忙,所以改回直述句的時候需要把 do/does/did 去掉,假如是第三

人稱單數要把 s 加回來,過去式要把動詞還原為過去式,是把主要動詞作變化改為正確的時態。

WH 疑問句:  Why do they like online games?

名詞子句:    why they like online games

主要子句:    I wonder something.

25 完整的句子: I wonder why they like online games. 我在想為什麼他們喜歡線上遊戲。

 

WH 疑問句:  How long does the movie last?

名詞子句:    how long the movie lasts

主要子句:    I wonder something.

26 完整的句子: I wonder how long the movie lasts. 我在想那部電影演多久。

 

WH 疑問句:  Where did he go last night?

名詞子句:    where he went last night

主要子句:    I wonder something.

27 完整的句子: I wonder where he went last night. 我在想他昨天晚上去了哪裡。

 

(c) 當 WH 疑問詞帶領的子句中的原問句 WH 疑問詞本身不是主詞時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述

句。當助動詞是 be 動詞(am/is/are/was/were),has/have/had 或 will 等助動詞時,則把該助動

詞放回主詞的後面即可。因為這些助動詞都是把它們放到主詞前面造問句,所以只要還原就可以。

WH 疑問句:  Who is that tall woman?

名詞子句:    Who that tall woman is?

主要子句:    I’m not sure something.

28 完整的句子: I’m not sure who that tall woman is. 我不確定那個高高的女人是誰。

 

WH 疑問句:  How long has he lived in Taipei?

名詞子句:    how long he has lived in Taipei

主要子句:    I’m not sure something.

29 完整的句子: I’m not sure how long he has lived in Taipei. 我不確定他住台北多久了。

 

WH 疑問句:  When will they come back?

名詞子句:    when they will come back

主要子句:    I’m not sure something.

30 完整的句子: I’m not sure when they will come back. 我不確定他們會回來。

 

 

C 用if/whether帶領的名詞子句

嵌入問句的原問句為 Yes/No 問句時,也就是由be動詞(am/is/are/was/were),

do/does/did, have/has/has, will, 或其它助動詞等所帶領的問句時,嵌入問句為由 if 或 whether 帶領的名詞子句。

(a) 當 if/whether 帶領的名詞子句中的原 Yes/No 問句的助動詞為 do/does/did 時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述句。助動詞為do/does/did必須省略。把主要動詞作變化改為正確的時態。

Yes/No 疑問句:Do teenagers shop online?

名詞子句:        if teenagers shop online

主要子句:        I wonder something.

31 完整的句子:I wonder if teenagers shop online. 我在想青少年有沒有在網路上購物。

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Does he love me?

名詞子句:        if he loves me

主要子句:        I wonder something.

32 完整的句子:I wonder if he loves me. 我在想他是不是愛我。

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Did she go to the concert?

名詞子句:        if she went to the concert

主要子句:        I wonder something.

33 完整的句子:I wonder if she went to the concert. 我在想她有沒有去演唱會。

 

(b) 當 if/whether 帶領的名詞子句中的原 Yes/No 問句的助動詞為 be 動詞(am/is/are/was/were),has/have/had 或 will 等助動詞時,則把該助動詞放回主詞的後面即可由疑問句改為直述句。

Yes/No 疑問句:Is he leaving?

名詞子句:        if he is leaving

主要子句:        I’m not sure something.

34 完整的句子:I’m not sure if he is leaving. 我不確定他是不是正要離開。

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Has he been abroad?

名詞子句:        if he has been abroad

主要子句:        I’m not sure something.

35 完整的句子:I’m not sure if he has been abroad. 我不確定他是不是出國過。

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Will it rain tomorrow?

名詞子句:        if it will rain tomorrow

主要子句:        I’m not sure something.

36 完整的句子:I’m not sure if it will rain tomorrow. 我不確定明天會不會下雨。

 

翻譯練習

1 我不知道他去了哪裡。

2 我不懂你在說什麼。

3 我忘記我有沒有鎖門。

4 瑪麗不知道他結婚了。

5 他問我們我們是不是學生。

6 不好意思我遲到了。

7 我不確定我有足夠的錢。

8 事實是他從來不念書。

9 我很訝異他通過了考試。

10 湯姆說他感冒了。

翻譯練習 答案

.

.

.

 

Where did he go? — where he went

I don’t know something.

1 我不知道他去了哪裡。

1 I don’t know where he went.

 

What are you saying/talking about?

what you are saying

I don’t understand something.

2 我不懂你在說什麼。

2 I don’t understand what you are saying.

 

Did I lock the door? if/whether I locked the door

I forgot something

3 我忘記我有沒有鎖門。

3 I forgot if I locked the door.

 

4 瑪麗不知道他結婚了。

4 Mary doesn’t know that he is married.

 

Are we students? — if we are students

5 他問我們我們是不是學生。

5 He asked us if we were students.

 

6 不好意思我遲到了。

6 I’m sorry that I’m late.

 

I’m not sure something

Do I have enough money? — if I have enough money

7 我不確定我有足夠的錢。

7 I’m not sure if I have enough money.

 

8 事實是他從來不念書。

8 The fact is that he never studies.

 

9 我很訝異他通過了考試。

9 I’m surprised that he passed the exam.

 

I have a cold.

10 湯姆說他感冒了。

10 Tom said that he had a cold.

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 95 形容詞子句的縮減,分詞構句,分詞片語

因為大家都說每次文法都講很多懶得看,這次特別出了個簡短篇的跟詳細篇的,分別跟不同需要的人參考。要繼續做發音的影片了,所以晚點再來碎碎念。假如有問題歡迎提出,謝謝大家支持。啊,另外假如覺得有幫助的話歡迎利用下面小額贊助的頁面支持潔西,感恩!小額贊助

 

簡短說明形容詞子句縮減的分詞構句

 

 

詳細的說明形容詞子句縮減的分詞構句與練習題解答

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

95 ing 與 ed 片語

 

The person talking to Ken is my brother.

The person who is talking to Ken is my brother.

 

The car parked outside is my neighbor’s.

The car that is parked outside is my neighbor’s car.

 

形容詞子句縮減來的分詞構句

A 分詞構句的形成

分詞構句或分詞片語是由一個分詞加上一些字所組成,可以用來修飾名詞跟代名詞。分詞構句經常是由形容詞子句縮減而來,所以有時也叫做縮減子句(reduced clauses)。

 

縮減方式如下:

1 把形容詞子句中的關係代名詞去掉(只有關係代名詞為主詞時),

2 把動詞的助動詞去掉,主要動詞依主動或被動改為現在分詞或過去分詞,

3 保留原有的標點,

 

A 現在分詞,主動

1

The man who is sitting in front of John is Tom.

The man (who is sitting in front of John) is Tom.

The man sitting in front of John is Tom.

 

2

The girl who is playing basketball is my sister.

The girl (who is playing basketball) is my sister.

The girl playing basketball is my sister.

 

3

Many students who study at this university are from foreign countries.

Many students (who study at this university) are from foreign countries.

Many students studying at this university are from foreign countries.

 

4

Anyone who wants to join us is welcome.

Anyone (who wants to join us) is welcome.

Anyone wanting to join us is welcome.

5

English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters.

English has an alphabet (that consists of 26 letters).

English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters.

 

6

Everyone who will take the TOEIC next month must preregister.

Everyone (who will take the TOEIC next month) must preregister.

Everyone taking the TOEIC next month must preregister.

 

7

My parents, who did not have much money, never went on holiday.

My parents, (who did not have much money, never went on holiday.

My parents, not having much money, never went on holiday.

 

B 過去分詞,被動

1

I only drink juice that is made from fresh fruit that is grown organically.

I only drink juice (that is made from fresh fruit) (that is grown organically).

I only drink juice made from fresh fruit grown organically.

 

2

Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page.

Be sure to follow the instructions (that are given at the top of the page).

Be sure to follow the instructions given at the top of the page.

 

3

The selfie that was taken by my brother is funny.

The selfie (that was taken by my brother) is funny.

The selfie taken by my brother is funny.

 

4

They live in a house that was built in 1890.

They live in a house (that was built in 1890).

They live in a house built in 1890.

 

形容詞跟形容詞片語也有相似的用法

1

Ann is the woman who is responsible for the error.

Ann is the woman (who is responsible for the error).

Ann is the woman responsible for the error.

 

2

There was one seat that was available on the flight.

There was one seat (that was available) on the flight.

There was one seat available on the flight.

 

2 分詞構句的位置與標點符號

分詞構句可用在限定子句或非限定子句。

限定子句中的分詞片語只可接在修飾名詞的後面,不加逗號。

A woman who hurried to catch a bus tripped and fell.

A woman hurrying to catch a bus tripped and fell.

 

非限定子句中的分詞片語,可以放在修飾名詞的後面,或放到修飾名詞的前面,一定要以逗號將分詞片語與整個句子隔開。

Teresa, who hurried to catch a bus, stumbled and fell.

Teresa, hurrying to catch a bus, stumbled and fell.

Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.

 

注意事項:切記分詞片語在前面時,這個片語一定要是修飾後面句子的主詞。

Hoping for an A, my exam grade disappointed me.(X)

                      S            V

Hoping for an A, I was disappointed in my exam grade.(O)

 

Having run out of gas, Tom was late for school. (X)

Because the car ran out of gas, Tom was late for school. (O)

 

修飾整個句子的分詞片語應該用逗號將整個句子與分詞片語隔開。

The team won the championship, which shocked their opponents.

The team won the championship, shocking their opponents.

 

練習:

將下列句子改成分詞構句

1 The man who is talking to John is from Korea.

2 Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.

3 The film that starts at 8 is a drama that is based on a true story.

4 The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary.

5 The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

6 I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

7 The children who attend that school receive a good education.

8 The scientists who are researching the causes of cancer are making progress.

9 The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood.

10  Ham which is made in the traditional way costs more, but tastes better.

11 We have an apartment which overlooks the park.

12 Luggage that is left unattended will be taken away by police.

13 Left-handed children who are forced to write with their right hands often developed psychological problems.

 

翻譯下面的句子

1 你認識那個在跟我爸爸說的話男人嗎?

2 那個正在照顧我媽媽的護士對她很好。

3 我住的公寓是在2005年蓋的。

4 有一台停在外面黑色的車裡有兩個警察坐在裡面。

5 在書裡被呈現的想法很好。

.

.

.

.

.

答案

將下列句子改成分詞構句

1 The man who is talking to John is from Korea.

1 The man talking to John is from Korea.

 

2 Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.

2 Our solar system is in a galaxy called the Milky Way.

 

3 The film that starts at 8 is a drama that is based on a true story.

3 The film starting at 8 is a drama based on a true story.

 

4 The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary.

4 The photographs published in the newspaper were extraordinary.

 

5 The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

5 The people waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

 

6 I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

6 I come from a city located in the southern part of the country.

 

7 The children who attend that school receive a good education.

7 The children attending that school receive a good education.

 

8 The scientists who are researching the causes of cancer are making progress.

8 The scientists researching the causes of cancer are making progress.

 

9 The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood.

9 The fence surrounding our house is made of wood.

 

10  Ham which is made in the traditional way costs more, but tastes better.

10  Ham made in the traditional way costs more, but tastes better.

 

11 We have an apartment overlooking the park.

11 We have an apartment which overlooks the park.

 

12 Luggage that is left unattended will be taken away by police.

12 Luggage   left unattended will be taken away by police.

 

13 Left-handed children who are forced to write with their right hands often developed psychological problems.

13 Left-handed children forced to write with their right hands often developed psychological problems.

 

翻譯練習

1 你認識那個在跟我爸爸說的話男人嗎?

1 Do you know that man talking to my father?

 

2 那個正在照顧我媽媽的護士對她很好。

2 The nurse looking after my mother is very kind to her.

 

3 我住的公寓是在2005年蓋的。

3 I live in an apartment built in 2005.

 

4 有一台停在外面黑色的車裡有兩個警察坐在裡面。

4 There’s a back car parked outside with two policemen sitting in it.

 

5 在書裡被呈現 are presented 的想法很好。

5 The ideas presented in the book are good.

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 93, 94 關係子句/形容詞子句 限定與非限定用法

今天講得這個是比較容易弄不清楚的形容詞子句的限定跟非限定的用法,簡單的說就是有逗號跟沒逗號的用法。強烈建議看影片比較清楚容易懂,句子的話也最好自己練習寫一下翻譯,用聽的可能聽懂了,但是實際上寫寫看就會比較有感覺。有問題還是不懂的話請留言。是個有點難理解的東西,有時候有些文法真的是只能盡量解釋,理解的話會是需要靠大量的泛讀,也就是看書看文章看社交媒體的文,看電影看電視看影片等等,從當中去看大量的例子慢慢地就會比較懂。

學習的材料非常重要,看的聽的讀的東西呢,找自己有興趣的很重要,這樣你才看得下去。難易程度也要適中,一堆都是看不懂的東西就會很難繼續看下去。學生很可愛,在臉書廣告上看到某家知名的英語媒體的廣告,用影片學英文,覺得不錯,就花了四千多元買了,結果連第一支影片都沒看完,因為看不下去。據說廣告的都是很有趣的影片,但實際上花錢購買的影片卻是相當無趣,學生有給潔西看過,真的是無聊到不會想要看的影片。但是呢影片是有順序的,不看第一隻就不能往下看,所以學生到現在還是連第一支影片都沒看完,有點浪費錢呢。

想起某家公司也是賣類似產品,說要送潔西一套商品只要潔西答應幫忙寫心得。恩,但是我並沒有想看那些東西啊,所以婉拒了。有些人是可以看自己沒有興趣的東西,恩,老實說,我們不都是這麼長大的嗎?學生時代對那些必須要背要記的東西真正有興趣的人很少吧? 但是呢,對於我們有興趣的東西,我們才會真正的肯下功夫花時間去看吧?

潔西看東京大酒店被木村拓哉圈粉,然後喜歡上已經解散的 SMAP,裡面的成員潔西都蠻喜歡的,所以就會想要花時間去看一些相關的綜藝節目,日文這樣子輕鬆的學習,因為是沒有目的,所以單字增加也看不見,不過實際上發現自己知道的時候覺得蠻有成就感的。有一天潔西姊問潔西中文和服的腰帶怎麼說,中文好像沒有特殊的說法吧?但是日文 おび 就脫口而出,後來查了一下,耶,居然說對了。另外最近開始看日本的 Yahoo! JAPAN 的新聞,裡面就會講到有關成員的動向,就會特別去看,然後 Yahoo! JAPAN 在 Chrome 上閱讀的時候,本身 Yahoo 有字典可以用,Google 也有翻譯可以用,所以一邊看新聞一邊查字典很方便,大部分的手機也都有這樣的功能不錯用。大概意思可以理解,重要的字,不知道不能理解的才需要去查字典,多看,有些時候可以精讀,大部份時候泛讀,這樣進步才會比較快。很偷懶的自己覺得這是個不錯的方法,因為有興趣,想要理解,就會花心思去弄懂。所以找個有興趣的東西蠻重要的喔。

先前跟朋友聊天的時候,有些人覺得為什麼有人一把年紀了還在追星,我覺得沒有什麼不好啊,是很好的興趣,年輕人可以追星,年紀大的人誰規定不可以追星?不要走火入魔什麼都不顧,有理智的追星我覺得是個很好的消遣。去看演唱會,音樂劇,表演,能負擔得起的話,有什麼不可以,人不就是該做些會讓自己感到幸福的事嗎?每個人的幸福都是不一樣的,不需要去否定別人認可的幸福啊。

年紀越大越覺得這世界上真的沒有什麼太多值得計較的事情,快樂,幸福也不需要太用力去追求,了解自己,知道什麼人事物會讓自己開心,多去接觸,每天小小的幸福快樂才是真正能夠伴隨一生。找到對的人就會一輩子幸福嗎?你看過哪對不吵架的情侶?找到好的工作就從此沒煩惱嗎?沒有不辛苦的工作,只有不努力的人。中個樂透就一輩子幸福?去多看一點相關報告就會知道很多時候中樂透其實是悲劇的開始。有沒有這麼憤世忌俗?沒有啦,單一事件通常不是幸福的源點,想表達的是這個。

SMAP 的前隊長中居正廣在節目中被問到有什麼目標計劃,他說沒有,他覺得現在的日子過得很不錯,他沒有什麼特別想做的事,有些人覺得居然這麼沒有志向,我倒是覺得非常認同,只要自己過得是開心的日子,為什麼一定要立大志呢?從前我跟朋友抱怨過自己覺得沒有什麼發展,出國唸書回來也就是補習班教教書,一輩子好像就這樣了。朋友當時說他覺得這樣也很棒啊,在哪個時候抱怨的潔西很難去理解,但是年紀越來越大就能體會他的意思。所以呢,年紀大了,淡泊名利對人生的要求不再那麼多的時候,日子反而越來越容易,這對於年紀輕的人可能比較難懂吧。

啊,不小心又寫到手麻了,快快休息去。晚安!過年倒數計時中,還有兩天就除夕了!

 

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

93, 94 關係子句 4, 5: 補述用法關係子句 (1), (2)

限定與非限定形容詞子句

形容詞子句可以分為限定子句 identifying clause 跟非限定子句 non-identifying clause 兩種 。

1 限定子句 identifying clause

限定子句限定住說話者所要表達的人,事,物,如果沒有這個限定子句的話,句子的語意會不完整。限定子句沒有逗號。大部分的形容詞子句是限定子句,用在口說跟寫作。

2 非限定子句 non-identifying clause

非限定子句給予已經限定住的人,事,物額外的資訊,原本的句子沒有非限定子句的話,語意也是完整的。非限定子句需要有逗號,子句放在中間的話,子句的前後都要逗號,有兩個逗號,子句放在後面只需要一個逗號。非限定子句有時候會非常正式,多半用在寫作,新聞報導。口說的話會分開兩個短句說。

專有名詞後面的形容詞子句都是非限定形容詞子句。因為專有名詞我們已經知道了,所以不需要定義或說明,這時候都是給予額外資訊。

I have three dogs. The dog which is in the yard is Mike. 我有三隻狗。在庭院的那隻狗是麥可。(限定)

I have a dog. The dog, which is in the yard, is Mike. 我有一隻狗。那隻狗,現在在庭院,叫做麥可。(非限定)

 

The old lady who lives next door is very strange. 那個住在隔壁的老太太非常奇怪。(限定)

Mrs. Black, who lives next door, is very strange. 黑太太住在隔壁是個怪人。(非限定)

 

限定形容詞子句可以用 that 為首,尤其在最高級 the superlatives 跟數量詞 quantifiers 的時候會用 that。但是非限定子句不可以用 that。所以有些書上會說逗號後面不可以加 that 。

Stacy’s boyfriend bought the gift that she wanted. 史黛西的男朋友買了她要的禮物。

Every person that we met had a cold. 我們遇到的每一個人都感冒了。

This is the best movie that I’ve ever seen. 這是我看過最棒的電影。

 

Hank, who has a bad temper, shouted at the server. 壞脾氣的 Hank 對著服務生大叫。

I lent him ‘The Cather in the Rye’, which is my favorite book. 我借給他麥田捕手,我最喜歡的書。

This is Tom Jones, who works with my brother. 這位是 Tom Jones,他跟我的弟弟一起工作。

 

翻譯練習

1 第一個來電話給出正確答案的人將會贏得獎賞。

2 第一個打電話來的人是來自於台南,沒有給出正確答案。

3 你覺得我們昨天喝的葡萄酒如何?

4 我倒給他一杯葡萄酒,他馬上就喝掉了。

5 這位是 Nelson,是我們的新銷售經理。

6 他是我在學校有過最糟糕的老師。

7 教我們英文的 Sally 剛生了一個小寶寶。

8 她嫁給一個她在網路上認識的男生。

9 有很多關於電腦的東西是我不知道的。

10 帶我去派對的是 Tina。

11 我有一些好的建議來自於當時是我的老闆的 Andrew。

.

.

.

.

.

 

翻譯練習答案

1 第一個來電話給出正確答案的人將會贏得獎賞。

1 The first caller who gives the correct answer will win the prize.

 

2 第一個打電話來的人是來自於台南,沒有給出正確答案。

2 The first caller, who was from Tainan, didn’t give the correct answer.

 

3 你覺得我們昨天喝的葡萄酒如何?

3 What do you think of the wine we drank yesterday?

 

4 我倒給他一杯葡萄酒,他馬上就喝掉了。

4 I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank at once.

 

5 這位是 Nelson,是我們的新銷售經理。

5 This is Nelson, who is our new marketing manager.

 

6 他是我在學校有過最糟糕的老師。

6 He was the worst teacher that I had at school.

 

7 教我們英文的 Sally 剛生了一個小寶寶。

7 Sally, who teaches us English, has just had a baby.

 

8 她嫁給一個她在網路上認識的男生。

8 She married a man who she met online.

 

9 有很多關於電腦的東西是我不知道的。

9 There’s a lot that I don’t know about computers.

 

10 帶我去派對的人是 Tina。

10 The person who took me to the party is Tina.

 

11 我有一些好的建議來自於當時是我的老闆的 Andrew。

11 I had some good advice from Andrew, who was my boss at that time.

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 90 關係子句/形容詞子句 所有格

明明簡單地講一下又是十七分鐘。練習題的部分大概佔一半,所以呢可以看影片解釋就好,自己做題目對答案。影片有顏色比較容易懂。沒看過形容詞子句關係代名詞主格根受格的人可以先看前面的話比較容易理解。

超累的,今天白跑一趟市政府站,來回各一個多小時,還等了學生半個小時,沒上成課,去晃了一下誠品書店,看到幾本想買的書,但是強烈懷疑自己買了會看嗎?所以還是放棄了。看到好多想吃的東西,因為減肥中,所以都用看的,抹茶冰淇淋超想吃的,還是算了。

沒有上課沒有賺錢不要花錢比較實在,不是很喜歡斤斤計較的感覺,但是彷彿到了一個不能不計較的年紀了,嗚嗚嗚。

脖子跟背又好痛,可惡,明明沒上課還是很累,居然也有點想睡了,早點睡明天早上起床去游泳吧,還有要打掃要打掃,加油中!

影片

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

92 關係子句 2: whose / whom / where

五 關係代名詞為所有格時

形容詞子句中關係代名詞為所有格時,不管是人還是事物都用 whose 這個關係代名詞。它表示誰的,所以後面一定要加名詞,合起來一起當形容詞子句的主詞或受詞。whose 比較常用在人。

主詞:

彼得照顧一隻腳在意外中斷掉的狗。

Peter was looking after a dog. Its leg had been broken in an accident.

Peter was looking after a dog. The dog’s leg had been broken in an accident.

(Peter was looking after a dog the dog’s leg had been broken in an accident.) (X)

Peter was looking after a dog whose leg had been broken in an accident.

 

 

 

那個皮包被偷的男人打電話報警

The man called the police. His wallet was stolen.

The man called the police. The man’s wallet was stolen.

(The man the man’s wallet was stolen called the police) (X)

The man whose wallet was stolen called the police.

 

我找到那個車子擋在車道的人。

I found the person. His car was blocking the driveway.

I found the person. The person’s car was blocking the driveway.

(I found the person the person’s car was blocking the driveway) (X)

I found the person whose car was blocking the driveway.

 

那個被叫到名字的學生把手舉起來。

The student raised her hand. Her name was called.

The student raised her hand. The student’s name was called.

(The student the student’s name was called raised her hand.) (X)

The student whose name was called raised her hand.

 

受詞

我對那個我把她的茶打翻的女士道歉。

I apologized to the woman. I spilled her tea.

I apologized to the woman. I spilled the woman’s tea.

(I apologized to the woman the woman’s tea I spilled) (X)

I apologized to the woman whose tea I spilled.

 

山姆史密斯是個我最喜歡他的音樂的歌手。

Sam Smith is a singer. I like his music best.

Sam Smith is a singer. I like the singer’s music best.

(Sam Smith is a singer the singer’s music I like best.) (X)

Sam Smith is a singer whose music I like best.

 

 

翻譯

1 他遇見一個父親是醫生的女孩。

2 我上他的課的那個教授很優秀。

3 你弄壞他玩具的那個小男孩開始哭起來。

4 那就是她的房子被燒掉的女人。

5 我遇見一個他哥哥在電視台工作的人。

6 哪一隻是狗狗的主人是電影明星的狗?

7 我有一個學生她的老公是醫生。

8 Robert 是個他的學生都依賴他的老師。

9 不要跟老婆懷孕了的男生出去。

10 我有一個朋友在第二次世界大戰服役。

 

翻譯練習解答

1 他遇見一個父親是醫生的女孩。

1 He met a girl. The girl’s father is a doctor.

1 He met a girl whose father is a doctor.

 

2 我現在上他的課的那個教授很優秀。

2 I’m taking a professor’s class. The professor is excellent.

2 The professor whose class I’m taking is excellent.

 

3 你弄壞他玩具的那個小男孩開始哭起來。

3 The boy started to cry. You broke the boy’s toy.

3 The boy whose toy you broke started to cry.

 

4 那就是她的房子被燒掉的女人。

4 That’s the woman. The woman’s house was brunt.

4 That’s the woman whose house was brunt.

 

5 我遇見一個他哥哥在電視台工作的人。

5 I met a person. The person’s brother works in television.

5 I met a person whose brother works in television.

 

6 哪一隻是狗狗的主人是電影明星的狗?

6 Which is the dog? The dog’s owner is a movie star.

6 Which is the dog whose owner is a movie star?

 

7 我有一個學生她的老公是醫生。

7 I have a student. The student’s husband is a doctor.

7 I have a student whose husband is a doctor.

 

8 Robert 是個他的學生都依賴他的老師。

8 Robert is a teacher. His students rely on him.

8 Robert is a teacher whose students rely on him.

 

9 不要跟老婆懷孕了的男生出去。

9 Don’t go out with the guy. The guy’s wife is pregnant.

9 Don’t go out with the guy whose wife is pregnant.

 

10 我有一個朋友的爸爸在第二次世界大戰服役。

10  I have a friend. My friend’s father served in World War II.

10 I have a friend whose father served in World War II.

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 91 關係子句/形容詞子句 受格

不知道為什麼這支影片錄了前後起碼三十次吧?上星期五就開始錄,到上課前錄了二十幾分鐘,刪掉,昨天還是前天也試了好幾次,今天也是錄了快二十分又刪掉,不知道為什麼這麼難,真是暈倒。結果剛剛錄完更暈倒,居然快三十分,這誰要看呢?真的想學好形容詞子句的人吧?花了很多時間,盡量一步步給大家看怎麼樣合併句子,然後省略是從哪裡省,希望覺得這部分很難的人可以比較容易地理解。看到居然錄了三十分的時候真的很想重錄個短一點的,不過還是放棄了,因為又快要去上課了。

昨天去看疼痛科門診,醫生意外的年輕,不過解說很詳細,我的肌肉很緊,所以的醫生都這麼說,但是她也舉出了潔西不良的姿勢,不自覺聳肩跟脖子會往前,需要自己注意改進。另外先前頸椎的手術的部分的確有可能造成痠痛,先吃肌肉鬆弛劑跟止痛劑,沒有效的話可以在脖子注射止痛劑,聽起來很恐怖,不過聽說效果會不錯,當然是一個治標不治本。有建議潔西去做一個叫做多面項脊椎運動,訓練上背的核心肌群,可以考慮找物理治療師一對一教適合潔西的運動,因為潔西畢竟是頸椎開過刀,不是什麼運動都可以做,要找專業的治療師比較安心。

為什麼潔西要去看疼痛門診?因為真的痛得很厲害,每天早上起來就痛,大概是三四分的痛,越晚越痛,尤其工作上課後,晚上回到家大概是可以到達七分的痛,回到家真的就只想躺在床上。當然運動是很好,但是痛得不得了的時候是沒有心情跟體力去運動的。最近真的痛得太厲害了。另外很妙的是,醫生叫潔西吃抗憂鬱藥。潔西去年十一月左右停了,醫生有解釋說因為抗憂鬱藥可以緩解大腦中對疼痛的感受,所以其實他們在治療的時候也會開抗憂鬱藥給病人。所以潔西就開始又吃了,先把痛的問題解決比較重要。

要上課去了,想想潔西身體真的是差得不得了。昨天看醫生,十一點多到,兩點多才離開,等醫生跟等拿藥都超久,看完時就全身痠痛的不得了,回到家吃個東西真的累到不行就躺到床上睡了。整個週末也是上課之外,幾乎都在睡。身體跟不上心想做的事。目前就是工作第一,身體第二,所以即使有想做影片的東西也是都要放棄,先把身體養好再說吧!吃了抗憂鬱藥跟止痛藥好像今天真的比較沒有那麼痛。準備出門去上課,順便去四號公園走個一兩圈,順便去喝個E41?加油加油加油!

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

91 關係子句 2: 有與沒有 who / that / which 之關係子句

 

他就是那個偷了我錢包的人。

He is the man. The man stole my wallet.

(He is the man the man stole my wallet)(X)

He is the man who stole my wallet.

先行詞:the man

形容詞子句:who stole my wallet

關係代名詞:who 放在主詞的位置,是主格

 

三 關係代名詞為受格時

關係代名詞在形容詞子句中為主詞時用主格,當受詞時用時用受格,這時候受格為人的時候關係代名詞可以為 whom, who, that, 或省略。主格的關係代名詞一定不可以省略。受格關係代名詞最正式為 whom, 口語時多半省略。受格為事物時關係代名詞用 which, that, 或省略。注意介系詞不要忘了,不可以省略,放在形容詞子句最前面的時候,人要用介系詞+whom,事物要用介系詞+which

1 先行詞是人的時候,關係代名詞受格可以用 whom, who, that, 或省略。

a 他是我欽佩的男人。

He is the man. I admire the man.    

(He is the man the man I admire )(X)

He is the man whom I admire. (最正式)

He is the man who I admire.

He is the man that I admire.

He is the man I admire. (最口語)

 

 b 麗莎在演唱會看到的那個女人是她老闆的女朋友。

Lisa saw the woman at the concert. The woman was Lisa’s boss’s girlfriend.

(The woman Lisa saw the woman at the concert was her boss’ girlfriend.) (X)

The woman whom/who/that Lisa saw at the concert was her boss’s girlfriend.

The woman Lisa saw at the concert was her boss’s girlfriend.

 

c 我喜歡我昨天晚上在派對見到的那個男人。

I like the man. I saw the man at the party last night.

I like the man whom/who/that I saw at the party last night.

I like the man I saw at the party last night.

 

d 那就是那個我在談論的醫生。

That’s the doctor. I was talking about the doctor.

That’s the doctor whom/who/that I was talking about.

That’s the doctor I was talking about.

 

 

2 先行詞是事物的時候,關係代名詞受格可以用 which, that, 或省略。

a 凱特烤的那些餅乾很好吃。

The cookies were delicious. Kate baked the cookies.

(The cookies Kate baked the cookies were delicious) (X)

(The cookies the cookies Kate baked were delicious) (X)

The cookies which Kate baked were delicious. (最正式)

The cookies that Kate baked were delicious.

The cookies Kate baked were delicious. (最口語)

 

b 你有找到你想找的那本書嗎?

Did you find the book? You were looking for the book.

Did you find the book which/that you were looking for?

Did you find the book you were looking for?

 

c 我等的公車遲到了。

The bus is late. I’m waiting for the bus.

The bus which/that I’m waiting for is late.

The bus I’m waiting for is late.

 

d 我不喜歡我們上週末住的那家飯店。

I don’t like the hotel. We stayed in the hotel last weekend.

I don’t like the hotel which/that we stayed in last weekend.

I don’t like the hotel we stayed in last weekend.

 

e 我們昨天晚上聽的音樂很棒。

The music was great. We listened to the music last night.

The music which/that we listened to last night was great.

The music we listened to last night was great.

 

三 關係代名詞受格的練習翻譯

1 你現在穿的這件洋裝很適合你。

2 我們昨天晚上看的那部電影不好看。

3 你剛剛跟他講話的男人是我的老闆。

4 Judy 認識的那個男生是個有名的演員。

5 你現在坐的椅子舒不舒服?

6 John 弄壞了他女朋友買給他的相機。

7 我昨天買的水果在哪裡?

8 我看完你借給我的那本書了。

9 你現在用的杯子是我的。

10 他送給他女朋友的項鍊花了一百萬。

 

翻譯練習答案

三 關係代名詞受格的練習翻譯

1 你現在穿的這件洋裝很適合你。

1 You are wearing a dress. It suits you well.

1 The dress which/that you were wearing now suits you well.

1 The dress you were wearing now suits you well.

 

2 我們昨天晚上看的那部電影不好看。

2 We saw a movie last night. The movie was terrible.

2 The movie which/that we saw last night was terrible.

2 The movie we saw last night was terrible.

 

3 你剛剛跟他講話的男人是我的老闆。

3 You just talked to the man. The man is my boss.

3 The man you whom/who/that just talked to is my boss.

3 The man you just talked to is my boss.

 

4 Judy 認識的那個男生是個有名的演員。

4 Judy knows the man. The man is a famous actor.

4 The man whom/who/that Judy knows is a famous actor.

4 The man Judy knows is a famous actor.

 

5 你現在坐的椅子舒不舒服?

5 Is the chair comfortable? You are sitting on the chair.

5 Is the chair which/that you are sitting on comfortable?

5 Is the chair you are sitting on comfortable?

 

6 John 弄壞了他女朋友買給他的相機。

6 John broke the camera. His girlfriend bought him the camera.

6 John broke the camera which/that his girlfriend bought him.

6 John broke the camera his girlfriend bought him.

 

7 我昨天買的水果在哪裡?

7 I bought the fruit yesterday. Where is the fruit?

7 Where is the fruit which/that I bought yesterday?

7 Where is the fruit I bought yesterday?

 

8 我看完你借給我的那本書了。

8 I’ve finished the book. You lent me the book.

8 I’ve finished the book which/that you lent me.

8 I’ve finished the book you lent me.

 

9 你現在用的杯子是我的。

9 You are using the cup. The cup is mine.

9 The cup which/that you are using is mine.

9 The cup you are using is mine.

 

10 他送給他女朋友的項鍊花了一百萬。

10 He gave his girlfriend a necklace. The necklace cost one million dollars.

10 The necklace which/that he gave his girlfriend cost one million dollars.

10 The necklace he gave his girlfriend cost one million dollars.

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 90, 91 關係子句/形容詞子句 關係代名詞 what 的用法

因為書裡面有提到關係代名詞 what 的用法,有點小複雜,不過其實也不難,可能大家都會說,只是不知道他是關係代名詞而已。比方說。What you did is annoying. 你做的事很惹人厭。What I don’t udnerstand is his motive. 我不懂的是他的動機。諸如此類。懂的話比較不會說錯。不懂的話其實分開兩個句子說出來都是沒問題的啦。

肚子好餓,又睡到中午才起床,吃了點早午餐,吃不下太多,想說來繼續寫形容詞子句的受格,不過看到 what ,覺得還是要交代一下,所以就從兩點交代到現在快五點了。又要趕著出門去上課了,時間過得真快。其實潔西也不是不辛苦啊,發一下牢騷。朋友覺得潔西似乎工作很輕鬆的樣子,1/1元旦要上班發給潔西看他當天上班的工作證,說給你看一下我們上班族的辛苦,聽起來就有點你一點都不辛苦。其實是很好的朋友,知道他開玩笑的,但是脆弱的心靈還是小小受傷,所以只能在部落格上反平一下,潔西其實元旦晚上也有上課喔,明天星期六跟後天星期天也都要上課喔。是個要上課才有錢賺的工作,沒有年終,學生請假的話收入就變零喔。所以沒有不辛苦的行業啦,大家都很辛苦的,想要做好的話。

牢騷發完了,準備出門上課去了。冬天是對潔西來說很辛苦的季節,憂鬱症會特別嚴重,今天怎麼樣都不想起床,在床上賴了快兩個小時吧,不過是比較有進步的冬天呢,雖然我在去年年底停了藥,現在是隨時眼淚可以流下來的狀態,這是個跟誰也說不清的狀況吧,自己用自己的方法不打擾別人,好好的把日子過去下,先前整理的時候看到有些年的十二月一月有時候一個月只有幾篇,因為完完全全寫不出來,現在能寫得出來是值得開心的。希望能夠最少一個星期有五篇,加油中!大家新的一年也多多加油,別人說什麼不重要,做好自己想做的事,跟自己比較,今天的我比昨天的我進步,或許那就可以了!

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

主格

I don’t like people. People like to cut in line.

I don’t like people (who like to cut in line). 我不喜歡喜歡插隊的人。

 

受格

I don’t like the girl. You talked to the girl last night.

I don’t like the girl (who/whom/that you talked to last night). 我不喜歡你昨天晚上跟她說話的女生。

 

關係代名詞 what 前面可以不需要名詞,它可以當作一個代名詞,用來表示 the thing(s) that 或者是 the stuff that ,相當於一個名詞跟關係代名詞一起

你做的事讓我很傷心。

You did the thing. The thing made me sad.

The thing that you did made me sad.

What you did made me sad.

 

我需要的就是一杯飲料。

I need the thing. The thing is a drink.

The thing that I need is a drink.

What I need is a drink.

 

他們不懂的是有多困難。

They don’t understand the thing. The thing is how difficult it is.

The thing that they don’t understand is how difficult it is.

(The thing that they don’t understand)   is     (how difficult it is)

        主詞 (形容詞子句去修飾名詞)                        主詞補語(名詞子句)

What they don’t understand is how difficult it is.

 

What he wants to know is where has his money gone. 他想要的是知道他的錢去哪了。

The thing that he wants to know is where has his money gone.

 

What you have to think about is your profit. 你需要考慮的是你的利益。

The thing that you have to think about is your profit.

 

What you need to do is (to) plan ahead. 你需要做的是事先計畫。

The thing that you need to do is (to) plan ahead.

 

Did you read about what happened to Sue? 你讀到 Sue 發生什麼事了嗎?

Did you read about the thing that happened to Sue.

 

The teacher just teaches us what we already know. 那個老師只教我們已經知道的。

The teacher just teaches us the thing that we already know.

 

He didn’t get what he asked for. 他沒有得到他所要求的。

He didn’t get the thing that he asked for.

 

He gave me what I wanted. 他給我我想要的。

He gave me the thing that I wanted.

 

what 不會用在有 all, everything, nothing, the only, 最高級等的句子。只會用 that

I’ve told you everything that I know.

I’ve told you everything what I know. (X)

The only thing that matters to him is money.

The only thing what matters to him is money. (X)

 

翻譯練習

1 給我看你買的東西。

2 那間商店沒有她想要的。

3 我會付我吃的。

4 你可以擁有所有你想要的東西。

5 你說的讓我非常開心。

6 我首先想要了解的是要花多少錢。

7 我已經跟你說所有發生的一切了。

8 我不確定接下來要做什麼。

9 我們做的事就是一起打麻將。

10 我不懂你在說什麼。

 

.

.

.

.

.

 

翻譯練習 答案

1 給我看你買的東西。

1 Show me what you bought.

 

2 那間商店沒有她想要的東西。

2 The shop didn’t have what she wanted.

 

3 我會付我吃的東西。

3 I’ll pay for what I ate.

 

4 你可以擁有所有你想要的東西。

4 You can have everything that you want.

 

5 你說的讓我非常開心。

5 What you said made me very happy.

 

6 我首先想要了解的事是將要花多少錢。

6 What I want to know first is how much it is going to cost.

 

7 我已經跟你說所有發生的一切了。

7 I’ve told you all that happened.

 

8 我不確定接下來要做什麼。

8 I’m not sure what I am going to do next.

8 I’m not sure what to do next.

 

9 我們做的事就是一起打麻將。

9 What we did was (to) play mahjong together.

 

10 我不懂你在說什麼。

10 I don’t understand what you are talking about.

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 90 關係子句/形容詞子句 主格

繼續新年快樂!先前有人問到會不會講劍橋活用英語文法的中級,會,潔西今年的新年新希望除了健康外就是想把劍橋活用英語文法的初級跟中級的部分的講義全部寫出來。那幹嘛不自己寫書?因為要找很多例子要想很久,工程太浩大了,等我把所有部分寫完之後說不定就自己編排一下,找影印店印也不是不行,但是可能會太厚。總之再說吧。初級跟中級重複的部分我就不會重複做講義。講義的話也大部分會從我自己原本有的講義部分來改寫。

形容詞子句是有點小難,拆成很多部分的話或許就簡單一點了?今天說的主格真的是不難的,很基礎的,用心看一下,自己多造一些類似的句子,平成看影片的時候多留意,慢慢就能說得出來了也不一定喔。不會說其實也沒關係,拆成兩個句子也是可以理解的,不過人家講的時候要聽得懂就是了。可以自己做做翻譯練習,寫出來的話會很有成就感的喔!

話說剛剛在飲料店看到有人居然穿著睡衣在買飲料,真的是成套那種睡衣。從前穿整套運動服出門有點怪,現在是流行了,不過睡衣整套穿出門是流行嗎?跟流行很不熟的潔西有點嚇到。

等等又要出門上課了,但是我覺得已經有點累了啊,老人一枚今年真的希望能夠把身體照顧好。預約下星期一去看疼痛門診,每個醫生都滿,只有那個醫生沒滿,其實是有一點擔心的,但是呢先去看再說吧。下午去看牙醫弄了一個小時,打麻藥,剛剛做影片還有一點,現在好像退的差不多了,該吃個飯出門上課去了。

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

ㄧ 概論

中文在形容一個名詞的時候多半把形容詞放在名詞前面,比方說他是個很高的人,他是個很帥的人,他是個不說謊的人。在英文像高的,帥的這種形容詞可以放在修飾的名詞的前面。但是不說謊的人這種有包含了動詞在內時,英文多半會用形容詞子句來修飾該名詞。

He is a tall man.

He is a handsome man.

He is a man who doesn’t lie.

中式英文 He is a not lie man.(X) 這樣直譯是不行的,英文的基本句型是一個主詞,一個動詞,當要有另外一個動詞時,要用適當的方式來連結。這種狀況下用的是形容詞子句。

形容詞子句 adjective clause ,或者我們有時候叫做關係子句 relative clause ,是一個有主詞,有動詞,但是語意不完整的子句,用來修飾,定義,或給予額外資訊。形容詞子句可想做是用來形容子句前面的名詞,也就是先行詞,或者可以想做關係子句就是用來表達子句跟前面先行詞之間的關係。每個形容詞子句/關係子句都會有一個關係代名詞用來帶領形容詞子句,比方說 who, which, whom, that, whose 等,這些關係代名詞在特定狀況下會被省略掉。

1 He is the teacher who has changed my life.

   他就是那個改變我的人生的老師。

   teacher 是先行詞

   who has changed my life 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

 

2 Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

   台北是個不夜城。

    city 是先行詞

   which never sleeps 是形容詞子句,其中 which 是關係代名詞

 

3 My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   我爸爸是個牙醫,他不准我們吃糖果。

   father 是先行詞

   who is a dentist 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

包含形容詞子句的句子通常可以拆成兩個句子。也可以看成當兩個句子,有共同的名詞的時候,有時候可以改成形容詞子句。

 

1 He is the teacher. The teacher has changed my life.

   — He is the teacher who has changed my life.

2 Taipei is a city. The city never sleeps.

   — Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

3 My father is a dentist. He doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   — My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時

形容詞子句中的關係代名詞,可以是在子句的句首的主格,可以是放在受詞位置的受格,也可以是修飾子句主句的所有格。而子句修飾的名詞,也就是先行詞,會因人或物而使用不同的關係的代名詞。

先從主格開始看起。先行詞是人的話,主格關係代名詞用 who。先行詞是事物的話,主格關係代名詞用 which。主格的 who 跟 which 都可以用 that 取代。口語的時候主格是人習慣用 who ,主格是事物習慣用 that 。主格的 which 有比較正式的感覺。

1 先行詞是人

I like people who smile a lot.   我喜歡常笑的人。   

I don’t like people who get angry easily.  我不喜歡容易生氣的人。

I have a friend who lives in Switzerland. 我有個住瑞士的朋友。    

I have a friend who works for Facebook. 我有個幫臉書工作的朋友。

形容詞子句可以放在句尾,也可以放在句中

People who have moved a lot have fewer friends. 經常搬家的人有比較少的朋友。

A person who has a lot of friends is lucky.  一個有很多朋友的人很幸運。

 

2 先行詞是事或物

Do you know a shop which sells good coffee? 你知道一間買好咖啡的店嗎?

This is the computer which isn’t working. 這就是壞掉的那台電腦。

The postcard which came this morning was from Italy. 今天早上收到的明信片是從義大利來的。

 

上面的 who 或 which 都可以用 that 取代,在非正式,口語的場合下。

I like people that smile a lot.

Do you know a shop that sells good coffee?

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時 

翻譯練習

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

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翻譯解答

還是覺得有點難度的人可以先分成兩個句子在合併再一起。

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

1 I saw the man. The man stole the wallet.

1 I saw the man/that who stole the wallet.

 

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

2 The driver was polite. The driver took me to the airport.

2 The driver who/that took me to the airport was polite.

 

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

3 I found a shop. The shop sells good chocolate.

3 I found a shop that/which sells good chocolate.

 

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

4 The woman is a lawyer. The woman lives next door.

4 The woman who/that lives next door is a lawyer.

 

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

5 Tom is an engineer. Tom works at Google.

5 Tom, who works at Google, is an engineer.

 

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

6 I found the key. The key was missing.

6 I found the key that/which is missing.

 

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

7 The man was disappointed. The man lost the game.

7 The man who/that lost the game was disappointed.

 

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

8 He has a cat. The cat is blind.

8 He has a cat that/which is blind.    He has a blind cat.

 

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

9 My coworker comes from Canada. My coworker sits next to me.

9 My coworker who/that sits next to me comes from Canada.

 

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

10 I don’t like people who likes to take advantage other people.

副詞子句

A 副詞子句概述

a. 副詞子句通常是由一個從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunction 開始一個句子,比方說 although, because, when 等。這個連接詞表達了這個副詞子句跟主要子句之間的關係。

Although the sun’s shining, it’s freezing outside this morning.

I’m not going out because it’s so cold.

b. 副詞子句在句首時,用逗號分開主要子句。副詞子句在後面時,因為從連接詞很明顯就可以看出副詞子句的開頭,所以通常不用逗號。

Before he goes to bed, he brushes his teeth.

He brushed his teeth before he goes to bed.

c 一個句子可以用一個以上的副詞子句

Don’t touch the paint before it has dried because bubbles may form if anything touches it.

 

B 連接句子的方式

1 用從屬連接詞來連接句子來表示句子間的關係。

   After you have a rest, you’ll probably feel better.

   I can’t listen to music while I’m studying.

 

2 副詞子句是個非獨立子句,不可以用來當作獨立的句子,一定要與獨立子句合併成為一個句子。副詞子句不可再加上對等連接詞 (如: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) 來合併句子。

Because there were no lights, I couldn’t see anything.

It was dark, so I couldn’t do any work.

Because there were no light, so I couldn’t do any work. (X)

We couldn’t use our computers because there was no electricity this morning.

We couldn’t use our computers. Because there was no electricity the morning. (X)

 

3 某些連接字如 after, before, than 可以當從屬連接詞或介系詞。當從屬連接詞時帶領副詞子句也就是後面加主詞,動詞,來連接句子,也可以當成介系詞用,當介系詞時後面加名詞。

I’ll talk to you after I get out of my next meeting. = I’ll talk to you after the meeting.

Tony had arrived before we got there. = Tony had arrived before us.

We had more money than they had. = We had more money than them.

 

4 某些用在副詞子句的連接詞,有一些跟他們的意義是相似的介系詞片語,後面加名詞

There were delays because the weather was bad.

= There were delays because of bad weather.

Although she’s old, Agnes still plays tennis.

= Despite her age, Agnes still plays tennis.

He got injured while we were playing.

= He got injured during the game.

 

副詞子句

A 時間子句 when, while, as, after, before, until, since 等

1.1 when 用來表示一件事接著另外一件事

When we heard the news, we were delighted.

1.2 when 用來在打斷另外一件事時

We had just reached the shelter when the rain started pouring down.

I was sleeping like a baby when the alarm went off.

1.3 when 可以用來表達每一次,有點像 if 的用法,表示每一次發生某事時。

When demand increases, prices rise.

2.1 while 可以表示在某段期間,這時跟 when 可以通用

While/when you were out, your mother called.

I felt asleep while/when I was reading.

2.2 while 也可以用來表示兩件實情同時發生

There was nowhere to park, so I just drove round in the car while Tim was in the bank.

3.1 as 跟 when 跟 while 都可以用來表達再發生某件事的某段期間

As/When/While I was getting ready to leave, I heard that my flight had been canceled.

3.2 as 或是 just as 可以用來強調事件發生的確切時間點,這時不可以用 while

As I walked out of the hotel, a gust of wind blew my hat off. It happened just as I stepped outside.

3.3 as 可以用來表時連接一段期間的變化,這時不可以用 whlile

As I get older, I care less about what other people think.

4.1 after 用來表示在某個時間點之後

After they left, we cleaned up and went to bed.

What will you do after you graduate?

4.2 after 常用在跟現在簡單式與現在完成是而不會用 will 表達一段完成的動作

I’ll help you after I write/have written my report. (not after I will write my report)

5 before 用來表示在某個時間點之前

Before he leaves, I’ll ask him about the money.

They had eaten breakfast before we got up.

6 until 用來表示直到某個時間點,用來強調結局或結束的時間點。

We’ll wait until you’re ready.

Heat the wax until it melts. (not Heat it before it melts)

7 since 用來表達從某個時間點到另外一個時間點,表示在某個時間點開始的另外一個子句的是在那之後能就是事實。

How long is it since you’ve been here?

I’ve lived here since I was ten. (not since I’m ten)

8 once 用來帶領一個子句描述一個動作或情況的開始的時間點。once 跟after 一樣 常用在跟現在簡單式與現在完成來表達一段完成的動作

Once you’ve seen Ani, you won’t forget her.

Everybody likes it here once they get used to it.

9 as soon as 用來表達一件事馬上緊接著另外一件事發生或是 immediately 來帶領子句

I came as soon as I heard the news.

Immediately I saw him, I recognized his face.

10 the instant/minute/moment/second (that) 可以用來表示一件事緊接著另外一件事發生

There are some students who rush out of the room the minute (that) class ends.

1 因為我的電視壞掉了,所以我們聽收音機。

2 雖然天氣很冷,但是他還是去游泳。

3 他很帥,但是他弟弟長相平庸。

4 假如明天下雨的話,演唱會就會被取消。

5 當他一回到家,他就打開他的電腦。

 

答案

1 Because my TV was broken, we listened to the radio.

2 Although it was cold, he still went swimming.

3 He is handsome, but his brother is plain.

4 If it rains tomorrow, the concert will be canceled.

5 As soon as he got home, he turned on his computer.