假設語氣第一條件句+潔西碎碎念

“Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery, and today is a gift … that’s why they call it present.”

「昨天已是歷史,明日宛如謎題,而今天是個禮物,那就是為什麼人們叫它是當下。」

 

翻譯很難啊,昨天就過去了,所以就是歷史,不要懷疑,上一秒也是歷史了。明天是個未知的謎題,誰都沒有百分之百的把握會發生什麼事。今天是個禮物,因為你可以自己開創你的人生,英文的 gift 跟 present 都是禮物,但是 present 還有現在的意思。常聽到 live in the present 活在當下,珍惜現在所擁有的一切,這是自己給自己的禮物吧?

 

說了這一堆,其實今天要講的是假設語氣,第一條件句 first conditional ,很多人都說沒聽過第一第二條件句等等。其實名字不重要,重要的是要知道怎麼用。

 

當我們要講有關未來的事的時候,就像上面說的是個謎題,所以呢,可能會發生也可能不會發生。而假設語氣的第一條件句就是用來表示未來的假設,假如怎麼怎麼樣,就會怎麼怎麼樣。常見的是假如下星期六下雨的話,演唱會就會被取消。假如我明天早上還是發燒的話,我就會請假。中文看起來沒什麼特別,但是在英文裡面有個很重要的時態。if 帶領的子句是個副詞子句,要用現在簡單式代替未來式,而主要子句要用未來。

 

If + S + V1, S + will + V1

If it rains next Saturday, the concert will be cancelled.

If I still have a fever tomorrow, I will take a day off.

 

也可以把主要子句放到前面,這時候因為 if 很明顯帶領一個新的子句,所以就不用要逗點。

 

S + will + V1 if + S + V1

The concert will be cancelled if it rains next Saturday.

I will take a day off if I still have a fever tomorrow morning.

 

副詞子句會用現在簡單式代替未來,為什麼?潔西也不知道,這個規則要稍微記一下,不過自己念念句子看看,用未來的話其實會覺得怪怪的,下面有幾個常見的副詞子句的從屬連接詞,比方說 if, when, as soon as, until, before, after 等等。所以用來表未來的時候有上述那些連接詞帶領的副詞子句要用現在簡單式,而主要子句則用未來。

 

下面就是一些從一些書上摘要下來的練習題,做過會更有印象,雖然這不會很難,但是還是有從基礎開始學的人可以參考一下。

剛剛吃飽不小心睡著了,現在也是很想睡啊,哈哈。最近每天都一直做夢,做好多各式各樣的夢,醒來還記得,晚點就忘得差不多了,但是因為一直做夢覺得好像沒有睡到依樣,醒來還是超累的啊。日有所思夜有所夢?同學會,跟朋友出去吃飯,上課,備課,住院,等等。就一直睡,然後就準備上課的東西,其實課很少啊,但就渾渾噩噩,每天都不知道在做什麼。

 

人,越想要成為一個更好的自己時,越難做好任何事。昨天走在路上,開始胡思亂想時,中文,英文,日文,全部跑出來,很好笑。不知道大家是怎麼樣的,開始想的時候是中文,跳到英文去,什麼都想不出來,再轉到日文,因為日文程度不好,能想的說的話有限,只能圍繞在會說的東西說。用日文想的話,就會打不出中文。但是呢,覺得至少腦袋有在動,因為語言轉換也不是那麼容易,恩,轉換不會不容易,是思考的內容的問題。

 

 

轉回來,當想要成為一個更好的自己時,就是嫌棄自己不足的時候,覺得自己不夠好,想要變更好,但是變得更好這件事其實不是那麼容易的。有時候會覺得自己一事無成,活了這麼久,經年累月下來,實質上可以看得見摸得到的比方說夠用的錢,貼心的老公,活蹦亂跳的小孩,代步的車子,舒適的房子,一樣都沒有。空虛感還蠻嚴重的。還好自己不是個物質取向的人,但也覺得是不是少了什麼東西,在人生的岔路上,是不是哪裡走錯路還是迷失了方向呢?

 

沒有答案的問題。我之所以成為現在的我是因為個性,生活,環境等等造就了我,沒有不喜歡自己,但是卡在一個不爭氣的現實環境的無奈。人是用別人來定義自己的存在嗎?用物質來定義自己?用成就?用名聲?用財富?

 

扯好遠,不過每次很空虛的時候,剛好有人找潔西家教,就會有點小安慰,或許這也算是別人的一種肯定?不過最近潔西因為要開刀先不會接家教,開完刀休息一陣子看狀況再說,最快也要明年了。健康真的是遇到事情的時候才知道是最寶貴的財富,沒有任何東西比得上的。早睡早起身體好,睡覺去,晚安:)

 

下面是用法,有些人對這些連接詞的用法還不太確定,可以先做一下,斜線前後選擇一個適當的。

 

face2face Pre-intermediate 9A P69

1 We use if/when to say we are certain something will happen.

2 We use if/when to say something is possible, but it isn’t sure.

3 We use as soon as/until  to say something will happen immediately after something else.

4 We until/after to say something stops happening at this time.

 

答案跟翻譯

1 We use if/when to say we are certain something will happen.

1 我們用 when 當我們很確定某件事將會發生。

 

2 We use if/when to say something is possible, but it isn’t sure.

2 我們用 if 當我們認為某件事有可能性,但是不確定。

 

3 We use as soon as/until to say something will happen immediately after something else.

3 我們用 as soon as 來表達某件事會在另外一件事發生後馬上發生。

 

4 We until/after to say something stops happening at this time.

4 我們用 until 來表達某件事在某個時間後停止不再進行。

 

 

下面是要選擇正確的從屬連接詞,並填入正確時態的動詞。

1 I’ll probably work as soon as/until I  ________ (be) sixty-five.

2 I ________ (do) my homework before/as soon as the class finishes.

3 When/If I _______ (get) home today, I’ll probably watch TV.

4 Maybe I ________ (phone) some friends if/after I have dinner.

5 I’ll probably read a book before/after I _________ (go) to sleep.

6 I _________ (study) English next year if/until I have time.

 

答案

1 I’ll probably work as soon as/until I  ________ (be) sixty-five.

1 I’ll probably work until I am sixty-five.

 

2 I ________ (do) my homework before/as soon as the class finishes.

2 I will do my homework as soon as the class finishes.

 

3 When/If I _______ (get) home today, I’ll probably watch TV.

3 When I get home today, I’ll probably watch TV.

 

4 Maybe I ________ (phone) some friends if/after I have dinner.

4 Maybe I will phone some friends after I have dinner.

 

5 I’ll probably read a book before/after I _________ (go) to sleep.

5 I’ll probably read a book before I go to sleep.

 

6 I _________ (study) English next year if/until I have time.

6 I will study English next year if I have time.

 

 

再來是翻譯,不是很難,但是同學有些寫不太出來,可能是潔西用英文翻中文,試著用英文的句型來寫或許會容易一點。記得假設語氣的句子表未來時要用現在簡單式代替未來。

 

翻譯

1 假如我再遲到,我就會丟工作。

2 假如我們不快找到票,我們就會錯過電影了。

3 假如我們遲到了,該怎麼辦?

4 假如他錯過末班公車,他會搭計程車。

5 當我到家的時候,我會打電話給你。

6 你一到家就換衣服嗎?

7 在我決定日期後我就會打電話給飯店訂房。

8 在我上床前,我寫完作業。

 

 

翻譯 答案 建議自己做完或想想句子再怎麼說在看答案,不要直接看答案,另外可能有很多不同類似的答案都可以。

 

1 假如我再遲到,我就會丟工作。

1 If I’m late again, I’ll lose my job.

 

2 假如我們不快找到票,我們就會錯過電影了。

2 If we don’t find the tickets soon, we’ll miss the movies.

不少人寫 If we don’t find the tickets hurry (X) ,hurry 是動詞,這邊要用副詞 soon 才對喔。

 

3 假如我們遲到了,該怎麼辦?

3 What do we do if we’re late?

這一句很多人寫 If we’re late, what do we do? (X) 英文的問句應該是不會這樣寫。

 

4 假如他錯過末班公車,他會搭計程車。

4 If he miss the last bus, he’ll take a taxi.

 

5 當我到家的時候,我會打電話給你。

5 When I get home, I’ll call you.

 

6 你一到家就換衣服嗎?

6 Do you change clothes as soon as you get home?

 

7 在我決定日期後我就會打電話給飯店訂房。

7 After I decide on the date, I’ll call the hotel to make a reservation.

 

8 在我上床前,我寫完作業。

8  I finish my homework before I go to bed.

 

還有一些狀況題讓同學回答的,潔西寫個參考回答好了。

1 What will you do if someone steals your cellphone?

I’ll use “Find my phone” to see if I can locate my cell phone. Then I’ll go to the police

station to report it.

1 假如有人偷你的手機的話你會怎麼辦?

我會用「找到我的手機」(iPhone 的功能) 看看我能不能找到手機的位置。然後我會去警察

局報警。

 

2 What will you do if you see a car accident?

I’ll call the police and see if there’s anything I can do to help.

2 假如你看到車禍的話,你會怎麼做?

我會打電話給警察,然後看看有沒有可以幫忙的地方。

 

3 What will you do if you get bored with working?

I’ll find something else to do. Maybe I’ll go out and get a cup of coffee or take a walk.

3 假如你工作做得很無趣的時候怎麼辦?

我會找其他的事做。或許我會出去買杯咖啡或散散步。

 

4 What will you do if you get lost?

If I get lost, I’ll ask a stranger for directions.

4 假如你迷路的話,你會怎麼辦?

假如我迷路的話,我會問陌生人怎麼走。

 

5 What will you do if you forget your wallet?

I’ll go home and get it unless I have my Easy Card with me.

5 假如你忘了你的錢包的話你會怎麼做?

我會回家拿,除非我有悠遊卡在身上。

假設語氣條件子句簡單小說明

潔西把最難的假設語氣用最簡單的方式說明,哈哈,真的嗎?能夠理解的話就太好了。

最近愛上亂畫圖的潔西,其實一般文法書沒有人這樣畫的,不過潔西自己覺得條件子句難其實就難在什麼時候用,究竟是真的,假的,還有句型,不同的時態要用不同的句型,但是這邊的句型因為是假的,所以要往前推一個變成過去與過去完成,所以容易混淆。希望這樣有比較容易理解

 

 

0:  現在的習慣,真的,可能發生的,慣性的

if      past —x—x—x— now —x—x—x— future     if + S + V1

結果  past —x—x—x— now —x—x—x— future           S + V1

If + S + V1, S + V1

If the weather is fine, I go hiking.           I go hiking if the weather is fine.

If my mom goes out, the dog barks.        When my mom goes out, the dog barks.

 

1: 未來有可能會發生的事實,真的

if      past ———— now ——x—— future             if + S + V1

結果  past ———— now ——x—— future                   S + will + V1

If + S + V1, S + will + V2

If it rains tomorrow, the concert will be canceled.   副詞子句會用現在簡單式來代替未來

If I want to be on time, I will have to leave early.

I will have to leave early if I want to be on time.

 

2: 跟現在事實相反的假設,假的

if      past ———— now (x) ————— future             if + S + V2

結果  past ———— now (x) ————— future                   S + would + V1

If + S + V2, S + would + V1

If I were rich, I would buy a new house.

If I had a lot of money, I would buy a new house.

If I were a bird, I could fly.

If I lived in Taipei, I wouldn’t have to take the HSR (high speed railway) to the airport.

If I were you, I would tell the truth.

 

3: 跟過去事實相反的假設,假的

if      past —— (x) —— now ————— future             if + S + had + V3

結果  past —— (x) —— now ————— future                   S + would + have + V3

If + S + had + V3, S + would + have + V3

If I had remembered her birthday, she wouldn’t have been so angry.

If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam.

If he had been more careful, he wouldn’t have lost his wallet.

If I hadn’t watched Korean dramas until late, I wouldn’t have been late this morning.

 

混合:if 子句是跟過去事實相反,結果子句是跟現在是相反,假的

if      past —— (x) ——  now ——————— future        if + S + had + V3

結果  past —————— now (x) ——————future              S + would + V1

If I had stayed in the U.S., I would speak English well now.

If he had attended the test, he would have a driver’s license now.

If I hadn’t eaten so much, I wouldn’t have a stomachache.

混合:if 子句是跟現在事實相反,結果子句是跟過去是相反,假的

if      past —————— now (x) —————— future        if + S + V2

結果  past —— (x) —— now ———————— future                S + would + have + V3

If she were a good student, she wouldn’t have skipped class.

If I finished my homework, I would have gone to the movies with my friends.

If I lived in Japan now, I would speak English well.

If I hadn’t slept so much, I would have recoded a few videos.

If didn’t cough a lot, my voice would sound much better.

【潔西家】文章的概念結構 第一部分 三種子句 第二部分 八大詞性

潔西非常用力地想要讓大家對於英文的句子文法的基礎架構有點概念,可是說來話好長,每次不知不覺就講了一個多小時,不過這樣比較詳細簡單易懂,自己安慰自己,哈哈哈,能看完的人真的很厲害。不過文章看不完,影片看得玩或聽得完的人應該有,因為不少人視聽覺學習的,用聽的還比較有效啊!

 

第一篇蠻誇張的,是吃了安眠藥上床睡覺後,不知怎麼睡不著又爬起來,早上起來還有點點印像,剛剛看一下部分,蝦米,有說過的話很多都沒印象,所以有錯誤的話再請提出,潔西有時間再去聽聽看,不過潔西吃安眠藥都能做義大利麵做比司吉了,應該還可以,不過真的很恐怖,沒辦法控制,所以睡前還是吃飽一點比較安全啊!

 

趕出門上課去,第二部分的答案等講第三部份五大句型的時候再補囉。

 

第一部分 三種子句

英文寫作,用英文寫 email 難嗎?恩,是真的沒有那麼簡單,但是也沒有那麼難,抓住一些 重點的話。

engineer 工程師,中式英文 I very like you. (x)  I like you very much. 我很喜歡他。

communication 溝通。 stay up all night 熬夜一整晚   home party

BYOB: bring your own beer 自己帶啤酒   beverage 飲料    body language 肢體語言

Switzerland 瑞士   open-minded 心胸開闊

這個世界上沒有所謂的圓滿,大家就是各退一步,就海闊天空了。

easygoing 隨和,容易相處。 PR  public relation 公關 nightmare 惡夢

glass ceiling 玻璃天花板,看不見阻礙。男生升遷,女生沒辦法  discrimination  歧視

價值觀  value

潔西的教學改寫作的經驗這麼多年下來覺得除了單字不足中式英文外,最大的問題應該是句

型跟邏輯的問題。邏輯?沒錯,就是邏輯。

 

下面廢話後面潔西把英文文章組合的整體大概念跟基本的句子,潔西盡量用口語能懂的方式

解釋了一下句型做一個簡單整理介紹,後面有一點練習,老王潔西自己覺得還蠻有用的,哈

哈,花了蠻多時間整理的,有空可以看一下。這是比較簡單的,更詳細的說明有空會再寫。

星期一的垃圾文提早了,因為等等要去看醫生,哈哈。

句型的話很多人對於英文的基本句型完全沒有概念,想要怎麼寫就寫,把想表達的意思用中 式英文寫,然後單字就直接去找中翻英的英文,完全沒管找到的那個字的詞性或用法,寫出 來真的是會很可怕的句子,恩,不可怕啦,只是人家看不懂XD

邏輯的話就是西方人是線性思考,尤其是寫作的時候,一樣一樣推斷,因為 A,所以 B, C,結論是 D。類似這樣,不過台灣人很常就是直接從A跳到D,省略中間很多東西,所以 讀者會根本不知道你要表達的是什麼,寫作很重要的一點事要從讀者的觀點來看文章,但是 很多人只是從自己的角度,你覺得應該別人會懂得,別人不一定會懂,跳得太快太遠了,常 常。

Where and how did you spend your New Year’s Eve?    I stayed home and did nothing.

How was your weekend?    I went to see a movie.

另外答非所問,比方說潔西問學生說上個週末過得如何?學生回答去看電影。這沒有回答到 問題大家有發現嗎? How was your weekend? 過得好?還是不好?開心?不開心?看電影 是你做的事,可能好看開心也可能不好看不開心。諸如此類的。

然後最最最重要的就是,當你要寫,或說一個英文句子的時候,麻煩不要直接用中翻英的句

子,要想想該怎麼樣把想要表達的意思套進英文句型寫出來。英文句型那麼多怎麼套?其實

英文句型沒有想像的複雜,最基本的句型記起來後,在做適當的連結,就可以把想要表達的

意思用正確的英文句子說出來了。

上星期代課講到的是連接詞,連接句子,這也是很多人的痛處,很多人寫文章都是一個句子

一個句子,沒有表達出中間的連貫性,文章就會單調乏味。

下面是潔西教寫作的時候整理的至少應該要知道的英文的基本句型,後面有點練習,可以參

考一下。真心覺得這學好英文的人一定要記住。

寫作的時候想想一篇文章的元素究竟是什麼呢?從最簡單的字母,幾個字母合成一個單字,

兩個以上的單字就組成片語,把一些單字適當組合,當中有主詞,動詞,跟其他必要部分就

可以成為子句,子句本身也可以是一個句子,或者把幾個子句合併成句子。然後幾個句子合

己來變成一個段落。一個段落可以就是一篇文章,但是也可以把幾個段落合併在一起變成一

篇文章。就這樣,簡單嗎?哈哈。不太難吧!

letter 字母 word 單字 phrase 片語 clause 子句 sentence 句子 paragraph 段落 essay 文章

下面解釋一下 1 字母 letter

英文有二十六個"字母" ,如”w”,潔西上課的冷笑話都是問學生英文有幾個字母,26?不 對,是24,為什麼?因為 ET 回家了,哈哈,好冷。不過前天學生很可愛說,老師是21個 啦,因為 UFO 也走了,哈哈,上課真開心。

2 單字 word一個或一個以上的字母組合就形成單字,如”a”, “walk”。記一個單字的時候一定要連詞性用法一起記,背再多單字不會用都沒用,所以與其被一堆單字,還不如多記片語跟句子。

我怕狗。 I afraid dog. (X)   I am afraid of dogs.    我喜歡咖啡。 I like coffee.

3 片語 phrase

兩個以上單字形成片語,有動詞片語、名詞片語、形容詞片語、副詞片語與介系詞片語等。 非常好用,不過不用死背,看到一個記一個,去背一整本片語書背完還是忘光的。片語 如“walk around”, “my friends”, “very spicy”, “very quickly”, “on the corner”

I’m thinking of you.  我在想你。

look for 尋找   I’m looking for a job. 我正在找工作。

look down on someone 看不起

look up on someone  尊重

generation gap 代溝

4 子句 clause:

當一些字中有一組主詞與動詞與其他必要部分的時候就叫一個子句。

because I can’t sleep

子句有分獨立子句跟非獨立子句:

a 獨立子句可以單獨存在

I can’t sleep. 我睡不著。

非獨立子句就像寄生蟲一樣,哈哈,一定要寄生在別人身上才活得下去,恩,就是必須搭配上獨子子句才能表達完整的語意,才能變成一個句子。

because i can’t sleep

I am streaming because I can’t sleep.

a 獨立子句 independent clause: 一些字當中有主詞,有動詞,語義完整。獨立子句本身表達一個完整的概念,能夠單獨存在

寫成一個句子。獨立子句如下:

I have the money. 我有錢。It’s not my fault. 這不是我的錯。

b 非獨立子句 dependent clause: 一些字當中有主詞,有動詞,但語意不完整,無法單獨成為一個完整的句子,需要依靠一個 主要子句來表達完整的語意。

非獨立子句如下 When I have the money 當我有錢的時候

Even though it was not my fault 雖然這不是我的錯 然後呢?

上面兩句的意思都不完整,需要再加上獨立子句才能成為一個句子。

When I have the money, I’ll buy a new Mac.  當我有錢的時候,我要去買一個新的筆電。

Even though it was not my fault, my boss fired me. 雖然這不是我的錯,我的老闆還是開除了我。

而在英文又有三種非獨立子句,這三種子句學生常常會單獨寫出來,其實是錯誤的,他們一

定要跟獨立子句結合才會成為一個完整的句子,表達正確的語意。

b1 名詞子句 noun clausethat Jon Snow will be the king 這就不是個完整的句子

名詞子句整個子句用來當名詞用,可以當主詞,受詞,或補語。 如:that Jon Snow will be the king 這是一個名詞子句,雖然有主詞有動詞,看起來語意感覺也完整,但是他的前面有 一個 that ,這個 that 本身沒有意義,但是因為有加上that,所以就不是完整的句子,但是 Jon Snow will be the king. 就是個完整的句子。

I think that Jon Snow will be the king. 我認為 Jon Snow 會當國王。

這才是一個完整的句子。 that Jon Snow will be the king 整個當名詞用,成為 think 的受詞用。

That the earth is round is true. 地球是圓的這件事是真的。

I don’t know where he lives. 我不知道他住在哪裡。

b2形容詞子句 adjective clause

who made the mess 有人弄得一團糟,也不是個完整的句子

形容詞子句是整個子句當形容詞用,用來修飾名詞。who made the mess,這就是個形容詞 子句,他的語意是不完整的,中文可能覺得語意完整啊,但是英文這樣的句子是不完整的, 所以呢要改成

The person who made the mess needs to clean it.

弄得一團糟的人需要去清理。這樣才是個完整的句子,而當中的 who made the mess 用來修飾前面的那個人 person。

The present I received yesterday is from Australia.

b3 副詞子句 adverb clause

If you were having an affair 假如你有外遇的話,這個子句語意不完整

副詞子句是整個字句當作副詞用,用來修飾表達跟主要子句之間的關係。如:If you were having an affair 假如你有外遇的話,這個子句語意不完整,這只是個條件,在這個條件下 會怎麼樣呢?

If you were having affair, I would kill you.

假如你有外遇的話,我就會殺了你。 好可怕的恐怖情人大家要小心啊!不過這樣子的結合就變成了一個完整的句子了。 if you were having an affair 就是個副詞子句,表示在這條件下會有什麼狀況。 所以上面這三個名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句都不會單獨存在,但是卻很常看到同學寫這樣的句子啊,請記住,他們都是寄生蟲,一定要找到適合的寄生對象啊!

Because I am hungry. (X)

When I get home. (X)

Because I’m hungry, I’m going to have instant noodles. 因為我餓了,所以我要去吃泡麵。

When I get home, my dog brings me my slippers. 當我回到家的時候,我的狗幫我拿拖鞋。

 

第二部分八大詞性

 

 

潔西家英語教室            Jessie

八大詞類( the parts of speech) 要學好英文,詞性非常重要。學到一個新單字的時候要先注意它的詞性,不同詞性的用法可 能不同,適用於不同句型的句子。千萬不可以只是中翻英。翻譯這兩個句子:

他對小孩子沒耐心。 He has no patience with kids. / He is not patient with kids.

我對英文很有興趣。 I’m interested in English. / I have an interest in English.

English is interesting. 英文很有趣。

He is allergic to peanuts. / He has an allergy to peanuts. 他對花生過敏。

每個英文單字都可以歸類為英文的八大詞類之一。同一個字可能有好幾種不同的詞性。如:

Love is in the air. 愛在空中。與 I love you. 這兩個句子中love 分別是名詞與動詞。同一個字的詞性不 同時,意義也可能不同。如:在The exam was really hard.中這個句子的hard是形容詞, 表示困難的。work hard, play hard這個片語的hard是副詞,表示程度上很努力地做某事。 所以記單字時要一併把詞性跟用法記住才能寫出與說出正確的句子。

八大詞類( the parts of speech) 分別是動詞,名詞,代名詞,形容詞,副詞,連接詞,介系詞跟感歎詞。

  1. 動詞 (verbs):

用來描述一個動作或狀態的字。在英文當中可說是最重要也最困難的。一般放在主詞的 後面。英文用動詞來表達時態,主動被動。動詞主要分三種。

  1. 行為動詞:用來表達主詞的行為或動作。又可分

(a.)不及物動詞 intransitive verb 不及物動詞表達主詞所作的動作,後面不需要受詞。

Time flies. 時光飛逝。

Time flies when you’re having fun.
當你很開心的時候時間就過得很快。

My father shaves. 我爸爸刮鬍子。

My father shaves every morning before he goes to work. 我爸爸每天早上上班前刮鬍子。

(b.)及物動詞 transitive verb 及物動詞把主詞的動作轉移到另外一個名詞,也就是受詞的身上,所以及物動詞後 面一定有一個接受動作的受詞。有些特別的動詞(授與動詞)會有兩個受詞。

He bought a diamond engagement ring.
他買了一個訂婚鑽戒

He bought a diamond engagement ring for his girlfriend last night.

他昨天晚上買了一個訂婚鑽戒給他的女朋友。

Tim ate three hamburgers.
提姆吃了三個漢堡。

Tim ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry. 提姆吃了三個漢堡,因為他非常餓。

 

Do you have a dog? 你有狗嗎? Yes, I have. (X) Yes, I have a dog. Yes, I do.

Have you eaten French food? 你吃過法國料理嗎? Yes, I have. / Yes, I have eaten French food.

Do you like cats? 你喜歡貓嗎?  Yes, I like. (X) Yes, I like cats/them. Yes, I do.

 

  1. 連綴動詞 linking verb 連綴動詞經常用來表達狀態,或一些小動作,比方說 be 動詞,感官動詞。連綴動詞把主詞動詞後面的主詞補語連 接在一起。主詞補語通常是名詞或形容詞。主詞補語為名詞時,會等於主詞。主詞補 語為形容詞是用來修飾主詞。

I’m Jessie. My name is Jessie. I’m heavy. 我很胖。

I feel sick. 我覺得不舒服。  I don’t feel comfortable. (?) 我不舒服。 I don’t feel well.

You look tired. 你看起來很累。

My mother is a housewife. 我媽媽是家庭主婦。

  1. 助動詞 auxiliary verb 助動詞與主要動詞合併起來成為一個動詞片語,用來表達時態或語態等。 The band is coming to Taiwan next month.
那個樂團下個月要來台灣。現在進行式

He didn’t go to school yesterday.
他昨天沒去上課。過去式

I can’t swim. 我不會游泳。

May I help you? 我可以幫你嗎?

 

動詞: 動詞的四個面貌:動詞依時態不同會有不同的面貌

1 Present (V1) 動詞原型:

I work from nine to five.
我朝九晚五。現在簡單式,不定詞 to 的後面。

I eat an apple every morning. 我每天早上吃一顆蘋果。

 

2 Past (V2) 動詞過去式

I worked late last night.
我昨天晚上加班。 Work overtime 加班 過去簡單式

I ate an apple this morning. 我今天早上吃一顆蘋果。

 

3 Past Participle (V3) 動詞過去分詞:

I have worked hard.
我一直以來工作勤奮。現在完成式。過去完成式,未來完成,被動。

I have eaten a lot today. 我今天吃好多啊。

An apple is eaten by me every day. 我每天早上吃一顆蘋果。

Romeo and Juliet was written by Shakespeare. 羅密歐與茱麗葉是莎士比亞寫的。

 

4 Present Participle (V-ing) 動詞現在分詞:

I am working now. 我正在工作。

I was eating lunch at this time yesterday. 昨天這個時候我正在吃午餐。

I afraid dog. (X)  I’m afraid of dogs. 我怕狗。

  1. 名詞 (nouns):名詞用來表達人、事、物、地等。英文句子的構成要件就是主詞跟動詞。 名詞用來當主詞、受詞與補語。名詞當主詞時放在句首,當受詞與補語時放在動詞後 面。主詞一定要是名詞,所以當要表達的字是動詞時,必須把動詞加上 ing 成為動名詞或 加上不定詞 to。名詞可以接在其他詞類後形成片語。只有形容詞才可以用來修飾名詞。 如:Peter, Taipei, table, truth..等。

He is a hardworking student. 他是個努力的學生。

He plays basketball good. (x)  He plays basketball well. 他籃球打得很好。

He is a good basketball player. 他籃球打得很好。

Albert is a nice guy. 亞伯特是個好人。

Barack Obama is the current President of the United States. 歐巴馬是現任美國總統。

Baking and swimming are my hobbies. 烘焙跟游泳是我的興趣。

Playing online game is fun. 打線上遊戲很好玩。

 

  1. 代名詞 (pronouns):是用來取代名詞的字。前面已經提過的名詞或是說話的人彼此都知 
道的名詞都可用代名詞代替。主要是避免重複。用法與主詞雷同。 如:you, him, herself, everyone, this, which, what…等。

Where does your father work? He works in China. 你父親在哪裡工作?他在大陸工作。

Will you give me your name and phone number?你願意給我你的名字跟電話號碼嗎?

My father is very tall. He’s one meter 85. 我爸很高。他一百八十五公分。

  1. 形容詞 (adjectives):用來形容、描述、說明一個名詞或代名詞。形容詞多放在修飾的名詞前或放在連綴動詞後。用時注意形容詞有表達正面的跟表達負面的形容詞,另外有比較級,有最高級。如:hot, Taiwanese, her, that, some, whose…

aggressive 有野心的 talkative 愛講話的,awesome 超讚,awful 超爛

The most popular Taiwanese drink is probably pearl milk tea.

台灣最熱門的飲料大概是珍珠奶茶。

The coffee tastes bitter. 那咖啡很苦。

  1. 副詞 (adverbs):用來修飾動詞、形容詞,副詞,或整個句子,表達程度,次數,頻率 等等。副詞不可以修飾名詞。副詞的移動性很高,常放在動詞後,形容詞前,也可放句首或句尾。不同的副詞按照強調的部分不同,可放不同地方,意義也會有所不同。頻率副詞多放一般動詞前,be動詞後。 
如:always, usually, sometimes, quickly, late, very…等。

I always get up early.  我總是早起。

I’m always late. 我總是遲到。

Fortunately, she won the lottery. 很幸運地,她贏了彩卷。

It’s appropriate not to take your shoes off at the door.

not為副詞,修飾to take your shoes off at the door,意思是在門口不脫鞋是恰當的。

在有些國家,鞋子可以直接穿進屋子裡,所以在門口不用脫鞋子,這是合宜的做法。

It’s not appropriate to take your shoes off at the door.
not 為副詞,修飾appropriate,意思是在門口脫鞋是不恰當的。

在台灣,可以在門口脫鞋子,可是在有些國家,把門口把鞋子脫掉卻是不合宜的做法。

It’s okay not to take medicine. 不吃藥沒關係。

It’s not OK to take medicine. 吃藥是不可以的。

 

  1. 連接詞 (conjunctions):用來連接單字 (words)、片語 (phrases)或子句 (clauses)。注 意連接詞所連接的詞性必須一致。
  2. 對等連接詞 coordinating conjunctions :and,but,for,or,yet,so
  3. 從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunctions: if, before, because, when
  4. 關係連接詞 correlative conjunctions :either…or, neither…nor, both…and, whether…or, not only…but also

It was raining, but they still went to the park. 雖然下雨了,他們還是去公園。.

Although John was sick, he still went to work. 雖然約翰生病了,但是他還是去工作。

He’s the kind of person you either love or hate. 他是那種你要嘛就喜歡不然就討厭的人。

  1. 介係詞 (prepositions):用來表達兩件事物的關係,如位置、方向、空間、時間或因果等。後面一定要加名詞,代名詞或動名詞結合成介係詞片語。 如:about, around, in, on, of, under, with, between, for… 等。

He arrived in London on Sunday morning. 他在星期天早上抵達倫敦。

I get up at 7 o’clock from Monday to Friday 星期一到星期五,我七點起床。

I’m looking forward to seeing you. 我很期待見到你。 (O)

  1. 感嘆詞 (interjections):用來表達強烈的情緒或驚訝。 如:oh, wow, yeah, ouch…等。

Oh! I didn’t know that was you. 喔!我不知道那是你。

Wow! It’s unbelievable. 哇!真是不可思議。

Ouch! You stepped on my foot!好痛!你踩到我的叫了。

Crowded 擁擠的  Don’t push me. 別推我。

閱讀下列短文,寫出每個詞性的前三個字,不要重複。

Tom thinks Mary is wonderful. He loves her madly, and he dreams of marrying her, but unfortunately he is too old for her. Today they are at a café with their friends Mandy and Jack, so Tom can’t get romantic with Mary.

  1. 動詞verb:
  2. 名詞noun:
  3. 代名詞pronoun:
  4. 形容詞adjective:
  5. 副詞adverb:
  6. 連接詞conjunction:
  7. 介系詞preposition:

【潔西家】形容詞子句解說 如何選擇正確的關係代名詞

史上最長影片,為什麼是潔西八百多年前的泳裝照做封面XD ,發文後又不是,還好,呼!

 

今天剛好下午跟晚上的同學都請假,所以原本應該很忙的潔西就悠哉悠哉混了一天,順便放放在 FB 上的文,超累的,講了兩個小時,上課都沒有這麼累,講得很細,希望很清楚,但是實在太長了,建議可能做家事的時候放著聽,或睡前,睡不著的人應該馬上睡著了,哈哈哈。餓呆了,不知要吃什麼啊,小寶今天沒來陪潔西吃飯,隨便吃吃好了。先這樣,有相關問題可以留言,接下來這幾天應該都會很忙,什麼時候有空回就不知道了,啊,這個星期超忙的,聖誕節快到了,一早帶聖誕帽的潔西,恩,不是,是皮卡丘提醒了潔西。潔西今天收老弟的包裹被郵差問說您是他的?潔西剛睡醒,居然回答弟弟,然後看到偷笑的郵差趕快改口,他是我弟弟,唉,語無倫次了,不行,上課還是要睡飽飽,好好認真清楚的上課。

 

今天其實真的很感動,恩,是昨天,但是潔西很慢,所以回的很慢,潔西大概三不五時會發作一次,冬天頻率偏高,就一整個斷線壞掉,謝謝大家又修好了,哈哈。

 

潔西與聖誕皮卡丘提前祝大家聖誕佳節快樂!謝謝大家這一年來的照顧,往後也請繼續支持與鼓勵。

蝦米?還在玩寶可夢?很久沒玩了,今天心血來潮打開就看到聖誕皮卡丘,早上五點半能讓潔西走出家門的大概也只有他了。潔西跟皮卡丘很無緣,玩了好幾個月只捉到一隻,不過聽說這次量產,到處都是。

冬天到了,情緒相當地不穩定,想做的事太多,但是呢身體狀況卻又沒那麼好,牙齒痛大概是壓垮駱駝的最後一根稻草 the straw that broke the camel’s back ,每天痛每天睡每天想做的事都只能勉強做幾件事,有時候會突然開始自我懷疑,自己究竟在做什麼?雖然也不是做得不開心,不知道耶,人性吧。

真的非常感謝留言分享鼓勵支持的網友們同學們,其實潔西本來就是一直在做自己想做的事,很難做自己不喜歡的是,至於有沒有意義就像潔西昨天放在自己FB上說的,意義是自己給的。假如很多人跳出來說,不要浪費時間錄影片了,反正又沒人看也賺不到錢,哈哈哈,潔西也是笑笑,就繼續錄,因為是自己喜歡做的事,但是人都有惰性,很多時候要給自己充份的理由去做一些即便是自己喜歡想做的事,這樣解釋不知道能不能被理解。應該可以吧,尤其假如是有關注這個專頁一陣子的人。潔西大概每年冬天都會發作幾次,哈哈哈。

躁鬱症的最大缺點之一潔西自己覺得是你可以看到自己的淺力,可以做到看到自己發揮百分百的時候的良好狀況是什麼,在不知不覺中就會對自己的要求越來越高,但是通常百分百發揮大概只有一年365天中的不到5天吧,什麼都不想做的無力感的日子卻可能有兩百天以上,很容易對自己產生不滿,但是又要一邊跟自己拔河,因為知道自己不是懶散什麼都不做的人,但是就是有那種死賴在床上沒法動的時間很多時會有極端的自我厭惡對自己產生懷疑,對所有的事情,人生都產生懷疑,尤其事情不順遂的時候。

其實沒有什麼大問題但是就弄的一個好像世界要毀滅一樣的自我恐慌的 drama queen ,其實定下心來,真的地球一樣繞著太陽轉,北極冰河完全融化時可能潔西也看不到那天,天塌下來都還有很多比潔西高的人頂著,潔西先前教的電競學生一排站出來,每個都比潔西高,給他們頂著就好了,哈哈。

想睡了,昨天吃飽飯九點就昏迷到半夜一點半醒來,摸到早上現在七點多,下午跟晚上都要上課,先去補眠一下,這作息一直調不過來,真害,就做目前所能做得最好的事,想做有空的時候就會發發廢文翻譯歌詞錄錄影片,不想做不能動的時候就躺在床上發呆放空等著心情不好的那段時間過了再來補做想做的事,工作優先,家人優先,健康優先,其他大概就只能放到有空的時候了。睡覺去。下面是昨天突然很傷心的時候在 FB 發的文,再下面是回留言鼓勵的人,因為有些人可能關了通知,所以再發一次,另外分享一下潔西最近喜歡的歌單,有空會挑幾首來翻,有好幾首都蠻想翻的,但是還生不出時間來,加油中,再次謝謝大家:)

Sadness Attacks
夜深人靜的空虛

生存的價值何在?生命的意義何在?

沒有人可以給你答案

為了什麼努力?為了什麼奮鬥?

做自己想做的事就是正確的嗎?

逃避

給自己太多的藉口

終究,在終點來臨時

回首望去

開心地完成許多自己想做的事

還是懊惱許多想做沒做的事

一直任性地按照著自己的腳步做著自己想做的事錯了嗎?

別人的諒解眼光重要嗎?

朝著自己想要的目標一直前進

會不會有一天突然覺醒

這真的是自己想要的嗎?

迷惑,猶豫,傷心,空虛,寂寞,無奈

善意,鼓勵,支持,關懷,分享,安慰

錯綜複雜

人性的真善美與人性的醜陋骯髒無恥是並存的

接受與不接受,喜歡與不喜歡

似乎沒有選擇的餘地

把自己修到空的境界又如何?

虛無渺茫的東西值得追尋嗎?

上天堂下地獄又如何?

與這現世有何差別?

意義是自己定義的,意義是自己追尋的

沒有人能幫你做出最好決定,沒有人能代替你過你的生活

人與人之間的虛情假意真情流露

發生在身上的時候不一定能接受

黑暗的夜晚,黑暗的心情

太陽照射就會消失嗎?

躲到陰影下去了

在人前的面具是不可少的

是面具?是真實的自我?

有時候自己都弄不清了

大家喜歡的是哪一個呢?

大家分得清楚是哪一個嗎?

無所謂

真的無所謂

這年頭自己的事都應付不完了

誰理你啊?

最大的敵人:自己

最好的朋友:自己

潔西酒後的心聲,其實正常的時候都很看得開,斷線時就很鑽牛角尖,但是自己覺得說得很真啊,這人生….

言語難以形容的感激,謝謝大家:) 每個留言我都有仔細看,看了好幾遍,要牢牢記在心中,不過這幾天課比較多,又睡比較多,所以就沒能一一回,請大家諒解,謝謝。然後一直拖著沒回也是因為知道只要開始打字就會像現在這樣撲通撲通的淚水一直流,是很開心的,所以沒關係,哈哈。謝謝大家包容潔西的任性,人多多少少走到某個地方就會開始疑惑,我自己覺得這也不是件壞事,比一直走走走走最後不知道自己究竟在做什麼好得多。謝謝浮上水面給予鼓勵或繼續潛水沒沒支持的網友們,有了滿滿的鼓勵與支持,當然就要更努力地繼續做自己想做的是,繼續努力加油中!Fighting! (大家有沒有出現小寶所謂日本動漫都會有的比賽前大家把手一起碟再一起,大喊 Fighting! 的畫面呢,哈哈,熱血沸騰中有嗎XD)

 

 

 

選擇正確的關係代名詞:

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.

2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.

3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.

4. Ms. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.

5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.

6. I like the people with _______ I work.

7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.

8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.

9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.

10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.

12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.

13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

 

 

形容詞子句  Adjective Clause  / 關係子句 Relative Clause

 

三種子句

1 名詞子句

2 形容詞子句

3 副詞子句

 

形容詞修飾名詞

副詞修飾形容詞,副詞,動詞,整個句子,不能修飾名詞

 

A. 修飾名詞

1 如何修飾名詞

a 形容詞 adjectives

形容詞可以用來修飾(modify)名詞,就是加以說明,描述,做些許的改變,名詞加了形容詞後意思可能大不相同。形容詞多放在名詞前面或連綴動詞後面。

May is a happy girl.  Linda is an unhappy girl.

He is late.  He became angry.

 

b 介系詞片語 preposition phrases

介系詞片語就是由介系詞跟名詞結合成的片語,可以用來說明修飾名詞。放在修飾的名詞的後面。

My brother is the man in the white suit.

My brother is the man wearing the white suit.

Sandy is the tall woman with red hair.

I have a sister with three children.

 

c 形容詞子句adjective clause

形容詞子句跟形容詞一樣,只可以用來修飾名詞,對於名詞加以描述,用來做辨別用或提供一些額外的訊息。當描述的內容無法用一個形容詞,或者包括了動詞時可以用形容詞子句來說明,修飾名詞。形容詞子句永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。

I don’t like people who cut in line. 我不喜歡插隊的人。

people 先行詞,who 關係代名詞

New York is a city that never sleeps. 紐約市個不睡覺的城市。

city 先行詞,that 關係代名詞

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句,也叫做關係子句,是非獨立子句 independent clause 的一種。整個子句當作形容詞,用來修飾名詞或代名詞。用來提供更多有關先前提到的某人,某事的資訊,用來辨識某人某物用來給予額外的資訊,用來給予評論等。常會是兩個句子的合併。

A: I saw Jason the other day. 我前幾天看到傑森。

B: Jason? The guy who plays the guitar? 傑森?那個彈吉他的人嗎?

Is he the guy who plays the guitar?

A: No, that’s Jackson. Jason is the student who dropped out of college, the one

who never did any studying. He’s working at Davidson’s now, the shop that

sells very expensive clothes.

不是,那是傑克森。傑森是那個從大學休學,那個從來都不唸書的人。他現在

在戴維森上班,那間賣很貴的衣服的店。  cheating 作弊

 

a 辨識 identify: 在這個對話中形容子句用來辨別談話的對象是哪一個人或哪一件

事。子句 who plays the guitar 用來告所我們 B 所要表達的人。而 that sells

very expensive clothes 則是用來告訴我們 A 所要表達的店家。

 

b 描述事情 describe: That’s the house where my parents live in.  那就是我爸媽住的房子。

 

c 給予更多資訊 extra information: My friend Andy, who lives in Switzerland, is a

CEO. 我的朋友安迪,住在瑞士,是個總裁。

 

d 給評論 comment:The team won the championship, which shocked the opponent. 那隊贏了比賽,嚇到他的對手。

 

e 合併句子:I have a friend. 我有個朋友。He lives in New York. 他住紐約。可以結合成 I have a friend who lives in New York. 我有個住紐約的朋友。

用關係代名詞來代替前面說過的名詞,而不重複該名詞。

travel around the world 環遊世界  travel by yourself 自助旅行

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句是後衛修飾,永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。中文多是用前衛修飾,把形容詞放在修飾名詞前面。例如說,我住在美國的姊姊有三個小孩。當修飾內容有動詞時,英文不可以直接把形容堆在名詞前面。所以除了前衛也常用後衛修飾,把形容詞或形容詞子句放到所要形容的名詞或代名詞後面。

The bride must wear something old, something new, something borrowed, and something blue. 新娘子必須穿舊的,新的,借的,藍色的東西。

My sister who lives in the U.S. has three children.

I live in the U.S. sister has three children.  (X)

 

 

that the earth is round (X)  名詞子句

The earth is round. 地球是圓的。(o)

That the earth is round is true. (o) 地球是圓的是真的。 

 

形容詞子句 先行詞 that 

I think that he is handsome.  我覺得他很帥。

 

名詞子句 帶領連接詞 that 

 

before I go to bed (x) 副詞子句

I brush my teeth every day. 我每天刷牙。(o) 

I brush my teeth every day before I go to bed. 

我每天上床睡覺前刷牙(o)

 

2 名詞解釋

a 子句: 是由一組的字所組成,其中包括主詞與動詞,可能為獨立或非獨立子句。

 

b 獨立子句: 是一個完整的句子,其中包括主要的主詞與動詞,語意完整,可以

單獨存在。可以最為主要子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

 

c 非獨立子句: 是一個不完整的句子,如名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。由從

屬連接詞,關係代名詞,疑問詞等為首帶領的子句。雖然其中也包括了主詞與

動詞,但是語意不完整,需要與獨立子句結合,才能為一個完整的句子。

 

d 形容詞子句: 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。形容詞子句也叫做關係子句。

 

e 關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有 who, whom,   which, that 跟 whose。關係副詞有 when, where, why。

 

f 先行詞: 形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多緊接在先行詞後面。

My sister has two children. She lives in the U.S. 可以合併為

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children. 而這個句子中

獨立子句/主要子句:My sister has two children.

非獨立子句/形容詞子句:who lives in the U.S.,用來修飾sister

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:sister

 

g 限定性形容詞子句: 用來辨別,限定前面的先行詞所以是必要的,不可省略,子

句前後都不可以有逗點。

 

h 非限定性形容詞子句: 用來修飾前面的先行詞,給與額外的資訊,所以可以省略,必須用逗號把它跟主要子句分開。先行詞為專有名詞時多為非限定性形容詞子句。

限定子句:My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

(我有幾個姊姊其中一個有兩個小孩)

非限定子句:My sister, who lives in the U.S., has two children.

(我只有一個姊姊,她有兩個小孩)

 

H. 學習形容詞子句的重點

第一,注意形容詞子句的位置。應該盡量緊跟著先行詞。先行詞一定是名詞。

第二,選擇正確的關係代名詞。

第三,不要重複關係代名詞與代替的字。 I like the book that she wrote it. (x)

第四,注意形容詞子句中的動詞與主詞須一致。

第五,注意形容詞子句為限定或非限定。標上需要的逗號。

 

1. 關係代名詞的位置

關係代名詞所帶領的形容詞子句應緊接著先行詞,放在先行詞後面。先行詞一定是名詞,名詞片語或代名詞。

a. 形容詞子句可能在句中也可能在句尾。

I have a friend who speaks five languages.

我有個講五種語言的朋友。

I have a friend Andy, who speaks five languages.

我有個朋友安迪,他會講五種語言。

My friend who lives in Switzerland speaks five languages.

My friend Andy, who lives in Switzerland, speaks five languages.

 

b. 形容詞子句假如沒有緊接著先行詞容易造成誤解。

He left the car on the street that he had just bought.

他把車子放在他剛買的那條街上。

He left the car that he had just bought on the street. (比較清楚)

他把他剛買的車子放在街上。

 

c. 形容詞子句有少數不直接跟在先行詞後面。通常是先行詞後有介系詞片語時,為了語意的完整,會放在介系詞片語的後面,但比較少見。

The first thanksgiving feast in the United States, which took place in 1621,

lasted three days.

在美國的第一個感恩節慶典在1621年舉辦,持續了三天

d. 形容詞子句也可以用來修飾整個句子,這時用 which來帶領形容詞子句,一定放在句尾,一定為非限定。

The team won the championship, which shocked the opponents.

那隊贏得冠軍嚇到對手

 

2. 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

選擇關係代名詞。形容詞子句常為兩個句子的結合。關係代名詞應使用主格、所有格或受格是依形容詞子句中與先行詞重複的部分在形容詞子句的位置來決定。可將主要子句與形容詞子句分為兩個句子來看,找出重複的部分。

a. 主格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister has two children.

My sister who has two children lives in Canada. 我有兩個小孩的姊姊住加拿大。

S + V + O

 

b. 受格

My sister lives in Canada. You talked to my sister last night.

My sister whom you talked to last night lives in Canada.

S + V + O

 

c. 所有格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister’s children are doctors.

My sister whose children are doctors lives in Canada.

我的那個小孩是醫生的姊姊住在加拿大

我住在加拿大的姊姊孩子是醫生。

 

2. 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

關係代名詞種類

關係代名詞 :人   who, whom, whose, that  事,物  which, whose, that

關係副詞:    時間 when       地方 where     原因 why

 

關係代名詞種類

主詞(主格) 受詞(受格) 介係詞+受詞 形容詞(所有格)
 

限定

 

 

 

 

 

who

that

 

whom

who

that

X

whom…to

who…to

that… to

X…  to

to whom

whose
事,物 which

that

which

that

X

which …to

that…  to

X…   to

to which

whose
 

非限定

 

who whom whom … to

to whom

whose
事,物 which which which… to

to which

whose

x 表示省略

逗號後面不可以加 that

Excuse me. 失陪一下。

I have to use the bathroom. I have to go to the bathroom. 我必須去洗手間。

rest room  public rest room 公廁

2 broke girls  破產姐妹花

dirty joke 黃色笑話

I have to powder my nose. 我必須去幫我的鼻子上粉。有禮貌的說要去上廁所。

 

選擇正確的關係代名詞解答部分

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.

S        (                                     ) V

The people who moved into town are Italian.

 

2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown  is beautiful but quite expensive.

S        (  which/that/x                  ) V

The lamp is beautiful but quite expensive.

I bought the lamp downtown.

The lamp which/that/x I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.

我在市區買的那盞燈很漂亮但是很貴。

expensive taste 昂貴的品味

 

3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.

Everyone came to the audition. Everyone got a part in the play.

Everyone who came to the audition got a part in the play.

每個來試鏡的人都有拿到劇本中的一個角色。

 

4. Ms. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.

S          V                (adj clause)

Ms. Rice is the teacher.

I enjoy Ms. Rice’s class most.

Ms. Rice is the teacher whose class I enjoy most.

我最喜歡萊斯小姐的課。

 

5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.

S                                                                 V

The man had collapsed from heat exhaustion.

I found the man in the doorway.

The man who/whom/that/x I found in the doorway had collapsed form heat exhaustion.

那個我在門廊發現的男人因為熱衰竭暈倒了。

 

6. I like the people with _______ I work.

I like the people.   I work with the people.

I like the people who/whom/that/x I work with.

I like the people with whom I work.

我喜歡跟我一起工作的人。

 

7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.

I have a friend. My friend’s father is a famous artist.

I have a friend whose father is a famous artist.

我有個朋友的爸爸是個有名的藝術家。

I have a friend’s father is a famous artist. (X)

 

8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.

The camera takes very sharp pictures. I bought the camera.

The camera which/that/x I bought takes very sharp pictures.

我買的那台相機拍的照片很漂亮。

 

9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.

Students have to budget their time very carefully.

Students have part-time jobs.

Students who/that have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.

有兼差工作的學生必須要很小心的規劃他們的時間。

 

10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

Flying squirrels stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

Flying squirrels live in tropical rain forests.

Flying squirrels which/that live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

住在熱帶雨林的飛鼠會一輩子待在樹上不會碰到地面。

 

11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.

The people were a little upset.

I dented the people’s car.

The people whose car I dented were a little upset.

我撞到他們車子的那些人不太開心。

 

12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.

The person is the Director of Admission.

You should send your application to the person.

The person whom/who/that/x you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.

The person to whom you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.你應該寄你的申請書的那個人是主任委員。

 

13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

Monkeys will eat almost anything. Monkeys can find anything.

Monkeys will eat almost anything which/that/x they can find.

猴子幾乎會吃任何他可以找到的食物。

I wear the jacket, the jacket of my father is old. (x)

I wear my father’s old jacket. 我穿我爸的舊外套。

形容詞子句,關係副詞,限定子句,非限定子句

 

TGIF Thank God It’s Friday 感謝老天星期五了!而且快下班了
 
收拾好東西坐等放假?不是潔西啊,潔西準備上課的東西準備到頭到暈了。又是形容詞子句,寫不完改不完的形容詞子句XD 練習練習再練習。明天要帶的文法課還是形容詞子句,不過學生不同,也不知道會有什麼反應,反正多準備一些,寫清楚一點,就算上課潔西口齒不清希望學生回去自己看也能看得懂,希望如此啦。
 
潔西的外甥大寶今天一早出發騎腳踏車環島,居然快到台中了,原來騎腳踏車一天就可以騎到台中,不過覺得他應該超拼的啊。還好他平常暑假放假每天就打籃球,從早打到晚也不是沒有,所以體能應該沒問題,十八歲了,在桃園遇到善心人士給了他兩大瓶水跟貝果,但是水好重啊,他說。背著兩瓶重重的水的確很辛苦,快快喝掉或用來灑在身上應該也不錯。潔西三不五時就看一下 FB ,看他到哪裡了,從桃園大溪到新竹到苗栗不停繼續往前,西濱。現在看他直播,現在離台中還有14公里,他說有夠遠,沒有什麼人騎車只有他一個人孤單寂寞XD。發現原來沿途都有步道或腳踏車道,還挺方便的。有個藍天橋還蠻美的,不過他說永無止盡的道路。然後超好笑的,他說好熱,想下去玩水,然後接著又說啊,沒有帶泳帽,自己又想到說,對喔,去海邊不用泳帽,還說不知道講話大家能不能聽到,不過沒關係,自言自語也可以,幫自己加油等等,今天一直都在自言自語,果然是念表演藝術科的,自己一個人演得很開心啊!
 
然後他在直播的時候說誰在看,他媽媽寫老母,我本來要寫你老母跟我,但是發現好像在罵人啊,哈哈。他舅舅交代,這剛新買的手機不要一直曬太陽。他停了一下又繼續,說海風很舒服,不錯玩,但是有點累,風聲好大聲,比新竹的風聲還大啊!他說路上很多人幫他加油,各種好心人問他要不要幫忙,台灣人真好。聽了放心多了。因為今天眼皮一直跳,容易擔心的阿姨啊!
 
潔西則是一直坐在電腦前,跟著大寶遊台灣,不過也只有今天,明天後天都要上課。從昨天到今天一直都在備課,明後天的課,上課星期因為小寶帶朋友來家裡做蛋糕跟餅乾,潔西上星期六一早就起來整理家裡,然後他們來了就做餅乾蛋糕,晚上又帶他們去吃熱炒,吃飽回家開始備課的時候大概十點多,想說弄到十二點就好了,結果摸到四點,哪來哪麼多東西好備?其實是太混嗎?最近潔西都一邊備課一邊看日劇或美劇,不過今天真的難得,怕備不完,非常焦慮,所以呢,也沒有看劇,只有聽聽音樂配配大寶的直播。又餓了,又好累,還有一堂寫作還沒備好。
 
這形容詞子句的文法一邊改一邊發現好幾個地方錯,像什麼第三人稱的單數沒加到 s ,拼字拼錯之類的, 啊….好多錯,發現的人再請提醒,這篇,希望沒有太多錯。吃個飯,休息一下,繼續準備去:)
 
關係代名詞 :人   who, whom, whose, that 事,物  which, whose, that
關係副詞:    時間 when 地方 where 原因 why
 
x 表示省略
 
A 關係副詞 when, where, why, how
where, when, why, how 皆為關係副詞,可用來帶領形容詞子句,分別表地點, 時間, 原因,方式可用在限定或非限定子句。
where = the place where, when = the time when,
why = the reason why, how = the way in which
 
1 關係副詞 when
when
當要表示在某個時間(年,日,時間等)時,常會用時間介系詞 at, in, on 等加上時間來表示。
比方說I get up at 8.  He graduate in June.  We met on my birthday.
 
關係副詞when的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達時間時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用when來代替。所以when可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。除了將介系詞放在which前外,其他用法時介系詞都會省略掉。
所以假如要表達這就是我記得我遇到他的那一天,可以用下面的表達方式
可以想做是 I remember the day. 與 I met him on that day. 這兩個句子的合併。
I remember the day. I met him on that day.
I remember the day when I met him. 這裡可以用 when 取代 on which。
I remember the day on which I met him. 正式用法可以把介系詞 on 放到 which 前,不可省。
I remember the day that I met him.  這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同,on需省略
I remember the day I met him.  受詞的 that 跟 which 都可以省略,on也必須省略。
 
上面 when 可以省略掉,因為上列句子中只有當介系詞 on 在前面的時候才會出現介系詞,所以 when 可以直接省略掉。
練習一 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 Sunday is the day. We will come on that day.
2 8:30 is the time. My plane arrives at that time.
3 August is the month. The weather is usually the hottest in that month.
4 1960 is the year. The revolution took place in that year.
 
2 關係副詞 where
當要表示在某個地點(城市,國家,房間)時,常會用方位介系詞 in,on, at 等加上地點來表示。
比方說I am at home. My father is in his office.  The book is on the table.
 
關係副詞where的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達地點時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用where來代替。所以where 可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。
 
所以假如要表達這就是她工作的那間圖書館,可以用下面的表達方式
可以想做是That’s is the library. 與 She works in the library. 這兩個句子的合併。
 
That’s is the library. She works in the library.
 
That’s the library where she works.   在這裡可以用 where 取代 in which。
That’s the library in which she works.  正式用法可以把介系詞in放到which前面。
That’s the library which she works in.  which 可單獨放在句首,介系詞 in 不可省
That’s the library that she works in.  在這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同。
That’s the library she works in.  受詞的that 跟which都可以省,所以這裡只剩下不可省的in。
 
上面的句子 where 不可以直接省略掉,因為省略後的介系詞少掉了,所以只可以用最後一個句子 That’s the library she works in. 不可以用 That’s the library she works. (X)
 
因為where相當於“介系詞 + which ”,所以並不是所有地點都可以用where代替。當形容詞子句的地點是主格時,不會有介系詞,就只能用which,不可以用where。形容詞子句中一定要有介系詞加上受格which時,才可以用where代替。常見錯誤是誤用where來取代主格的which。
 
例如要合併下列兩個句子有兩種方式:
I was born and grew up in Taipei. (1) Taipei is the capital of Taiwan. (2)
第一種合併方式,用第一句當主要子句,因為第二句的形容詞子句的Taipei是主格,所以並沒有介系詞,只有地點,所以不能用where,只能用which來帶領形容詞子句。
I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.  
 
第二種合併方式,用第二個句子當主要子句,因為第一個句子中有in Taipei,所以可以用where來帶領形容詞字句。又有逗點時不可以用in which,只可以用where。
Taipei, which I was born and grew up in, is the capital of Taiwan.
Taipei, where I was born and grew up, is the capital city of Taiwan.
 
練習二 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation in that city.
2 That is the restaurant. I will meet you at that restaurant.
3 The town is small. I grew up in that town.
4 That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry in that drawer.
 
練習三 把兩個句子合併成一個句子
That man was Anna’s brother. He just walked past.
— The man who just walked past was Anna’s brother.
1 The plane was twenty-five years old. It crashed.
The plane ____________________________ twenty-five years old.
2 One day Tessa was ill in bed. Martin rang.
The day ____________________________ ill in bed.
3 Our offices are in Queen Street. They’re new.
Our ____________________________ in Queen Street.
4 Some documents have been found. They were stolen from a car.
The documents ____________________________ found.
5 The map is out of date. You were looking at it.
The map ____________________________ out of date.
6 The King’s Theater is in the center of town. It dates from 1896.
The King’s ____________________________ in the center of town.
7 A woman was terribly upset. Her dog was run over.
The woman ____________________________ terribly upset.
8 Janet solved the puzzle. She did it before everyone else.
Janet was ____________________________ the puzzle.
9 A man was standing outside the building. He was selling newspapers.
A man ____________________________ outside the building.
10 The talk was very interesting. Judy gave it.
The talk ____________________________ was very interesting.
11 The house is empty now. I used to live there.
The house ____________________________ is empty now.
 
3 關係副詞 why
原因 + why = 原因 + for + which
The reason why Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.
= The reason for which Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.
There can only be one champion, and that is the reason why competition is so intense.
= There can only be one champion, and that is the reason for which competition is so intense.
The weather is cold, which is the reason why there are so many people sick.
The weather is cold, which is the reason for which there are so many people sick.
 
4 關係副詞 how
how = the way + (介系詞 + which)
Do a little work every day. This is how you can finish any project, no matter how big.
= Do a little work every day. This is the way in which you can finish any project, no matter how big.
We showed him how we make rice pudding.
= We showed him the way in which we make rice pudding.
 
 
B 複合關係詞
whoever = any person(s) who/that 任何人
whomever = anyone whom
whatever = anything that/which 任何事
whichever = anythings that/which 有選擇當中的選項
wherever = in or at any place that
whenever = in or at any time that
however = in or at any way that
whatever, whoever, whichever 可以用來當作關係子句的主詞或受詞,也可以用 whatever, whoever, whichever 來表示不管什麼,不管誰,不管哪一個。而 wherever, whenever, however 可以用來表示不管在什麼地方,何時或如何
 
Whoever said those things is mistaken.
We will work for whomever they send.
Whatever she did made them happy.
Write in a pen or pencil, whichever you prefer.
I’ll always love you, whatever you do.
He’ll be in trouble, whichever he chooses.
He always keeps in touch wherever he is.
Whenever I see Penny, she asks me about you.
Please sit wherever you like.
Call whenever you can.
Just buy it, however much it costs.
 
 
 
練習四 Choose an ending for each beginning and addd these words
however, whatever, whenever, whichever, whoever
1 You can dress … a … they want to on Sunday morning.
2 We lived on potatoes … b … we think would enjoy the party.
3 The girls can get up … c and … else was available.
4 We’ll go there … d … you like because it’s really casual.
5 They said we could invite … e on Monday or Tuesday, … day you’re free.
 
C 限定與非限定形容詞子句
a. 限定子句 Restrictive / Identifying / Defining Clause
限定子句或辨別子句或定義子句,名稱可能不同,但是都是用來把人事物分類,定義或辨別先行詞。缺少這個限定子句時,語義會不清楚,所以會加上形容詞子句來讓。限定子句不可省略,不可使用逗號。that 只可以用在限定子句。
I have three phones. The phone which is in the kitchen is broken.
The woman who does my hair has just had a baby.
Do you have a good book that’s really easy to read?
What do you think of the wine we drank last night?
 
b. 非限定子句 Nonrestrictive (Non-identifying) Clause
非限定子句用來給予先行詞補充額外資訊。非限定子句可以省略,沒有非限定子句,語意一樣清楚。非限定形容詞子句只是補充說明,這時一定要用逗號將主要子句分隔開來。人名或專有名詞為先行詞時,後面幾乎都用非限定子句。不可以用 that 在非限定子句中。
 
I have only one phone. The phone, which is in the kitchen, is broken.
Sally, who does my hair, has just had a baby.
I lent him The Old Man and the Sea, which is really easy to read.
I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank at once.
 
限定子句用在當我們要表達重要的資訊的時候,當只是要加上額外資訊的時候用非限定子句
The first caller who can give the correct answer will win the prize.
The first caller, who was from the London area, didn’t give the correct answer.
 
在寫作的時候用逗號 comma , 或括號 backets () 或 破折號 dash – – 來把形容詞子句跟主要子句分開,在口說的時候會停一下 pause 來表示句子是非限定的。
The switch, which is on the back, is off. (The machine has only one switch. It’s one the back.)
The switch (pause) which is one the back (pause) is off. (The machine has only one switch. It’s one the back.)
The switch which is on the back is off. (The machine has more than one switch. This one is off.)
 
c which 的特殊用法:在非限定子句中,可以用 which 來給予前面整個句子評論看法,也可以用在 in which case 之類的用法。
David helped me clean up, which was very kind of him.
Sarah had to work late again, which annoyed Mike.
There may be a strike, in which case the office will remained closes.
 
另外也可以在 of which 跟 of whom 前面加上數量詞,比方說 some 或最高級,來提供前面所提過人,事物,或團體中的個人的額外資訊。
The last lecture, some of which I just didn’t understand, was about chemistry.
At the conference, there were several writers, the most famous of whom was Jason Bourne.
 
d 關係副詞的限定與非限定用法
這裡的用法類似用連接詞加上副詞的意思。
On my trip to Paris. I went to the Louvre Museum, where I saw the Mona Lisa on display
= On my trip to Paris, I went to the Louvre Museum, and there I saw the Mona Lisa on display.
Little Red Riding Hood approached the bed, where the wolf was waiting to eat her.
= Little Red Riding Hood approached the bed, and there the wolf was waiting to eat her
Please come back at three o’clock, when I will have time to talk to you.
= Please come back at three o’clock, because then I will have time to talk to you.
 
練習五:
依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號
1(that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.
2 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often needs a babysitter.
3 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
4 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
5 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
6 (who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.
7 (which is on the tenth floor) My new flat ______________________ has a terrific view.
8 (she bought the sofa from) Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop _______________.
 
練習六 翻譯練習 (可以先把句子分成兩個句子,再合併)
1. 那個贏的賽跑比賽的女孩子很開心。
2. 我在哪裡可以搭到開往市中心的公車。
3. 我們昨天拜訪的人非常的好。
4. 我投票給她的那個候選人沒有贏得選舉。
5. 我喜歡你寫的那篇作文。
6. 我們昨晚聽的音樂很好聽。
7. 那個皮包被偷的男人打電話報警。
8. 我住的宿舍裡面的學生來自不同的國家。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
答案在這裡:潔西的答案都有含題目,所以不用再回去對題目,原因是這樣子地…
練習一
1 Sunday is the day. We will come on that day.
Sunday is the day when we will come.
2 8:30 is the time. My plane arrives at that time.
8:30 is the time when my plane arrives.
3 August is the month. The weather is usually the hottest in that month.
August is the month when the weather is usually the hottest.
4 1960 is the year. The revolution took place in that year.
1960 is the year when the revolution took place.
 
 
練習二 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation in that city.
The city where we spent our vacation is beautiful.
2 That is the restaurant. I will meet you at that restaurant.
That is the restaurant where I will meet you.
3 The town is small. I grew up in that town.
The town where I grew up is small.
4 That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry in that drawer.
That is the drawer where I keep my jewelry.
 
 
練習三 把兩個句子合併成一個句子
That man was Anna’s brother. He just walked past.
— The man who just walked past was Anna’s brother.
1 The plane was twenty-five years old. It crashed.
The plane that/which crashed was twenty-five years old.
2 One day Tessa was ill in bed. Martin rang.
The day (when/that) Martin rang, Tessa was ill in bed.
3 Our offices are in Queen Street. They’re new.
Our offices, which are new, are in Queen Street.
4 Some documents have been found. They were stolen from a car.
The documents that/which were stolen from a car have been found.
5 The map is out of date. You were looking at it.
The map that/which/ x you were looking at is out of date.
6 The King’s Theater is in the center of town. It dates from 1896.
The king’s Theater, which dates from 1896, is in the center of town.
7 A woman was terribly upset. Her dog was run over.
The woman whose dog was run over was terribly upset.
8 Janet solved the puzzle. She did it before everyone else.
Janet was the first person who/that solved the puzzle.
9 A man was standing outside the building. He was selling newspapers.
A man who/that was selling newspapers was standing outside of the building.
10 The talk was very interesting. Judy gave it.
The talk that/which/x Judy gave was very interesting.
11 The house is empty now. I used to live there.
The house where I used to live is empty now.
 
練習四 Choose an ending for each beginning and addd these words
however, whatever, whenever, whichever, whoever
1 You can dress …
2 We lived on potatoes …
3 The girls can get up …
4 We’ll go there …
5 They said we could invite …
 
a … they want to on Sunday morning.
b … we think would enjoy the party.
c and … else was available.
d … you like because it’s really casual.
e on Monday or Tuesday, … day you’re free.
 
1 You can dress however you like because it’s really casual.
2 We lived on potatoes and whatever else was available.
3 The girls can get up whenever they want to on Sunday morning.
4 We’ll go there on Monday or Tuesday, whichever day you’re free.
5 They said we could invite whoever we think would enjoy the party.
 
 
練習五:
依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號
1(that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.
1 This car is a lot cheaper than the one that Claire drives.
2 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often needs a babysitter.
2 Olivia, who has twins, often needs a babysitter.
3 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
3 The person who took Rita to the party was Tom.
4 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
4 Henry, who has a bad temper, shouted at the waiter.
5 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
5 The team which Tom supports is United.
6 (who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.
6 We climbed up expect Vicky, who is afraid of heights.
7 (which is on the tenth floor) My new flat ______________________ has a terrific view.
7 My new flat, which is on the tenth floor, has a terrific view.
8 (she bought the sofa from) Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop _______________.
8 Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop she bought the sofa from.
 
練習六 翻譯
1.
The girl won the race.
She is happy.
The girl who won the race is happy.
The girl that won the race is happy.
 
2.
Where can I catch the bus?
The bus goes downtown?
Where can I catch the bus that goes downtown?
Where can I catch the bus which goes downtown?
 
3.
The people were very nice.
We visited them yesterday.
The people whom we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people who we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people that we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people we visited yesterday were very nice.
 
4.
The candidate didn’t win the election.
I voted for her.
The candidate whom I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate who I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate that I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate for whom I voted didn’t win the election.
 
5.
I liked the composition.
You wrote it.
I liked the composition which you wrote.
I liked the composition that you wrote.
I liked the composition you wrote.
6.
The music was good.
We listened to it last night.
The music which we listened to last night was good.
The music that we listened to last night was good.
The music we listened to last night was good.
The music to which we listened to last night was good.
7.
The man called police.
His wallet was stolen.
The man whose wallet was stolen called the police.
8.
I live in a dormitory.
Its residents come from many countries.
I live in a dormitory whose residents come from many countries

形容詞子句部分練習題解說

以後代課可能不會再代文法課了。每次上文法課就被給負評,心情就會很差。準備得要死,盡量把東西解釋的清楚,也試著把時事放到例子裡面,然後還要講點小笑話,不過真的看對象,這個班講的時候都很乾,都沒人回應,可能上課方式跟他們老師差很多?潔西也盡量讓學生做很多練習,也下去看他們寫的時候,也一直請他們有問題要提出,有些人也有提出問題,傑西也有一一回答啊。究竟哪裡不懂假如同學不說老師怎麼會知道呢?潔西沒有讀心術啊!

 

去看了一下學生反應該加強的地方,這是這個月來

1提醒改正錯誤  (有聽到就會提醒啊)

2教授解題要領 (這應該是多益代課,解題技巧,自己覺得有說啊)

2 豐富補充內容 (每次上課幾乎都上不完,要補充多一點真的要看同學跟上課進度)

1 條理分明教學 (自己覺得很有條理,但是學生覺得沒有,唉!哈哈,沒辦法)

3 講解仔細清楚 (自己覺得盡量講清楚了,但有些東西比方說文法就不是講的清楚的)

1 耐心引導學習 (這真的不知道要表達的是什麼,潔西覺得自己算有耐心了)

 

哈哈哈,一整個說下來適不適覺得潔西根本一整個自我感覺良好?其實真的自己覺得該做的都有做到,但是呢學生覺得沒有也真的沒辦法。先前有說過,人真的很容易看到被負面的東西影響,即便有十個人說你好,但是一個人說你不好,會在意的真的就是說不好的,哈哈。

 

老實說,潔西真的很不喜歡遇到上課不懂或有問題不說然後去客訴,抱怨,給負評。然後其實給負評的內容潔西也看不到。有什麼意義呢?真的不懂覺得有問題當面提出來,老師說太快,不清楚,不懂,講笑話很冷,不要講了,上課沈默,下課給負評對自己的學習有幫助嗎?算了,潔西也只是上來抱怨一下,不開心的時候不抱怨累積久了會得癌症,潔西名言 XD 說一說,發發牢騷,說將講過就不會去想太多了。本來就不需要全世界的人都喜歡你,每個老師上法不同,學生的學習方式也不同,能夠相合的話當然是最有效過的學習了。不過還好,這堂課還是有人給正評兩分,所以也有點安慰,還是有人肯定的。大大感謝同學。

 

形容詞子句不是很容易,但是假如你連最基本的英文文法的架構都沒有,那就真的有難了。潔西這幾次上課下來覺得比較大的問題是,很多學英文學很久,但是連最基本的英文的語法的架構的概念都沒有。潔西自己覺得已經盡量解釋的簡單易懂,結果是想多了XD 那天上課上到最後請同學翻譯下面五個句子,看起來應該不難吧?可以自己先寫寫看,答案有很多種寫法。

1 台北是個方便的城市。
2 羅馬是個吸引很多遊客的城市。
3 我的好朋友很健談。
4 我住在美國的好朋友很喜歡談政治。
5 那個長髮美女是我老婆。

潔西昨天上完形容詞子句後,然後本來覺得大家好像程度都不錯,結合句子,選關係代名詞的時候,填空的時候都寫得不錯,然後要下課前想說來翻譯一下好了,其實這本來是放在最前面的,不過因為那時講義還沒印好,就先講等等的時事句。不過一寫就,啊,很多人就很多奇奇怪怪的句子出現了。時事句晚點再發。

第三題最多是寫 My best friend who is talkative. (X)
另外上課的學生也有寫成 Greenway Supermarket you can trust it. (X)
還有學生問 The restaurant that we normally go to is closed today. 學生問說這個句子為什麼有兩個動詞 go 跟 is 。

啊!!!形容詞子句的語法跟中文真的不太一樣,不像中文 我愛你,英文就直接 I love you. 。中文可以在名詞前面堆一堆形容詞,但是英文不能用動詞修飾名詞,所以有動詞的時候,或者有些特殊片語的時候就會用形容詞子句這種後衛修飾。

然後發現其實不少人的問題是連英文的句子的基本架構都不知道。英文的五個基本句型,最常見的三個,用最簡單的句子來舉。
主詞+不及物動詞:The girl is laughing. 那個女孩正在笑。
主詞+及物動詞+受詞:She has a boyfriend. 她有一個男朋友。
主詞+連綴動詞+主詞補語: She is a student. 她是一個學生。

英文的主詞跟受詞一定是名詞,而要修飾名詞的時候一定只能用形容詞,所以呢要簡單的修飾的時候就用形容詞放在名詞前面修飾名詞可以變成。

The naughty girl is laughing. 那個淘氣的女孩正在笑。
She has a handsome boyfriend. 她有個帥氣的男朋友。
She is a hardworking student. 她是個認真努力的學生。

但是要修飾形容詞或副詞或動詞的時候就不能用形容詞,需要用副詞。

The naughty girl is laughing loudly. 那個淘氣的女孩正大聲地笑。
修飾笑這個動詞的時候就需要用副詞,這也應該沒問題。

到這裡應該都是最基本的沒問題。所以基本上每個英文句子都是一個主詞一個動詞。 Tom and May are students. 這種並不是兩個主詞,是把 Tom and Mary 當作一個主詞來看。 Tom is singing and dancing. 這裡也是把 is singing and dancing 當作一個動作來看待。

上面的都是叫做獨立子句。就是有主詞,有動詞,語意完整,可以單獨存在。再來,當我們要表達的東西比較複雜一點,要說的東西比較多的時候只用一個主詞,一個動詞的獨立子句沒辦法表達所有的意思時,這時候英文有三種子句可以用來幫助補充說明,就是名詞子句,形容詞子句,跟副詞子句,這三種都是非獨立子句,一定不會單獨存在,一定要跟獨立子句結合才能形成一個完整的句子。

名詞子句就是當名詞用。所以可能是主詞,可能是受詞,可能是主詞補語。什麼時候用名詞子句?

先岔題,台灣的英文教育老實說潔西覺得蠻失敗的,不知道是不是因為潔西的學生都算比較基礎?並不是,潔西有教過英文系畢業的學生對於整個英文語法概念都很模糊的也有。當然英文很好的人也是不少,不過或許是兩極化吧,潔西又要鞭工程師了,別打潔西啊同學們,因為這塊族群真的是比較大又比較嚴重的。

上次學生跟潔西說他有一次上課,同班的十個男生全部都是工程師,各式各樣的工程師,因為工作需要用到,因為想換比較好的工作,所以都犧牲下班放假的寶貴休息時間來學英文。

先前潔西的工程師學生說他在某個網站看到說學會自然發音,然後再學文法,再背一些單字,這樣就可以英文嚇嚇叫,假的。絕對是假的,英文不是這樣學的啦,但是很多人奉為聖旨,那就是為什麼學不好了吧,唉!然後也有學生問潔西說英文的「公式」他都背很熟,可是用出來的時候都不對。恩,那個英文不是數學,不是用背公式套公式這樣來學的,這樣死背,用出來錯也是正常的吧?

先回來,潔西的廢文一發會不可收拾。名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句其實只要多看英文的文章,不用很認真買雜誌來看,每天看幾個英文八卦小報或著是新聞或者是你有興趣的名人歌手演員,追蹤他們的 Facebook, Twitter, Instagram 等等,就會常看到他們發文的句子其實都不會很難懂,看點美劇,電影,或者動畫,其實迪士尼之類的動畫很多像 Zootopia 中文忘了,啊,叫動物方程式,寫著寫著就想起來了,Finding Dory 海底總動員二這種反正找你自己看得下去,不要是很無趣的沒興趣的那種,多接觸就會發現,其實你這些子句每天日常會話都會出現,並不需要去死背所謂的公式。但是需要知道句型的規則,怎麼樣運用,用得對,多看的時候自然就有語感,對句子的排列方式組合比較不陌生,把句型記一下,再看到的時候就知道,啊,原來是這樣用,用在這裡,然後有機會自己用出來,就記住了啊。潔西日文也有部分是這樣學的,覺得很實用。

回來回來。名詞子句拿來當名詞用。所以當你要說我不知道他家住哪裡。這個時候不能說 I don’t know he lives where (X) 中式英文,有機會別人可能聽得懂,但是句子就不對。有看到兩個主詞,兩個動詞了嗎?英文需用用適當的方式來連接。

所以這裡 I don’t know something. 我不知道某件事情。 Where does he live? 他住在哪裡。當英文把這兩個句子合併在一起的時候會變成 I don’t know where he lives. 為什麼?因為英文不是潔西發明的,哈哈,因為這就是他們用來表達的方式就像外國人問你某個句子怎麼說,當你說習慣的時候你也很難去解釋。

這邊的話名詞子句就是像這樣當受詞的時候,本來是個問句 Where does he live? 他住在哪裡,可是因為要把它併入 I don’t know something. 所以必須變回一個直述句,英文的疑問句是把助動詞放到主詞前面,所以這裡的助動詞拿掉,live 的第三人稱單數要加 s 所以變成 where he lives 。整句就變成 I don’t know where he lives. 我不知道他住哪裡。在英文這個用 where 帶領的子句 where he lives 就是名詞子句,單獨這樣中文看起來可以,但是英文這不是個句子,只是個非獨立子句,不能單獨存在。

以此類推 I don’t know what time it is. 我不知道現在幾點。本來問現在幾點是 What time is it? 疑問句,助動詞放到主詞前面,但是因為名詞子句必須是個直述句,而 is 本身是助動詞但也是動詞,所以就放回主詞後面就可以了。

繼續,怎麼說我不知道他會不會來參加派對。除了 wh 疑問詞可以帶領名詞子句外, yes/no 問句的話就會用 if 或 whether 來帶領名詞子句。I don’t know if he will come to the party. 我不知道他會不會來參加派對。本來是 Will he come to the party? 把 if 或 whether 當連接詞,然後一樣把助動詞 will 放到主詞放面就可以了。我不知道他愛不愛我。 I don’t know if he loves me. 以此類推。

另外還有 that 也可以帶領名詞子句。 I know that he lives in Neihu. 我知道他住內湖。我知道某件事,什麼事?他住內湖這件事。這時候的 that 通常可以省略掉。I know he lives in Neihu. 這樣就可以了。但是假如 that 等領的名詞子句是在句首當主詞的時候就不能省略 That the earth is round is true. 地球是圓的是真的。很常被拿來說明名詞子句的句子。這個句子是不是有兩個動詞,is 又 is 很多人會覺得這個句子是錯的,啊,那是不會分解句子的人。That the earth is round 是名詞子句,用 that 帶領,後面主詞是 earth ,動詞是 is ,單獨 That the earth is round. (X) 這樣是錯誤的句子。不要有 that ,The earth is round. (O) 是正確的句子。但是我要把 The earth is round. It is true. 這兩個句子合併,也就是要表達地球是圓的這件事是真的的時候,不可以直接用 The earth is round is true. (X) 這樣就真的是兩個動詞,錯的,正確用法是用 that 帶領名詞子句 That the earth is round 整個當主詞,然後再加上 is true. 所以整個句子才會是 That the earth is round is true.
That the earth is round is true.
That the earth is round 是名詞子句,整個當主詞用
所以就是一個簡單的 主詞+連綴動詞+主詞補語的句子,只是把主詞換成名詞子句,整個當主詞用。

啊,扯好遠,明明要說的是形容詞子句。副詞子句通常比較沒問題 I usually take a shower before I go to bed. 主要子句是 I usually take a shower 我通常淋浴,副詞子句是 before I go to bed 在我上床睡覺前,這對台灣人來說比較容易懂,副詞子句修飾整個句子。就不多說了。

形容詞子句比要煩是因為帶領形容詞子句的關係代名詞比較多,可以是主格,受格,所有格,有介系詞加受格時又有變化,又有關係副詞等等。但真的很常用,學生還問潔西說英文口說真的會用形容詞子句嗎?會啊,很常用。

形容詞子句會常會用在當你要說明描述或用來辨識,辨識的意思就是是這個不是那個的哪種辨識的時候。所以剛剛上面的翻譯。

1 台北是個方便的城市。
直接翻 Taipei is a convenient city. 可以。 Taipei is convenient. 可。
Taipei is a city that/which is convenient. 也可以。
Taipei is a city. Taipei is convenient. 前面是主要子句,後面因為重複的部分是 Taipei 是主格,事物的關係代名詞的主格可以用 which 或 that ,所以把重複的部分的 Taipei 拿掉,改成 Taipei is a city that/which is convenient.

2 羅馬是個吸引很多遊客的城市。
這裡就不能直翻 Rome is an attract a lot of tourists city. (X)
因為 is 是動詞, attract 吸引也是動詞。所以分成兩個句子。Rome is a city. Rome attracts a lot of tourists. 合起來就跟上面一樣把第二個句子重複的羅馬的部分改成 that 或 which ,所以就變成 Rome is a city that/which attracts a lot of tourists. 沒有太難,放在後面的時候。所以英文會把中文那種有動詞的修飾的句子改成形容詞子句,放在修飾的名詞的後面。

3 我的好朋友很健談。
這裡 My best friend who is talkative. (X) 同學學了形容詞子句就會想要用,但是要用對啊。分析句子真的很重要,潔西覺得只要能夠把英文的每個句子分析出來,哪裡是主要子句,那裡是名詞,形容詞,副詞子句,然後子句裡面的主詞動詞找出來,分析得出來大概就寫得對就能懂句子的意思了。

這裡錯是應為 who is talkative 是形容詞子句沒問題,但是前面的 My best friend 是主詞,那那那,他的動詞呢?沒了,所以就錯了。只要用 My best friend is talkative. 就可以了。除非改寫成 I have a good friend who is talkative. 這樣也可以。主要子句是 I have a good friend 就沒問題,後面 who is talkative 用來修飾前面的 friend.

4 我住在美國的好朋友很喜歡談政治。
I live in the U.S. good friend likes to talk about politics. (X)
直譯絕對錯啦。分開兩個句子就很容易了。 My best friend lives in the U.S. 跟 My best friend likes to talk about politics. 兩個結合,主格的位置是一樣,所以呢就是 My best friend who/that lives in the U.S. likes to talk about politics.那 My best friend who likes to talk about politics lives in the U.S. 不行嗎?也可以啊。看你的主要子句是什麼。我喜歡談政治的朋友住美國。這兩個句子的語意差不多,但是看要強調的是什麼,是主要子句,形容詞子句就是用來修飾,辨識,描述。

5 那個長髮美女是我老婆。
That long hair beautiful woman is my wife. (X)
為什麼不行?因為英文不能這樣修飾,因為有 hair 跟 women 兩個名詞,簡單的寫法是 The beautiful woman with long hair is my wife. 介系詞片語 with long hair 可以做後衛修飾。但是呢同學寫成 The beautiful woman who has long hair is my wife. 也可以啊。是由 The beautiful woman is my wife. 跟 The beautiful woman has long hair. 結合起來。
好了,所以
The restaurant that we normally go to is closed today. 這個句子為什麼有兩個動詞 go 跟 is 。因為
主要子句是 The restaurant is closed today.
分開兩個句子另外一個原本是 We normally go to the restaurant.
形容詞子句這裡因為修飾的地方,相同的地方是 the restaurant 。這個 the restaurant 是介系詞 to 的後面所以是受格。形容詞子句把 the restaurant 受格的部分改成 that/which 放到句子的最前面,後面不便,所以形容詞子句就是 that we normally go to
合起來就變成 The restaurant that we normally go to is closed today. 一點都沒錯啊!

另外學生問說
There’s some cheese in the fridge which needs to be eaten.
在冰箱有應該要被吃掉的起士。就是不趕快吃會壞掉的意思。
一般不是說形容詞子句要緊跟著前面的先行詞,那這邊不是變成冰箱應該要被吃了嗎? 其實名詞後面有介系詞片語修飾的時候為了語意的完整有時候就會放到後面去了。

先前的講義裡面
b 形容詞子句假如沒有緊接著先行詞容易造成誤解。
He left the car on the street that he had just bought. (X)
他把車子放在他剛買的那條街上。上面這個句子的意思變成剛買的街道。
He left the car that he had just bought on the street. (比較清楚)
他把他剛買的車子放在街上。這樣子的語意就比較清楚。

The food came in plastic bags. 那些食物放在塑膠袋裡。
We had to eat the food. 我們必須吃那些食物。
— The food came in plastic bags that we had to eat. (X)
那些食物放在我們必須吃的塑膠袋裡面。誰吃塑膠袋啦?
— The food that we had to eat came in plastic bags.
我們必須吃那些放在塑膠袋裡面的食物。這樣合併句子才比較正確。

但是形容詞子句有少數不會直接跟在先行詞後面,通常是先行詞後面有介系詞片語時,為了語意的完整,會把形容詞子句放在介系詞片語的後面,但是比較少見。
A pirate is a person on a ship who attacks and steals from other ships.
海盜就是個在船上會去攻擊或偷其他船隻的人。
這裡因為要強調海盜是在船上,所以不分開。比較少的例外,有規則就有例外,學語文不能死腦筋鑽牛角尖,要會轉彎喔,真的,多看,多按照前後文的意思來判斷,不要一直做題目,做題目懂了規則之後要會運用才是真的學到啊!

昨天的練習中有一個是把廣告詞合併

練習二:把下列廣告詞合併,並把關係代名詞省略。

例子: Lush soap. Beautiful people use it. — It’s the soap beautiful people use.
前面是牌子的名稱。Lush 這個牌子的香皂。漂亮的人用它。英文有個句型會用
It + be + 形容詞子句來強調。
所以就變成 It’s the soap (that) beautiful people use. 這就是漂亮的人用的香皂這樣的意思。所以下面的合併可以自己先練習看看。

1 An Everyman car. You can afford it.

2 ‘Suicide Squad’ People want to see this movie.

3 Greenway Supermarket. You can trust it.

4 ‘Cool’ magazine. Young people read it.

5 Godiva chocolates. You’ll love them.

答案在這裡,一樣嗎?
1 An everyman car. 一台每個人的車子。You can afford it. 你能夠負擔。
就會變成 It’s the car (that) you can afford. 這就是台你可以負擔得起的車子。
後面記得不能再有 it ,因為 it 就是車子,受格,放到形容詞子句的最前面, 受格that 口語通常就會省略。

2 ‘Suicide Squad’ 自殺突擊隊。 People want to see this movie. 人們想看這部電影。
It’s the movie people want to see. 這就是人們想要看的電影。

3 Greenway Supermarket. Greenway 超市。 You can trust it. 你可以信賴。
It’s the supermarket you can trust. 這就是你可以信任的超市。

4 ‘Cool’ magazine. ‘Cool’ 雜誌。Young people read it. 年青人讀它。
It’s the magazine young people read. 這就是年青人看的雜誌。

5 Godiva chocolates. Godiva 巧克力。You’ll love them. 你會愛上他們。
They’re chocolates you’ll love. 他們就是你會愛上的巧克力。

學生問說那下面這個句子不行嗎?
Greenway Supermarket you can trust it. (X)
當然不行,英文的主詞只有一個 Greenway Supermarket 是名詞,you 也是名詞,就像 My wife I love her. (X) 我妻子我愛她。中文還蠻順的,英文就沒有這種句型,頂多換成 I love my wife. (O) 我愛我妻子。所以上面假如說 You can trust Greenway Supermarket. (O) 那就沒問題。

另外同學問到
They never thanked me for the money that I sent them.
同學把句子拆成兩個
They never thanked me for the money.
The money I sent them. (X)

這裡跟上面一樣 The money 名詞, I 名詞。英文就是不會有這樣的句型啊!
其實拆開的第二句應該是
I sent them money. 所以是受格,合併起來就會是把 money 這個受格放到前面
They never thanked me for the money that I sent them.

再來解說昨天上課也很多同學寫錯的這個部分

練習四:選舉時期到了,候選人在辯論,重寫下列的第一個句子,把介系詞放在每個形容詞子句關係代名詞的前面。

要重寫的只有第一個句子,潔西沒有強調到,所以超多同學都寫錯,My bad. 是潔西的錯啊!

例子:I cannot agree with that statement. 我不能贊同這個言論。 I hope I’ve made that clear. 我希望我表達得很清楚了。要改的只有第一個句子。這時候也是要強調說這就是個我沒法認同的言論。因為選舉的辯論用語比較正式,所以要把介系詞放到關係代名詞受格的前面就會變成

That is a statement with which I cannot agree. 這是個我無法贊同的言論。下面可以試試看。就是要強調,把最後一個介系詞的受格用形容詞子句的方式去強調。練習看看。

1 Our party believes in that idea. I say this from the bottom of my heart.

2 I am strongly opposed to that policy. And I’m not afraid to say so.

3 No one cares about these people. They are the forgotten people.

4 Your party should be ashamed of those mistakes. And everyone knows that.

5 The government is now dealing with that problem. How many times do I have to tell you?

答案在這裡

1 Our party believes in that idea. 我們的政黨相信這個理念。I say this from the bottom of my heart. 我打從心地說這句話。
That is the idea in which our party believes. 這就是我們政黨所相信的理念。

2 I am strongly opposed to that policy. 我強烈反對那個政策。 And I’m not afraid to say so. 我無所畏懼的這麼說。
That is the policy to which I am strongly opposed. 那就是我強烈反對的政策。

3 No one cares about these people. 沒有人在乎這些人。 They are the forgotten people. 他們是被遺忘的人。
These are the people about whom no one cares. 這謝就是沒有人在乎的人。這裡因為人的話把介系詞放在前面只能用 whom ,不能用其他的。

4 Your party should be ashamed of those mistakes. 你的政黨應該對於那些錯誤感到羞恥。 And everyone knows that. 每個人都知道這件事。
Those are the mistakes of which your party should be ashamed. 那些就是你的政黨應該感到羞恥的錯誤。

5 The government is now dealing with that problem. 政府正在處理那個問題。 How many times do I have to tell you? 我要跟你說幾次?
That is the problem with which the government is now dealing with. 那就是政府現在正在處理的問題。

這裡面的介系詞有 in, to, about, of, with 什麼時候用哪一個?恩,答案是要看你的動詞。動詞片語中的介系詞是哪一個就把哪一個放到前面。所以先前潔西的講義寫 to which ,只是一個代表的介系詞, 這次的新講義就改成 介+ which 介系詞加 which ,這樣比較不會造成誤解。

所以記單字不好,潔西常說要記片語,記句子,光記單字沒有用,要把用法記住。所以他怕狗。很多人就記「怕」這個單字是 afraid ,所以就 He afraid dog. (X) 還有人會 He afraids dog. (X) 因為第三人稱單數的動詞要加 s ,最好是啦,人家 afraid 就是個形容詞,而且是一整個片語 be afraid of ,然後 dog 狗總稱通常會用複數,所以是 He is afraid of dogs. (O) 常常看書影集或聽歌,其實都會聽到這片語啊,就像上癮一樣,英文歌裡面常出現。潔西喜歡的 DJ Avicii 艾維奇就有首 Addicted to You 。潔西翻譯的時後就說,拜託,整首歌記一句就好了。I’m addicted to you. 我對妳上癮。所以呢他對寶可夢遊戲上癮。就是 He is addicted to Pokemon Go. 就不會有怪怪的句子出現。因為上癮有 addict, addicted, addiction, addictive 不同詞性不同用法啊。用法欲知詳情請到部落格的「戒癮只是說說而已」那篇有詳細說明。 He is a drug addict. 他有毒癮。英文跟中文很多時候真的不是一對一啊!

這篇寫超久的,暈倒。有錯再麻煩糾正。潔西真的會覺得來開個實況不錯,因為講義寫得再清楚,沒有解釋有時候也很難倒。其實上面潔西用說的大概十分鐘,但是用寫的寫了好幾個小時,快死掉啊XD 覺得又有點病了,來去運動一下。

上次學生跟潔西說他有一次上課,同班的十個男生全部都是工程師,各式各樣的工程師,因為工作需要用到,因為想換比較好的工作,所以都犧牲下班放假的寶貴休息時間來學英文。

 

先前潔西的工程師學生說他在某個網站看到說學會自然發音,然後再學文法,再背一些單字,這樣就可以英文嚇嚇叫,假的。絕對是假的,英文不是這樣學的啦,但是很多人奉為聖旨,那就是為什麼學不好了吧,唉!然後也有學生問潔西說英文的「公式」他都背很熟,可是用出來的時候都不對。恩,那個英文不是數學,不是用背公式套公式這樣來學的,這樣死背,用出來錯也是正常的吧?

 

先回來,潔西的廢文一發會不可收拾。名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句其實只要多看英文的文章,不用很認真買雜誌來看,每天看幾個英文八卦小報或著是新聞或者是你有興趣的名人歌手演員,追蹤他們的 Facebook, Twitter, Instagram 等等,就會常看到他們發文的句子其實都不會很難懂,看點美劇,電影,或者動畫,其實迪士尼之類的動畫很多像 Zootopia 中文忘了,啊,叫動物方程式,寫著寫著就想起來了,Finding Dory 海底總動員二這種反正找你自己看得下去,不要是很無趣的沒興趣的那種,多接觸就會發現,其實你這些子句每天日常會話都會出現,並不需要去死背所謂的公式。但是需要知道句型的規則,怎麼樣運用,用得對,多看的時候自然就有語感,對句子的排列方式組合比較不陌生,把句型記一下,再看到的時候就知道,啊,原來是這樣用,用在這裡,然後有機會自己用出來,就記住了啊。潔西日文也有部分是這樣學的,覺得很實用。

 

回來回來。名詞子句拿來當名詞用。所以當你要說我不知道他家住哪裡。這個時候不能說 I don’t know he lives where (X) 中式英文,有機會別人可能聽得懂,但是句子就不對。有看到兩個主詞,兩個動詞了嗎?英文需用用適當的方式來連接。

 

所以這裡 I don’t know something. 我不知道某件事情。 Where does he live? 他住在哪裡。當英文把這兩個句子合併在一起的時候會變成 I don’t know where he lives. 為什麼?因為英文不是潔西發明的,哈哈,因為這就是他們用來表達的方式就像外國人問你某個句子怎麼說,當你說習慣的時候你也很難去解釋。

 

這邊的話名詞子句就是像這樣當受詞的時候,本來是個問句 Where does he live? 他住在哪裡,可是因為要把它併入 I don’t know something. 所以必須變回一個直述句,英文的疑問句是把助動詞放到主詞前面,所以這裡的助動詞拿掉,live 的第三人稱單數要加 s 所以變成 where he lives 。整句就變成 I don’t know where he lives. 我不知道他住哪裡。在英文這個用 where 帶領的子句 where he lives 就是名詞子句,單獨這樣中文看起來可以,但是英文這不是個句子,只是個非獨立子句,不能單獨存在。

 

以此類推 I don’t know what time it is. 我不知道現在幾點。本來問現在幾點是 What time is it? 疑問句,助動詞放到主詞前面,但是因為名詞子句必須是個直述句,而 is 本身是助動詞但也是動詞,所以就放回主詞後面就可以了。

 

繼續,怎麼說我不知道他會不會來參加派對。除了 wh 疑問詞可以帶領名詞子句外, yes/no 問句的話就會用 if 或 whether 來帶領名詞子句。I don’t know if he will come to the party. 我不知道他會不會來參加派對。本來是 Will he come to the party? 把 if 或 whether 當連接詞,然後一樣把助動詞 will 放到主詞放面就可以了。我不知道他愛不愛我。 I don’t know if he loves me. 以此類推。

 

另外還有 that 也可以帶領名詞子句。 I know that he lives in Neihu. 我知道他住內湖。我知道某件事,什麼事?他住內湖這件事。這時候的 that 通常可以省略掉。I know he lives in Neihu. 這樣就可以了。但是假如 that 等領的名詞子句是在句首當主詞的時候就不能省略 That the earth is round is true. 地球是圓的是真的。很常被拿來說明名詞子句的句子。這個句子是不是有兩個動詞,is 又 is 很多人會覺得這個句子是錯的,啊,那是不會分解句子的人。That the earth is round 是名詞子句,用 that 帶領,後面主詞是 earth ,動詞是 is ,單獨 That the earth is round. (X) 這樣是錯誤的句子。不要有 that ,The earth is round. (O) 是正確的句子。但是我要把 The earth is round. It is true. 這兩個句子合併,也就是要表達地球是圓的這件事是真的的時候,不可以直接用 The earth is round is true. (X) 這樣就真的是兩個動詞,錯的,正確用法是用 that 帶領名詞子句 That the earth is round 整個當主詞,然後再加上 is true. 所以整個句子才會是 That the earth is round is true.

That the earth is round is true.

That the earth is round 是名詞子句,整個當主詞用

所以就是一個簡單的 主詞+連綴動詞+主詞補語的句子,只是把主詞換成名詞子句,整個當主詞用。

 

啊,扯好遠,明明要說的是形容詞子句。副詞子句通常比較沒問題 I usually take a shower before I go to bed. 主要子句是 I usually take a shower 我通常淋浴,副詞子句是 before I go to bed 在我上床睡覺前,這對台灣人來說比較容易懂,副詞子句修飾整個句子。就不多說了。

 

形容詞子句比要煩是因為帶領形容詞子句的關係代名詞比較多,可以是主格,受格,所有格,有介系詞加受格時又有變化,又有關係副詞等等。但真的很常用,學生還問潔西說英文口說真的會用形容詞子句嗎?會啊,很常用。

 

形容詞子句會常會用在當你要說明描述或用來辨識,辨識的意思就是是這個不是那個的哪種辨識的時候。所以剛剛上面的翻譯。

 

1 台北是個方便的城市。

直接翻 Taipei is a convenient city. 可以。 Taipei is convenient. 可。

Taipei is a city that/which is convenient. 也可以。

Taipei is a city. Taipei is convenient. 前面是主要子句,後面因為重複的部分是 Taipei 是主格,事物的關係代名詞的主格可以用 which 或 that ,所以把重複的部分的 Taipei 拿掉,改成 Taipei is a city that/which is convenient.

 

2 羅馬是個吸引很多遊客的城市。

這裡就不能直翻 Rome is a attract a lot of tourists city. (X)

因為 is 是動詞, attract 吸引也是動詞。所以分成兩個句子。Rome is a city. Rome attracts a lot of tourists. 合起來就跟上面一樣把第二個句子重複的羅馬的部分改成 that 或 which ,所以就變成 Rome is a city that/which attracts a lot of tourists. 沒有太難,放在後面的時候。所以英文會把中文那種有動詞的修飾的句子改成形容詞子句,放在修飾的名詞的後面。

 

3 我的好朋友很健談。

這裡 My best friend who is talkative. (X) 同學學了形容詞子句就會想要用,但是要用對啊。分析句子真的很重要,潔西覺得只要能夠把英文的每個句子分析出來,哪裡是主要子句,那裡是名詞,形容詞,副詞子句,然後子句裡面的主詞動詞找出來,分析得出來大概就寫得對就能懂句子的意思了。

 

這裡錯是應為 who is talkative 是形容詞子句沒問題,但是前面的 My best friend 是主詞,那那那,他的動詞呢?沒了,所以就錯了。只要用 My best friend is talkative. 就可以了。除非改寫成 I have a good friend who is talkative. 這樣也可以。主要子句是 I have a good friend 就沒問題,後面 who is talkative 用來修飾前面的 friend.

 

4 我住在美國的好朋友很喜歡談政治。

I live in the U.S. good friend likes to talk about politics. (X)

直譯絕對錯啦。分開兩個句子就很容易了。 My best friend lives in the U.S. 跟 My best friend likes to talk about politics. 兩個結合,主格的位置是一樣,所以呢就是 My best friend who/that lives in the U.S. likes to talk about politics.那 My best friend who likes to talk about politics lives in the U.S. 不行嗎?也可以啊。看你的主要子句是什麼。我喜歡談政治的朋友住美國。這兩個句子的語意差不多,但是看要強調的是什麼,是主要子句,形容詞子句就是用來修飾,辨識,描述。

 

5 那個長髮美女是我老婆。

That long hair beautiful woman is my wife. (X)

為什麼不行?因為英文不能這樣修飾,因為有 hair 跟 women 兩個名詞,簡單的寫法是 The beautiful woman with long hair is my wife. 介系詞片語 with long hair 可以做後衛修飾。但是呢同學寫成 The beautiful woman who has long hair is my wife. 也可以啊。是由 The beautiful is my wife. 跟 The beautiful woman has long hair. 結合起來。

 

 

好了,所以

The restaurant that we normally go to is closed today. 這個句子為什麼有兩個動詞 go 跟 is 。因為

主要子句是 The restaurant is closed today.

分開兩個句子另外一個原本是 We normally go to the restaurant.

形容詞子句這裡因為修飾的地方,相同的地方是 the restaurant 。這個 the restaurant 是介系詞 to 的後面所以是受格。形容詞子句把 the restaurant 受格的部分改成 that/which 放到句子的最前面,後面不便,所以形容詞子句就是 that we normally go to

合起來就變成 The restaurant that we normally go to is closed today. 一點都沒錯啊!

 

另外學生問說

There’s some cheese in the fridge which needs to be eaten.

在冰箱有應該要被吃掉的起士。就是不趕快吃會壞掉的意思。

一般不是說形容詞子句要緊跟著前面的先行詞,那這邊不是變成冰箱應該要被吃了嗎? 其實名詞後面有介系詞片語修飾的時候為了語意的完整有時候就會放到後面去了。

 

先前的講義裡面

b 形容詞子句假如沒有緊接著先行詞容易造成誤解。

He left the car on the street that he had just bought. (X)

他把車子放在他剛買的那條街上。上面這個句子的意思變成剛買的街道。

He left the car that he had just bought on the street. (比較清楚)

他把他剛買的車子放在街上。這樣子的語意就比較清楚。

 

The food came in plastic bags.  那些食物放在塑膠袋裡。

We had to eat the food. 我們必須吃那些食物。

— The food came in plastic bags that we had to eat. (X)

那些食物放在我們必須吃的塑膠袋裡面。誰吃塑膠袋啦?

— The food that we had to eat came in plastic bags.

我們必須吃那些放在塑膠袋裡面的食物。這樣合併句子才比較正確。

 

但是形容詞子句有少數不會直接跟在先行詞後面,通常是先行詞後面有介系詞片語時,為了語意的完整,會把形容詞子句放在介系詞片語的後面,但是比較少見。

A pirate is a person on a ship who attacks and steals from other ships.

海盜就是個在船上會去攻擊或偷其他船隻的人。

這裡因為要強調海盜是在船上,所以不分開。比較少的例外,有規則就有例外,不要太死腦筋,真的,多看,多按照前後文的意思來判斷,不要一直做題目,做題目懂了規則之後要會運用才是真的學到啊!

 

昨天的練習中有一個是把廣告詞合併

 

練習二:把下列廣告詞合併,並把關係代名詞省略。

 

例子: Lush soap. Beautiful people use it. — It’s the soap beautiful people use.

前面是牌子的名稱。Lush 這個牌子的香皂。漂亮的人用它。英文有個句型會用

It + be + 形容詞子句來強調。

所以就變成 It’s the soap (that) beautiful people use. 這就是漂亮的人用的香皂這樣的意思。所以下面的合併可以自己先練習看看。

 

1 An Everyman car. You can afford it.

 

2 ‘Suicide Squad’ People want to see this movie.

 

3 Greenway Supermarket. You can trust it.

 

4 ‘Cool’ magazine. Young people read it.

 

5 Godiva chocolates. You’ll love them.

 

答案在這裡,一樣嗎?

1 An everyman car. 一台每個人的車子。You can afford it. 你能夠負擔。

就會變成 It’s the car (that) you can afford.  這就是台你可以負擔得起的車子。

後面記得不能再有 it ,因為 it 就是車子,受格,放到形容詞子句的最前面, 受格that 口語通常就會省略。

 

 

2 ‘Suicide Squad’ 自殺突擊隊。 People want to see this movie. 人們想看這部電影。

It’s the movie people want to see. 這就是人們想要看的電影。

 

3 Greenway Supermarket. Greenway 超市。 You can trust it. 你可以信賴。

It’s the supermarket you can trust. 這就是你可以信任的超市。

 

4 ‘Cool’ magazine. ‘Cool’ 雜誌。Young people read it. 年青人讀它。

It’s the magazine young people read. 這就是年青人看的雜誌。

 

5 Godiva chocolates.  Godiva 巧克力。You’ll love them. 你會愛上他們。

They’re chocolates you’ll love. 他們就是你會愛上的巧克力。

 

學生問說那下面這個句子不行嗎?

Greenway Supermarket you can trust it. (X)

當然不行,英文的主詞只有一個 Greenway Supermarket 是名詞,you 也是名詞,就像 My wife I love her. (X) 我妻子我愛她。中文還蠻順的,英文就沒有這種句型,頂多換成 I love my wife. (O) 我愛我妻子。所以上面假如說 You can trust Greenway Supermarket. (O) 那就沒問題。

 

另外同學問到

They never thanked me for the money that I sent them.

同學把句子拆成兩個

They never thanked me for the money.

The money I sent them.

 

這裡跟上面一樣 The money 名詞, I 名詞。英文就是不會有這樣的句型啊!

其實拆開的第二句應該是

I sent them money. 所以是受格,合併起來就會是把 money 這個受格放到前面

They never thanked me for the money that I sent them.

 

再來解說昨天上課也很多同學寫錯的這個部分

 

練習四:選舉時期到了,候選人在辯論,重寫下列的第一個句子,把介系詞放在每個形容詞子句關係代名詞的前面。

 

要重寫的只有第一個句子,潔西沒有強調到,所以超多同學都寫錯,My bad. 是潔西的錯啊!

 

例子:I cannot agree with that statement. 我不能贊同這個言論。 I hope I’ve made that clear. 我希望我表達得很清楚了。要改的只有第一個句子。這時候也是要強調說這就是個我沒法認同的言論。因為選舉的辯論用語比較正式,所以要把介系詞放到關係代名詞受格的前面就會變成

 

That is a statement with which I cannot agree. 這是個我無法贊同的言論。下面可以試試看。就是要強調,把最後一個介系詞的受格用形容詞子句的方式去強調。練習看看。

 

1 Our party believes in that idea. I say this from the bottom of my heart.

 

2 I am strongly opposed to that policy. And I’m not afraid to say so.

 

3 No one cares about these people. They are the forgotten people.

 

4 Your party should be ashamed of those mistakes. And everyone knows that.

 

5 The government is now dealing with that problem. How many times do I have to tell you?

 

 

 

答案在這裡

 

1 Our party believes in that idea. 我們的政黨相信這個理念。I say this from the bottom of my heart. 我打從心地說這句話。

That is the idea in which our party believes in. 這就是我們政黨所相信的理念。

 

2 I am strongly opposed to that policy. 我強烈反對那個政策。 And I’m not afraid to say so. 我無所畏懼的這麼說。

That is the policy to which I am strongly opposed. 那就是我強烈反對的政策。

 

3 No one cares about these people. 沒有人在乎這些人。 They are the forgotten people. 他們是被遺忘的人。

These are the people about whom no one cares. 這謝就是沒有人在乎的人。這裡因為人的話把介系詞放在前面只能用 whom ,不能用其他的。

 

4 Your party should be ashamed of those mistakes. 你的政黨應該對於那些錯誤感到羞恥。 And everyone knows that. 每個人都知道這件事。

Those are the mistakes of which your party should be ashamed. 那些就是你的政黨應該感到羞恥的錯誤。

 

5 The government is now dealing with that problem. 政府正在處理那個問題。 How many times do I have to tell you? 我要跟你說幾次?

That is the problem with which the government is now dealing with. 那就是政府現在正在處理的問題。

 

這裡面的介系詞有 in, to, about, of, with 什麼時候用哪一個?恩,答案是要看你的動詞。動詞片語中的介系詞是哪一個就把哪一個放到前面。所以先前潔西的講義寫 to which ,只是一個代表的介系詞, 這次的新講義就改成 介+ which 介系詞加 which ,這樣比較不會造成誤解。

 

所以記單字不好,潔西常說要記片語,記句子,光記單字沒有用,要把用法記住。所以他怕狗。很多人就記「怕」這個單字是 afraid ,所以就 He afraid dog. (X) 還有人會 He afraids dog. (X)  因為第三人稱單數的動詞要加 s ,最好是啦,人家 afraid 就是個形容詞,而且是一整個片語 be afraid of ,然後 dog 狗總稱通常會用複數,所以是 He is afraid of dogs. (O) 常常看書影集或聽歌,其實都會聽到這片語啊,就像上癮一樣,英文歌裡面常出現。潔西喜歡的 DJ  Avicci 艾維奇就有首 Addicted to You 。潔西翻譯的時後就說,拜託,整首歌記一句就好了。I’m addicted to you. 我對妳上癮。所以呢他對寶可夢遊戲上癮。就是 He is addicted to Pokemon Go. 就不會有怪怪的句子出現。因為上癮有 addict, addicted, addiction, addictive 不同詞性不同用法啊。用法欲知詳情請到部落格的「戒癮只是說說而已」那篇有詳細說明。 He is a drug addict. 他有毒癮。英文跟中文很多時候真的不是一對一啊!

 

這篇寫超久的,暈倒。有錯再麻煩糾正。潔西真的會覺得來開個實況不錯,因為講義寫得再清楚,沒有解釋有時候也很難倒。其實上面潔西用說的大概十分鐘,但是用寫的寫了好幾個小時,快死掉啊XD 覺得又有點病了,來去運動一下。

關係詞與形容詞子句 (最新修改)

今天代課的講義。要看答案的請直接往下拉到紅色的答案在這裡

昨天寫到半夜,今天早上七點半起來改了改,然後早上上課剛好也是講形容詞子句,其實也是因為這樣,所以昨天就是寫到眼睛快瞎掉XD

其實形容詞子句的講義先前已經改過好幾次了,舊的在這裡,可以點進去做更多的練習。早上上課的時候學生問潔西說為什麼要一直改寫講義,是不是有完美主義,恩,類完美主義,因為有時候還是有很多錯字,只是覺得想要把東西說得更清楚,讓同學更容易了解,所以就會花很多時間去找例子,然後還要融會貫通,今天本來要去看醫生的,下午有約診,潔西昨天覺得講義一定寫不完,所以就把預約取消了。

本來最壞的打算是用舊的講義,但是昨天半夜還寫的蠻順的,就把它趕出來了,當然還是沒有很理想,但是已經盡力了。而且這次帶文法課沒有同學出走,去上洗手間的好像都有回來,剛值得慶幸了,哈哈。沒辦法,有時候不同老師同學就是覺得無法理解,上次剛好同學又都沒講義,潔西的講義沒有印下來,本來想說上課本,在另外補充,結果只好把準備的東西通通都寫黑板,那天擦了起碼二十次黑板,那次兩小時的課,準備了八小時,其實蠻多東西的,後來又花了幾個小時把講義寫出來,同學不捧場也沒辦法,因為不知道學生的程度,那天講的東西跟今天講的一樣,其實都是蠻難的,就英文文法來說。

不是潔西自誇,好啦,老王當習慣了當然要自己說一下,其實先前的那篇整理的形容詞子句的講義,有等等,應該是劍橋大學,對啦,就是英國劍橋大學的老師或學生?寫信給潔西鼓勵說寫的不錯,繼續加油之類的。怎麼會知道是劍橋大學,那個郵件信箱啊,潔西現在沒用大學信箱了,大學信箱都很明顯啊,應該是老師?通常這種是比較像老師會做的,同為老師的直覺,學生也有可能,應該就母語使用者吧?

亂扯好遠,總之還好今天沒人出走,不過今天上課好乾,同學可能不熟,教學方式可能也跟他們老師差比較多,講笑話或哈拉之類的同學都沒反應,還好今天下課有學生留下來問打算移民澳洲的問題,聊好久,聊到補習班要關教室被趕出去XD

潔西沒辦法,一個當老師的什麼不會,就最會說,看潔西每天發廢文就知道了啊。還好有同學來問問題,不然上玩應該覺得很悶,覺得準備很久,同學都沒什麼太大反應,可能潔西要求太高XD 有幾個學生還是都會小聲回答,點點頭,搖搖頭,感激:) 然後同學有些很厲害,都很清楚,不過有些可能還是覺得有點難度吧,不過沒辦法,形容詞子句真的在英文文法中算難的,這部分有兩堂課,所以潔西就說同學不要擔心,下星期你們老師回來會講解就更清楚了。文法就其實不是一個可以說得一清二楚的,真的就是要先理解,多做題目,多練習,熟悉英文的句型之後再把它用出來,不能中翻英,要讓自己要表達的方式用英文的句型說出來,所以呢先要熟悉句型,說的時候才能轉換,怎麼辦呢?就是多練習,再練習,cliche 陳腔濫調,但是非常真:Practices makes perfect. 熟能生巧,也就是這樣了。

被給負評也沒辦法了,上次就被給了兩個負評。所以現在上完課當天都不會點進去看評價,怕看了心情會不好XD 昨天跟學生聊天時,學生說他以為老師不會那麼閒還會去看,當然會去看了啊,因為上傳講義,看課表什麼的都一定會看到,尤其是負評紅明顯啊,哈哈,怎麼像 PTT ,不過還好啦,代課也就是這樣,主管應該也不會說什麼。

同學大部分人都超好的。昨天潔西下課後一點半要去按摩,原本是約三點可是按摩師的時間有改,變成四點半,潔西就多出超多時間的,剛好學生要等下一堂課四點,原本上星期就是由一個好心同學教潔西捉寶可夢,同學說這算是最簡單的了,好吧,就開始捉了。其實後來上星期很忙也沒什麼在捉。昨天跟同學一起去吃飯,學生就教潔西,然後,各位想捉寶可夢的,請到東區地下街,真的多到捉不完,可能剛好昨天又是星期天,超誇張的。

潔西跟學生吃個飯,從兩點混到快四點學生要去上課,一直捉,升了三等,從五急升到八級,然後有好可愛的小狐狸跟九尾狐出來,學生說這是很稀有的,快捉,潔西捉到了,但是學生在一旁卻怎麼樣都找不同同樣的,走來走去都走不出來,還蠻好玩的,然後最氣的是捉了又跑,有一隻捉了大概十次都跑出來,真的是想罵人的那種,氣死了。學生說,最氣的是最後還跑掉的那種,恩,還好那隻最後革命成功。後來就有幾次都捉一捉就跑掉,太難捉的就放棄。發現有翅膀的好像都很難捉的樣子。本來有一個星期只捉三十隻,這兩個就變成上百隻,有些還賣掉升等,學生說老師你比我還瘋耶。還好啦,潔西家偏僻,也就是出門才能捉,不然也不會特別走出去。話說小寶跟同學還特別跑去淡水捉,所以其實寶可夢還是要達到讓人家出門的功用啊,也不是一無是處,不過要看路就是了啦!

早上學生人也好好,教潔西用 Skype 的分享,先前線上教學用的是 Evernote 潔西比較不熟,剛好學生也是用 MacBook Air ,所以很好教,因為潔西就把要上課的講義直接拿來上課,改的亂七八糟,寫了一堆東西,想說,喔喔,等等還要來慢慢改,學生比較厲害,因為 Mac 的 Pages 都是直接自動儲存,所以潔西根本不知道要怎麼回到原本的地方,學生是救星啊!!!真好。然後後來同學想到用 Google Docs ,可以同時編輯,對喔,真是個好主意,這樣線上上課就超方便的,直接分享講義。只是,潔西目前的補習班只能印三張講義,六面,所以很可憐,都要縮小,很對不起學生的眼睛,文法潔西隨便寫就十二頁,而且最近都用 Pages 不用 Word ,因為 Pages 可以寫很多,傑西把 Pages 的十七頁放到 Google Docs 去,馬上變三十一頁,超誇張的啊!

明天早上要上課,學生有事,把時間提早了,明天八點要起床,很怕起不來。潔西今天早上自動七點半醒來,因為昨天按摩後又刮痧,睡得比較好,就不用睡那麼多,像前一陣子都睡到中午,但是呢,下午的時候超睏的,五點多備課備到一半,就快昏迷了,跟小寶說六點叫我,六點到了潔西醒來還死命一直賴,超累的。不過上課就還好,上課自動嗨,今天比較難嗨,不過上玩了還挺開心的,因為剛好也是托代課的福,把講義又再重新小改版整理一下,有更多的例子。然後呢,有看到錯誤的地方再麻煩同學網友提醒一下,因為真的弄很久,有時候一頁講義大概就要半個一個小時,而且自己很奇怪常常會看不到自己錯的地方,今天上課講錯也不自覺,真的是謝謝同學提醒,反正很奇怪的就麻煩留言,應該是潔西寫錯了的可能性比較大。

好想睡喔,還要洗澡,把明天上課的東西再整理一下,最近都上不好,上課上不好就會很阿雜,所以呢就要改,改就要花時間想,花時間整理講義,明天的講義本來是有,但是就像今天的可以用就的形容詞子句講義上就好了,但是就是一個累死自己不償命的個性。所以不能繼續寫廢文了。話說潔西想翻的歌剛剛聽 Apple Music 的榜單居然是第一名了,厚,跑這麼快,前兩天翻的 Cold Water 居然也是英文榜第一名。果然是慧眼識英雄,哈哈哈。想睡,但是絕對不可能明天可以起得來備課,所以還是認份先去洗澡,宵夜也還沒吃到,喝個湯好了,然後就備課睡覺。明天一定要起得來,因為明天要去內湖上課,沿途應該可以捉很多寶可夢吧XD 晚安:)

 

下面是關係詞跟形容詞子句的用法,很想把例子都翻譯成中文,不過今天沒時間,或許有空的時候會來做這個大工程,單字有點多,因為是文法二的課程,所以有用比較難一點的單字,就麻煩大家自己查查字典囉,遇到不會的字的時候。多查字典也可以幫助增加記單字,基本上裡面的單字都算常用,不冷門,所以也都是要會的喔:)

舊的形容詞子句整理  裡面有些東西一樣,但是也有不同的,可以一起看一下,多做一些練習。

修飾名詞

1 如何修飾名詞

a 形容詞 adjectives

形容詞可以用來修飾(modify)名詞,就是加以說明,描述,做些許的改變,名詞加了形容詞後意思可能大不相同。形容詞多放在名詞前面或連綴動詞後面。

May is a happy girl.  Linda is an unhappy girl.

He is late.  He became angry.

 

b 介系詞片語 preposition phrases

介系詞片語就是由介系詞跟名詞結合成的片語,可以用來說明修飾名詞。放在修飾的名詞的後面。

My brother is the man in the white suit.

Sandy is the tall woman with red hair.

 

c 形容詞子句adjective clause

形容詞子句跟形容詞一樣,只可以用來修飾名詞,對於名詞加以描述,用來做辨別用或提供一些額外的訊息。當描述的內容無法用一個形容詞,或者包括了動詞時可以用形容詞子句來說明,修飾名詞。形容詞子句永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。

I don’t like people who cut in line.

New York is a city that never sleeps.

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句,也叫做關係子句,是非獨立子句的一種。整個子句當作形容詞,用來修飾名詞或代名詞。用來提供更多有關先前提到的某人,某事的資訊,用來辨識某人某物用來給予額外的資訊,用來給予評論等。常會是兩個句子的合併。

A: I saw Jason the other day.

B: Jason? The guy who plays the guitar?

A: No, that’s Jackson. Jason is the student who dropped out of college, the one

who never did any studying. He’s working at Davidson’s now, the shop that

sells very expensive clothes.

a 辨識 identify: 在這個對話中形容子句用來辨別談話的對象是哪一個人或哪一件

事。子句 who plays the guitar 用來告所我們 B 所要表達的人。而 that sells

very expensive clothes 則是用來告訴我們 A 所要表達的店家。

b 描述事情 describe: That’s the house where my parents live in.

c 給予更多資訊 extra information: My friend Andy, who lives in Switzerland, is a

CEO.

d 給評論 comment:  It rained all night, which was good for the garden.

e 合併句子:I have a friend. He lives in New York. 可以結合成 I have a friend

who lives in New York. 用關係代名詞來代替前面說過的名詞,而不重複該名詞。

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句是後衛修飾,永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。中文多是用前衛修飾,把形容詞放在修飾名詞前面。例如說,我住在美國的姊姊有三個小孩。當修飾內容有動詞時,英文不可以直接把形容堆在名詞前面。所以除了前衛也常用後衛修飾,把形容詞或形容詞子句放到所要形容的名詞或代名詞後面。

The bride must wear something old, something new, something borrowed, and something blue.

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

 

2 名詞解釋

a 子句: 是由一組的字所組成,其中包括主詞與動詞,可能為獨立或非獨立子句。

 

b 獨立子句: 是一個完整的句子,其中包括主要的主詞與動詞,語意完整,可以

單獨存在。可以最為主要子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

 

c 非獨立子句: 是一個不完整的句子,如名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。由從

屬連接詞,關係代名詞,疑問詞等為首帶領的子句。雖然其中也包括了主詞與

動詞,但是語意不完整,需要與獨立子句結合,才能為一個完整的句子。

 

d 形容詞子句: 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。形容詞子句也叫做關係子句。

 

e 關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有who, whom,   which, that,跟whose。關係副詞有when與where。

 

f 先行詞: 形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多緊接在先行詞後面。

My sister has two children. She lives in the U.S. 可以合併為

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children. 而這個句子中

獨立子句/主要子句:My sister has two children.

非獨立子句/形容詞子句:who lives in the U.S.,用來修飾sister

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:sister

 

g 限定性形容詞子句: 用來辨別,限定前面的先行詞所以是必要的,不可省略,子

句前後都不可以有逗點。

 

h 非限定性形容詞子句: 用來修飾前面的先行詞,給與額外的資訊,所以可以省略,必須用逗號把它跟主要子句分開。先行詞為專有名詞時多為非限定性形容詞子句。

限定子句:   My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

(我有幾個姊姊其中一個有兩個小孩)

非限定子句:My sister, who lives in the U.S., has two children.

(我只有一個姊姊,她有兩個小孩)

 

C 主格關係代名詞 who, which, that

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that 緊跟著在先行詞後,在句首帶領形容詞子句,用來當形容詞子句的主詞,提供更多有先前提到某人或某事的資訊。

 

1 who 用來代表人

Hank is the man who owns the enormous dog.

The little girl who sat next to me on the coach ate sweets the whole way.

 

2 that 也可以用來代表人,但是比較少用

Yo-yo Ma is the musician that plays the cello.

The woman that lived here before us is a romantic novelist.

 

3 whichthat 都可以用來代表事物

that 比較口語

The car that won the race looked very futuristic, didn’t it?

They’ve recaptured all the animals that escaped from the zoo.

 

4 which 比較正式

There are several restaurants which do Sunday brunches.

Twitter is the company which was taken over last year.

 

用 who, which 合併下列句子

beginning

1 Do you know a shop?

2 I know somebody.

3 I want some plates.

4 I was at school with the man.

5 I’d like to speak to the person.

6 She’s friendly with a boy.

7 The police haven’t found the man.

8 There’s some cheese in the fridge.

9 We’ve got some light bulbs.

10 This is the switch.

a He lives next door.

b He stole my car.

c He/She deals with exports.

d It isn’t working.

e It needs to be eaten.

f It sells good coffee.

g They last for years.

h She could mend that chair.

i They can go in the microwave.

j He is driving that taxi.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

D 受格關係代名詞 who, that, whom, which, 用關係代名詞來代替受詞名詞或代名詞的時候,會把受格關係代名詞 whom, which, that 放在關係子句的句首,而後面不會重複該受詞名詞或代名詞。

主格:Tim talked to a couple. They were staying at the youth hostel.

— Tim talked to a couple who were staying at the youth hostel.

受格:Tim is visiting a couple. He met them on vacation.

— Tim is visiting a couple whom he met on vacation.

主格:The postcard was from Tim. It came this morning.

— The postcard that came this morning was from Tim.

受格:The old castle was really interesting. Tim visited it.

— The old castle that Tim visited was really interesting.

 

1 who 用來代表人,用在口語,that 也可以用來代表人,比 who 更非正式/口語

That’s the man who I saw on TV.

She’s the writer that I met.

 

2 whom 非常正式,口語不常用

The person whom the police were questioning has now been released.

 

3 which 用來代表事物,that 也可以用來代表事物,比 which 更非正式/口語,

The book which he borrowed seems very interesting.

I read the book that she wrote.

 

4 省略:受格關係代名詞省略可以完全省略,尤其在口語時通常會省略掉。

The bus (that) I’m waiting for is late.   That’s the man (who) I was talking about.

 

練習二:把下列廣告詞合併,並把關係代名詞省略。

例子: Lush soap. Beautiful people use it. — It’s the soap beautiful people use.

1 An Everyman car. You can afford it.

2 ‘Suicide Squad’ People want to see this movie.

3 Greenway Supermarket. You can trust it.

4 ‘Cool’ magazine. Young people read it.

5 Godiva chocolates. You’ll love them.

 

練習三:下列關係代名詞是主格還是受格?主格畫底線,受格可省略的加上 ( )

1 That’s the woman who lives next door.

2 Our doctor is a person whom I really respect.

3 He had a simple idea which changed the world.

4 I’ve lost the nice ring which Bill gave me.

5 It’s a book that everybody talks about and nobody reads.

6 Once there were three rabbits that lived near a river.

7 That’s the man who I wanted to see.

8 An orphan is a child who hasn’t got any parents.

9 He keeps telling you things which you already know.

10 They never thanked me for the money that I sent them.

 

E 關係子句中的介系詞

關係代名詞可以是介系詞的受詞,在口語中,通常會把介系詞放在形容詞子句中的最後。

This is that bus I’ve been waiting for.

The restaurant that we normally go to is closed today.

 

當關係代名詞是介系詞的受詞時,通常會把關係代名詞省略

I can’t remember the name of the hotel we stayed at.

this is the color we’ve finally decided on.

The shop I got my stereo from has lots of bargains.

 

關係子句中介系詞在正式英語的時候會放在形容子句的最前面,這時候受格關係代名詞只可以用 whom 跟 which ,不可以用 who 或 that

Was that the restaurant to which you usually go?

Electronics is a subject about which I know very little.

The Sales Manager is the person from whom I obtained the figures.

 

關係代名詞的受格作為介係詞的受詞時,最正式的用法是將介係詞放在關係代名詞前 (此時只可用 whom 代表人,which 代表事物,不可以用 who,that,也不可以省略),非正式時將介係詞放在句尾,關係代名詞可省略。

 

The candidate for whom I voted lost the election.                Formal

The candidate whom I voted for lost the election.

The candidate who I voted for lost the election.

The candidate that I voted for lost the election.

The candidate I voted for lost the election.                    Informal

 

練習四:選舉時期到了,候選人在辯論,重寫下列的第一個句子,把介系詞放在每個形容詞子句關係代名詞的前面。

例子:I cannot agree with that statement. I hope I’ve made that clear.

That is a statement with which I cannot agree.

1 Our party believes in that idea. I say this from the bottom of my heart.

2 I am strongly opposed to that policy. And I’m not afraid to say so.

3 No one cares about these people. They are the forgotten people.

4 Your party should be ashamed of those mistakes. And everyone knows that.

5 The government is now dealing with that problem. How many times do I have to tell you?

 

 

F 所有格關係代名詞 whose

當我們把兩個句子連結時,可以用所有格關係代名詞 whose 來取代 his, her, its ,這是比較正式的用法。

I saw a girl. Her beauty took my breath away.

— I saw a girl whose beauty took my breath away.

He went to a meeting. He didn’t understand its purpose.

— He went to a meeting whose purpose he didn’t understand.

 

whose 可用在人,也可用在其他名詞。

Someone whose bicycle was stole had been stolen was reporting it to the police.

David Beckham is the man whose goal won the game for the United.

Round the corner was a building whose windows were all broken.

Zoe was looking after a dog whose leg had been broken in an accident.

 

練習五:下面的犯罪故事中,要用關係代名詞 who 還是 whose

例子

George Paxton, company director – he had an argument with Colin

— George Paxton is the company director who had an argument with Colin.

Vera Stokes, politician – her sister once worked for Colin.

— Vera Stokes is the politician whose sister once worked for Colin.

1 Felix Reeves, journalist – his tape recorder was stolen.

2 Graham Wilshaw, architect – he knew Colin at school.

3 Rex Carter, farmer – Colin bought his land.

4 Norman Bridge, lawyer – he looked after Colin’s interests.

5 Sonia Goldman, house guest – her fingerprints were on the door handle.

 

G that 特殊用法

當先行詞前面有 all -, every-, no-, any-, the only, the same, the very, the + 最高級,the +序數,先行詞為人加事物,在疑問句中時會用 that ,而不用其他關係代名詞

I’ve told you all that I know.

The only thing that matters to me is your happiness.

 

練習六:把下列句子配對

1 All the poetry                                     a that happened.

2 At school I learned nothing            b that he wrote was destroyed in a fire.

3 I’ve told you everything                 c that she said made any difference.

4 Nothing                                             d that was ever made.

5 It’s the best horror movie             e that I could get.

6 The most useful thing                   f that was useful to me.

7 This is the only hire car               g that you can do is leave now.

8 You can have everything               h that you want.

 

H 學習形容詞子句的重點

1 注意形容詞子句的位置。應該盡量緊跟著先行詞。先行詞一定是名詞。

2 選擇正確的關係代名詞。

3 不要重複關係代名詞與代替的字。

4 注意形容詞子句中的動詞與主詞須一致。

5 注意形容詞子句為限定或非限定,在適當的地方標上需要的逗號。

 

1 關係代名詞的位置

關係代名詞所帶領的形容詞子句應緊接著先行詞,放在先行詞後面。先行詞一定是名詞,名詞片語或代名詞

a 形容詞子句可能在句中也可能在句尾。

I have a friend who speaks five languages.

My friend who lives in Switzerland speaks five languages.

 

b 形容詞子句假如沒有緊接著先行詞容易造成誤解。

He left the car on the street that he had just bought. (X)

He left the car that he had just bought on the street. (比較清楚)

The food came in plastic bags. We had to eat the food.

— The food came in plastic bags that we had to eat. (X)

— The food that we had to eat came in plastic bags.

 

c 形容詞子句有少數不會直接跟在先行詞後面,通常是先行詞後面有介系詞片語

時,為了語意的完整,會把形容詞子句放在介系詞片語的後面,但是比較少見

A pirate is a person on a ship who attacks and steals from other ships.

 

d 形容詞子句也可以用來修飾整個句子,這時用which來帶領形容詞子句,

一定放在句尾,一定為非限定。

The team won the championship, which shocked the opponents.

 

2 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

選擇關係代名詞。形容詞子句常為兩個句子的結合。關係代名詞應使用主格、所有格或受格是依形容詞子句中與先行詞重複的部分在形容詞子句的位置來決定。可將主要子句與形容詞子句分為兩個句子來看,找出重複的部分。

 

a 主格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister has two children.

My sister who has two children lives in Canada.

 

b 受格

My sister lives in Canada. You talked to my sister last night.

My sister whom you talked to last night lives in Canada.

 

c 所有格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister’s children are doctors.

My sister whose children are doctors lives in Canada.

 

關係代名詞種類

關係代名詞 :人     who, whom, whose, that  事,物  which, whose, that

關係副詞:    時間   when       地方 where     原因 why

img_1640

圖表因為格時會跑掉,所以潔西用照相的方式,哈哈,這招不錯吧?怎麼沒早想到啊!

 

練習七:選擇正確的關係代名詞:

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

  1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.
  2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.
  3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.
  4. Ms. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.
  5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.
  6. I like the people with _______ I work.
  7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.
  8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.
  9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.
  10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.
  11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.
  12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.
  13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

 

不要重複關係代名詞與代表的主詞,受詞或所有格

關係代名詞帶領的形容詞子句中因為關係代名詞就代表了原句子中的主詞,受詞,或所有格,所以切記不要再重複這些字。

Scott is someone who he loves sports. (X)

Scott is someone who loves sports.

Scott is the man whose his dog barks all day. (X)

Scott is the man whose dog barks all day.

Scott is the writer whom I saw him on TV. (X)

Scott is the writer whom I saw on TV.

 

4 形容詞子句的動詞與主詞一致

形容詞子句中的動詞必須跟形容詞子句中的主詞一致,按主動詞一致原則,所以當關係代名詞是主格時 who, which, that 時,需要前面的依先行詞做變化,其他時候都是看形容詞子句本身的主詞來變化動詞。

a 當關係代名詞是主格時,依先行詞做變化

Ben is my friend who ________ in Boston. (live)

Al and Ed are my friends who ________ in Boston. (live)

 

b 當關係代名詞是所有格時,依所有格+名詞,就是形容詞子句中的主詞做變化。

He’s the man whose dog ________ all day. (bark)

He’s the man whose dogs ________ all day. (bark)

 

c 當關係代名詞是受格時,依形容詞子句中的主詞而變化。

I like the columns which he ________. (write)

I like the column which they ________. (write)

 

練習八:填入正確的關係代名詞跟動詞

  1. People _________ __________ (have) moved a lot have few friends.
  2. People _________ __________ (have) lived in the same place have more friends.
  3. The qualities ________ ________ (be) most important in a friend are loyalty, warmth, and the ability to keep secrets.
  4. Someone _________ ________ (face) a crisis turns to friends before family.
  5. Betrayal is the cause ___________ ____________ (be) most often response for ending a friendship.
  6. Many people have friends __________ social or religious backgrounds _________ (be) different from theirs.
  7. Most people __________ friends __________ (include) members of the opposite sex say that these relationships are different from relationships with people of the same sex.
  8. A survey _______ ____________ (appear) in a magazine may not represent everyone.
  9. Someone ________ ___________ (not read) the magazine might have other ideas.

 

5 限定與非限定子句

a 限定子句 Restrictive / Identifying / Defining Clause

限定子句或辨別子句或定義子句,名稱可能不同,但是都是用來把人事物分類,定義或辨別先行詞。缺少這個限定子句時,語義會不清楚,所以會加上形容詞子句來讓。限定子句不可省略,不可使用逗號。that 只可以用在限定子句。

I have three phones. The phone which is in the kitchen is broken.

The woman who does my hair has just had a baby.

Do you have a good book that’s really easy to read?

What do you think of the wine we drank last night?

 

b 非限定子句 Nonrestrictive (Non-identifying) Clause

非限定子句用來給予先行詞補充額外資訊。非限定子句可以省略,沒有非限定子句,語意一樣清楚。非限定形容詞子句只是補充說明,這時一定要用逗號將主要子句分隔開來。人名或專有名詞為先行詞時,後面幾乎都用非限定子句。不可以用 that 在非限定子句中。

 

I have only one phone. The phone, which is in the kitchen, is broken.

Sally, who does my hair, has just had a baby.

I lent him The Old Man and the Sea, which is really easy to read.

I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank at once.

 

練習九:結合下面的句子,在非限定子句時要用逗號。關係代名詞可以省略的情況下就省略

  1. I bought a cell phone. I can use it to send and receive e-mail.

_______________________________________________________

  1. My new cell phone has become a necessary part of life. I only bought it a month ago.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Now, there are psychologists. They help technophobes use technology.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Dr. Michelle Weil wrote a book about “technostress.” She is a psychologist.

_______________________________________________________

  1. A lot of people suffer from technostress. Those people work in my office.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Some people dream of a job. They can do the job without technology.

_______________________________________________________

依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號

  1. (that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.

8.(who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often need a babysitter.

  1. (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
  2. (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
  3. (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
  4. ( who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.

 

c which 的特殊用法:在非限定子句中,可以用 which 來給予前面正個句子評論看法,也可以用在 in shich case 之類的用法。

David helped me clean up, which was very kind of him.

Sarah had to work late again, which annoyed Mike.

There may be a strike, in which case the office will remained closes.

 

另外也可以在 of which 跟 of whom 前面加上數量詞,比方說 some 或最高級,來提供前面所提過人,事物,或團體中的個人的額外資訊。

 

The last lecture, some of which I just didn’t understand, was about chemistry.

At the conference, there were several writers, the most famous of whom was Jason Bourne.

 

d 關係副詞 where, when, why 用來表示地點,時間,原因

This is the place where the accident happened.

Do you remember the day when we moved the piano upstairs?

The reason why Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.

 

可以把 when 或 why 省略掉,或者可以用 that

Do you remember the day (that) we moved the piano upstairs?

The reason (that) Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.

 

where 跟 when 也可以用在非限定字句做補充說明

We went to the Riverside Restaurant, where I once had lunch with Henry.

Mark likes to travel at night, when the roads are quiet.

 

練習十:改錯,共有六個錯誤

I just read a book called Technostress which was written by Dr. Michelle Well. Her co-author was Dr. Larry Rosen, that is her husband and also a psychologist. According to the authors, everybody feels stress about technology. Our cell phones and beepers, that we buy for emergencies, soon invade our privacy. Just because they can, people contact us at places, where we are relaxing. Another problem is having to learn too much too fast. Technological changes, used to come one at a time, now overwhelm us. Dr. Well suggests dealing with technostress using tips from her latest book which can be purchased from her web site.

 

 

I 關係代名詞的省略

在口語中常常會省可省略某些關係代名詞。

1可以省略的:限定子句中的受格與when。

That’s the man (whom) I love.

I remember the day (when) I met him.

2 不可省略的:非限定子句中的所有關係代名詞,限定子句中的主格、所有格與

where。

I remember Max, who I visited often.

He is my friend who lives in New York.

That’s the writer whose books I like very much.

That’s the school where I work.

 

J 準關係代名詞 as, but, than:

本身為連接詞,搭配特定先行詞時,會像關係代名詞一樣兼具代名詞的功能。

a as: 可以當主格,受格,或 which 修飾整個句子

We will give the audience such a show as has never been seen before.

The girl wore the same red dress as her mother did.

Andrew will be taking a few months off, as was mentioned in the meeting.

 

b but: 為否定的意思,有 that … not 的意思。前面的主要子句多有否定的詞語。

There is no rule but has exceptions.

= There is no rule that does not have exceptions.

= There is no rule without exceptions.

 

c than: 用在比較級的句子中,會跟比較級的先行詞搭配使用

More people came to the meeting than were expected.

Don’t give your kid more money than he asked for.

 

K 關係形容詞 what, which:

後面接名詞,用來修飾名詞,有連接詞與形容詞的功能

I took what tools were necessary for the job.

The children are ate what little food was left in the refrigerator.

Dan failed his driving test, in which case he couldn’t get a license.

The soldiers waited for their lieutenant to come, at which time they all left.

 

練習十一:翻譯練習

  1. 台北是個方便的城市。
  2. 羅馬是個吸引很多遊客的城市。
  3. 我的好朋友很健談。
  4. 我住在美國的好朋友很喜歡談政治。
  5. 那個長髮美女是我老婆。

 

下面就是答案了,不要偷看啊!!!!

 

 

 

答案在這裡:

練習一:用 who, which  合併句子

1 Do you know a shop which sells good coffee?

2 I know somebody who could mend that chair.

3 I want some plates which can go in the microwave.

4 I was at school with the man who is driving that taxi.

5 I’d like to speak to the person who deals with exports.

6 She’s friendly with a boy who lives next door.

7 The police haven’t found the man who stole my car.

8 There’s some cheese in the fridge which needs to be eaten.

9 We’ve got some light bulbs which last for years.

10 This is the switch which isn’t working.

 

 

練習二:把下列廣告詞合併,並把關係代名詞省略。

例子: Lush soap. Beautiful people use it. — It’s the soap beautiful people use.

1 An Everyman car. You can afford it. — It’s the car you can afford it.

2 ‘Suicide Squad’ People want to see this movie. — It’s the movie people want to see.

3 Greenway Supermarket. You can trust it. — It’s the supermarket you can trust.

4 ‘Cool’ magazine. Young people read it. — It’s the magazine young people read.

5 Godiva chocolates. You’ll love them. — They’re the chocolates you’ll love.

 

 

練習三:下列關係代名詞是主格還是受格?主格畫底線,受格可省略的加上 ( )

1 That’s the woman who lives next door.

2 Our doctor is a person (whom) I really respect.

3 He had a simple idea which changed the world.

4 I’ve lost the nice ring (which) Bill gave me.

5 It’s a book (that) everybody talks about and nobody reads.

6 Once there were three rabbits that lived near a river.

7 That’s the man (who) I wanted to see.

8 An orphan is a child who hasn’t got any parents.

9 He keeps telling you things (which) you already know.

10 They never thanked me for the money (that) I sent them.

 

 

練習四:選舉時期到了,候選人在辯論,重寫下列的句子,把介系詞放在每個形容詞子句關係代名詞的前面。

例子:I cannot agree with that statement. I hope I’ve made that clear.

That is a statement with which I cannot agree.

1 Our party believes in that idea. I say this from the bottom of my heart.

That is an idea in which our party believes.

2 I am strongly opposed to that policy. And I’m not afraid to say so.

That is a policy to which I am strongly opposed.

3 No one cares about these people. they are the forgotten people.

These are people about whom no one cares.

4 Your party should be ashamed of those mistakes. And everyone knows that.

Those are mistakes of which your party should be ashamed.

5 The government is now dealing with that problem. How many times do I have to tell you?

That is a problem with which the government is now dealing.

 

 

 

 

練習五:下面的犯罪故事中,要用關係代名詞 who 還是 whose

1 Felix Reeves, journalist – his tape recorder was stolen.

Felix Reeves is the journalist whose tape recorder was stolen.

2 Graham Wilshaw, architect – he knew Colin at school.

Graham Wilshaw is the architect who knew Colin at school.

3 Rex Carter, farmer – Colin bought his land.

Rex Carter is the farmer whose land Colin bought.

4 Norman Bridge, lawyer – he looked after Colin’s interests

Norman Bridge is the lawyer who looked after Colin’s interests.

5 Sonia Goldman, house guest – her fingerprints were on the door handle.

Sonia Goldman is the house guest whose fingerprints were on the door handle.

 

練習六:把下列句子配對

1 All the poetry                             a that happened.

2 At school I learned nothing            b that he wrote was destroyed in a fire.

3 I’ve told you everything                 c that she said made any difference.

4 Nothing                                      d that was ever made.

5 It’s the best horror movie             e that I could get.

6 The most useful thing                   f that was useful to me.

7 This is the only hire car               g that you can do is leave now.

8 You can have everything               h that you want.

 

1 b All the poetry that he wrote was destroyed in a fire.

2 f At school I learned nothing that was useful to me.

3 a I’ve told you everything that happened.

4 c Nothing that she said made any difference.

5 d It’s the best horror movie that was ever made.

6 g The most useful thing that you can do is leave now.

7 e This is the only hire car that I could get.

8 h You can have everything that you want.

 

 

練習七:選擇正確的關係代名詞:

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

  1. The people who/that moved into town are Italian.
  2. The lamp that/which/x I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.
  3. Everyone who/that came to the audition got a part in the play.
  4. Ms. Rice is the teacher whose class I enjoy most.
  5. The man whom/who/that/x I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.
  6. I like the people with whom I work.
  7. I have a friend whose father is a famous artist.
  8. The camera that/which/x I bought takes very sharp pictures.
  9. Students who/that have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.
  10. Flying squirrels that/which live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.
  11. The people whose car I dented were a little upset.
  12. The person to whom you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.
  13. Monkeys will eat almost anything that/which/x they can find.

 

  1. who/that 2. that/which/x 3. who/that  4. whose  5. whom/who/that/x  6 whom 7. whose 8. that/which/x  9. who/that  10.  that/which   11 whose 12. whom 13. that/which/x

練習八:填入正確的關係代名詞跟動詞

  1. People who/that have moved a lot have few friends.
  2. People who/that have lived in the same place have more friends.
  3. The qualities that/which are most important in a friend are loyalty, warmth, and the ability to keep secrets.
  4. Someone who/that faces a crisis turns to friends before family.
  5. Betrayal is the cause that/which is most often response for ending a friendship.
  6. Many people have friends whose social or religious backgrounds are different from theirs.
  7. Most people whose friends include members of the opposite sex say that these relationships are different from relationships with people of the same sex.
  8. A survey that/which appears/appeared/has appeared in a magazine may not represent everyone.
  9. Someone who/that doesn’t read/hasn’t read the magazine might have other ideas.

 

  1. who(that), have 2. who(that), have 3. that(which), are  4. who(that), faces  5 that(which), is 6. whose, are 7. whose, include  8. that(which), appears/appeared/has appeared  9. who(that), doesn’t read/hasn’t read

 

 

練習九:結合下面的句子,注意在非限定子句時要用逗號。關係代名詞可以省略的情況下就省略

  1. 限定與非限定形容詞子句

1 I bought a cell phone I can use to send and receive e-mail.

2  My new cell phone, which I bought a month ago, has become a necessary part

of life.

3  Now, there are psychologists who(that) help technophobes use technology.

4  Dr. Michelle Weil, who is a psychologist, wrote a book about “technostress.”

5  A lot of people who work in my office suffer from technostress.

6  Some people dream of a job they can do without technology.

7  This car is a lot cheaper than the one that Claire drives.

8  Olivia, who has twins, often needs a babysitter.

9 The person who took Rita to the party was Tom.

10  Henry, who has a bad temper, shouted at the waiter.

11 The team which Tom supported is United.

12 We all climbed up except Vicky, who is afraid of heights.

 

練習十:改錯,共有六個錯誤

I just read a book called Technostress 1, which was written by Dr. Michelle Well. Her co-author was Dr. Larry Rosen, 2 who is her husband and also a psychologist. According to the authors, everybody feels stress about technology. Our cell phones and beepers, 3 which we buy for emergencies, soon invade our privacy. Just because they can, people contact us at places 4 (x) where we are relaxing. Another problem is having to learn too much too fast. Technological changes, 5 which used to come one at a time, now overwhelm us. Dr. Well suggests dealing with technostress using tips from her latest book 6 , which can be purchased from her web site.

 

 

練習十一:翻譯練習

  1. Taipei is a convenient city.
  2. Rome is a city that attracts a lot of tourists.
  3. My best friend is talkative.
  4. My best friends who lives in the U.S. likes to talk politics.
  5. The beautiful woman with long hair is my wife.

 

 

 

 

子句的種類與句子的種類

快要一點了,明明昨天早早十二點睡,早上九點起床,沒做什麼事就累得半死,全身酸痛,身上貼了五個貼布,晚點要來去按摩。就算想運動也沒法去運動,會不會是中暑了呢?不知。

 

這是先前整理的講義,就是上上星期的初級寫作分好幾次放的。下面這個簡單的解釋有個表格會亂掉,所以改用 pdf 檔,本來要用照片,但是覺得 pdf 好像會比照片好。

 

 

A 子句的種類  types of clauses 

子句有三種,分名詞子句、形容詞子句跟副詞子句。

1 名詞子句noun clause:整個子句當名詞用,不是當句子的主詞就是受詞。

2 形容詞子句adjective clause:整個子句當形容詞用,一定是用來修飾名詞。

3 副詞子句adverb clause:整個子句當副詞用,像時間子句,條件子句等都是副詞子句,整個子句當副詞用,用來修飾動詞或整個句子。

 

1 名詞子句 noun clause

I   think  that Jessie  is  a crazy teacher.

(    S            V                           )    —noun clause

S    V                 O

That the earth  is  round  is   true.

(         S             V          )                   —noun clause

S                       V   SC

I don’t know where she lives.

(            S   V  )                 —noun clause

S    V              O

名詞子句放在最前面帶領子句的有that,whether,if,疑問詞what、when、where、who等。that除了在句首外一般可以省略,其他的疑問詞等則不可省。

 

2 形容詞子句 adjective clause

The book  which  I  read  last night  was  great.

(         S   V                    )             —adjective clause

S                                                 V    SC

I  like  movies   that  make  me laugh.

(  S     V                   )         —adjective clause

S  V    O

I’ll never forget the day when I  got married.

(        S   V              )        —adjective clause

S        V       O

形容詞子句又叫關係子句。而放在最前面帶領形容詞子句的字就叫做關係代名詞,如that、what、who、when、where、whose等。通常做為受詞的關係代名詞如which、whom、that,可以省略,可是在限定子句時又不能省。名詞與副詞子句都有who、what、where這些疑問詞,所以容易混淆。其實只要注意子句本身的功能與修飾的對象,應該就可以分得很清楚了。

 

3 副詞子句 adverb clause

He ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

(              S   V                     )     –adverb clause

S  V        O

If you don’t have enough money, you can give it to me next time.

(     S       V                              )               –adverb clause

S     V

He was talking on the phone while he was driving.

(       S       V          )              –adverb clause

S          V

副詞子句一般是大家最熟悉的,種類也最多。副詞子句可以用來表達時間、因果、對比、條件、讓步等等。副詞子句最前面帶領子句的字叫做從屬連接詞subordinating conjunctions,是用來連接主要子句跟副詞子句的橋樑。

當主要子句在前面時,因為很清楚的可以知道副詞子句是由從屬連接詞開始,所以不需要逗號,如第一與第三句。而當副詞子句在句首時,要有一個逗號清楚地把副詞子句跟主要子句隔開來,如第二個句子。當然這些從屬連接詞是都不能省略的囉。

例外:

當while表示對比,或者是though, 或although在中間時,也會有逗號,但是其他連接詞在中間時,則不需要逗號。

Schools in the north tend to be better equipped, while those in the south are relatively poor.

I thought he’d been drinking, though I wasn’t completely sure.

You can copy down my answers, although I’m not sure they’re right.

 

這個部分因為表格會跑掉,所以可以到這個連結看 子句的種類 原本想放上來,但是不太會放。要點進去再點進去。

 

B 句子的種類 types of sentences     

四個句子的種類

1 simple sentences 簡單句 

I love beef.

 

2 compound sentences 並合句 

I love beef, but I hate pork.

 

3 complex sentences 複合句 

Although I love beef, I hate pork.

 

4 compound-complex sentences 混合句

My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a day.

 

1 簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,但整體視為一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

 

2 並合句是由對等連接詞(and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet,可以用fanboys記)將兩個獨立子句連接而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.

 

3 複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(如because, although, when, before等)所帶領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。可能包含了一個名詞子句,或形容詞子句,或副詞子句。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

I can’t believe she is only 17.

 

4 混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句形成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did nothing.

 

C 轉折語Transitional signals       

要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。

1 對等詞 coordinators

a 對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 

有七個,可用fanboys來記:  and, but, so, or, nor, for, yet

對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句,連接詞一 定放在兩個句子中間。

It is an old car, but it is very reliable.

Would you rather take a written or an oral exam?

 

b   配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 

有五個: both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor,  whether … or

這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

The system is not only complicated but also inefficient.

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句, 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

S + V, CC S + V.

I was feeling hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

 

 

2 從屬詞 subordinator

從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction 是帶領副詞子句的連接詞,如although, when, while, before, after, because, if, as, 等。

它會放在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

SC + S + V, S + V.     or    S + V + SC + S + V.

Because I was feeling hungry, I made myself a sandwich.

I made myself a sandwich because I was hungry.

Although I can’t help admiring the man’s courage, I do not approve of his methods.

This is my responsibility, although I appreciate your offer.

 

 

3 轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

S + V; CA, S + V.       or    S + V. CA, S + V.

I was feeling hungry; therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. Therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. I made myself a sandwich, therefore.

I was feeling hungry. I, therefore, made myself a sandwich.

 

4 其他others

有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語如in addition to,動詞如cause等也可以用來表示轉折語。這些次沒有特定的標點符號規則,必須注意前後的字詞的用法。

An additional reason for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

 

在用法方面有些需要注意的是,一個句子可以有不同的方式連接,但是什麼時候要用 but, although, in spite of, despite 就需要看句子的結構來連接。but 因為是對等連接詞,所以放在句子中間連接兩個獨立子句;  alothough 是從屬連接詞,所以可以放在句首或句中,連接一個獨立子句跟一個非獨立子句; 而 however 是個連接副詞,所以不能連接兩個句子,只能當副詞用。考試還挺喜歡考的,很多人容易弄錯,就像 because, so, therefore 很多人會不清楚用法一樣。另外 because 後面加子句,而 because of 後面只能加名詞。

 

而 though 跟 although 的用法相同,但 though比 較非正式。even though 跟 although相似,但是even though語氣比較強烈。另外 despite 後面不能加 of ,despite 跟 in spite of 後面都是加名詞,不能加子句。

 

 

 

下面是一些練習,寫完再對答案喔。

 

練習一 將其中一些句子合併讓意思更明確

1 I was very upset.

2 The Fourth of July fireworks were especially loud.

3 My dog ran away.

4 The animal control officer made his morning rounds.

5 He found my dog in another part of town.

6 I was relieved.

 

練習二 將下列句子合併成一個句子  

1 Romeo and Juliet were young.

They fell in love.

2 Their families were feuding.

Romeo and Juliet decided to run away.

3 They tried to trick their families.

Their plans failed. They both died.

4 Several tabloids have reported that Elvis has not left us.

He has been sighted in several parts of the country and even on other planets.

5 The central character of The Old Man and the Sea is Santiago.

Santiago is a fisherman with a string of bad luck.

6  He catches a fish.

He loses most of it to sharks.

7  He struggles courageously.

He achieves a moral victory.

8  Santiago is a true hero.

He obeys his code.

 

練習三  完成對話

A Carlo is working on the busy reception desk of a large hotel in Bristol. Put in the correct words from the box.

either, in case, nor, both, so (x2), and, neither, because, or

Carlo: Can I help you, sir?

First man: I hope so. ___________ the shower ___________ the bath works in my room.

Carlo: I’m sorry, sir. We’ll have them repaired this afternoon.

First woman: I’ve got an early flight, ___________ I need an alarm call at five o’clock in the morning.

Carlo: No problem, Madam. I’ll arrange that for you.

Second man: Can I borrow an umbrella ___________ it rains? I don’t want to get my suit wet.

Carlo: Of course you can, sir. Here you are.

Second woman: I’m unhappy ___________ my room doesn’t have a view. I’d like to see ___________ the park ___________ the river.

Carlo: I’ll see what I can do, Madam.

Third man: Can you book me a taxi ___________ that I can get to the airport by ten  o’clock tonight?

Carlo: Certainly sir. I’ll book it for half past nine.

Third woman: ___________ the bed ___________ the bath are too small for my husband and me.

Carlo: I’m sorry, Madam, but that’s all we have at the moment.

 

練習四  填空

Complete the report by putting in correct linking words (but, although, however, even though, in spite of, and despite). There is always more than one possible answer.

1____________ the ground was very wet, it was decided to go ahead with United’s game against City. United were 1-0 winners 2______________ not playing very well.   3____________ the poor conditions, City played some attractive football, 4____________ they just couldn’t score.  5. _______________  they lost, their fans gave the a big cheer.

 

練習五   填空

Put in these words: although, because, due to, if, in case, in order to, in spite of, so, so that, unless

  1. __________ it was late, Nick didn’t seem in a hurry to leave.
  2. They put video cameras in shops _____________ stop people stealing things.
  3. We decided to go out for a meal ____________ we were simply too tired.
  4. _____________ you’re ready, we can start now.
  5. Our room was very small, ____________ we didn’t really mind.
  6. No one was watching the television, ______________ I switched it off.
  7. You can’t drive a car ______________ you’ve got a license.
  8. ______________ having absolutely no talent, Guy became a popular TV personality.
  9. I think my answer are right, but can I just check them with yours ___________.
  10. The road was closed ________________ an accident.
  11. Olivia booked a babysitter ______________ she could go out for the evening.

 

 

 

答案  不要偷看喔

練習一 將其中一些句子合併讓意思更明確

1 I was very upset.    2 The Fourth of July fireworks were especially loud.

3 My dog ran away.    4 The animal control officer made his morning rounds.

5 He found my dog in another part of town.

6 I was relieved.

I was very upset. Because the Fourth of July fireworks were especially loud, my dog ran away. When the animal control officer made his morning rounds, he found my dog in another part of town. I was relieved.

 

練習二 將下列句子合併成一個句子  

1 Romeo and Juliet were young.

They fell in love.

Romeo and Juliet were you when they fell in love.

2 Their families were feuding.

Romeo and Juliet decided to run away.

Their families were feuding, so Romeo and Juliet decided to run away.

3 They tried to trick their families.

Their plans failed. They both died.

4 Several tabloids have reported that Elvis has not left us.

He has been sighted in several parts of the country and even on other planets.

Several tabloids have reported that Elvis has not left us, and he has been sighted in several parts of the country and even on other planets.

5 The central character of The Old Man and the Sea is Santiago.

Santiago is a fisherman with a string of bad luck.

Santiago, who is the central character of The Old Man and the Sea, is a fisherman with  a string of bad luck.

6  He catches a fish.

He loses most of it to sharks.

He loses most of the fish he catches to sharks.

He catches a fish, but he loses most of it to sharks.

7  He struggles courageously.

He achieves a moral victory.

Because he struggles courageously, he achieves a moral victory.

8  Santiago is a true hero.

He obeys his code.

Santiago, who obeys his code is a true hero.

 

練習三   完成對話

A Carlo is working on the busy reception desk of a large hotel in Bristol. Put in the correct words from the box.

either, in case, nor, both, so (x2), and, neither, because, or

Carlo: Can I help you, sir?

First man: I hope so. Neither the shower nor the bath works in my room.

Carlo: I’m sorry, sir. We’ll have them repaired this afternoon.

First woman: I’ve got an early flight, so I need an alarm call at five o’clock in the morning.

Carlo: No problem, Madam. I’ll arrange that for you.

Second man: Can I borrow an umbrella in case it rains? I don’t want to get my suit wet.

Carlo: Of course you can, sir. Here you are.

Second woman: I’m unhappy because my room doesn’t have a view. I’d like to see either the park or the river.

Carlo: I’ll see what I can do, Madam.

Third man: Can you book me a taxi so that I can get to the airport by ten  o’clock tonight?

Carlo: Certainly sir. I’ll book it for half past nine.

Third woman: Both the bed and the bath are too small for my husband and me.

Carlo: I’m sorry, Madam, but that’s all we have at the moment.

 

練習四   填空

Complete the report by putting in correct linking words (but, although, however, even though, in spite of, and despite). There is always more than one possible answer.

1 Although the ground was very wet, it was decided to go ahead with United’s game against City. United were 1-0 winners 2 in spite of / despite not playing very well.   3 In spite of / despite the poor conditions, City played some attractive football, 4 but / although / though they just couldn’t score.  5. Even though / although / though they lost, their fans gave the a big cheer.

 

練習五   填空

Put in these words: although, because, due to, if, in case, in order to, in spite of, so, so that, unless

  1. Although it was late, Nick didn’t seem in a hurry to leave.
  2. They put video cameras in shops in order to stop people stealing things.
  3. We decided to go out for a meal because we were simply too tired.
  4. If you’re ready, we can start now.
  5. Our room was very small, but we didn’t really mind.
  6. No one was watching the television, so I switched it off.
  7. You can’t drive a car unless you’ve got a license.
  8. In spite of having absolutely no talent, Guy became a popular TV personality.
  9. I think my answer are right, but can I just check them with yours in case.
  10. The road was closed due to an accident.
  11. Olivia booked a babysitter so that she could go out for the evening.

為了連身裝爆氣的奧客潔西+形容詞子句

潔西上上週買了件連身褲裝,因為是V領開得很低,問了一下店員的意見,店員說其實本來就做這樣,裡面配個小可愛,當時身上穿的M好就可以。但是回家試穿後覺得有點太小,潔西大概是只可能越來越胖,不會再瘦,再胖一點就套不進去了吧,所以上星期五拿去UNIQLO換囉。

 

UNIQLO先前潔西就換過,也跟他們建議過,他們家連鎖店那麼多,但是在哪家店買就只能在哪家店做退換,真的很不方便,潔西去櫃檯問了一下,櫃檯請潔西自己去拿要換的size再直接去櫃檯做換貨就可以。潔西找了找,啊!沒有潔西要的顏色跟 size ,所以就去問櫃台,櫃台的店員很好,幫潔西問了明曜店有,可以請他們保留,上次也請他們保留過,只能保留一天,潔西剛好隔天要去東區上課。潔西問店員說那要退貨再去那邊買嗎?因為這樣比較方便,潔西隔天就不用再帶著衣服去上課,不過店員說不用,她幫潔西寫一張單子,用那張單子做換貨的動作就可以了。

 

啊,你們公司不是規定只能在同一家店做退換貨嗎?既然可以為什麼要說不行,然後潔西還要回去原本的店,然後再寫單子,就可以去另外一家店換,這不是找消費者麻煩嗎?而且他們保留只能保留一天,假如潔西沒付錢只能保留一天那就算了,都付錢了,要換貨還只能保留一天,有點說不過去吧?不過因為店員人很 nice ,所以潔西就沒多說,要刷退也挺麻煩的,就問店員說過去那要怎麼換,直接去櫃檯嗎?店員很熱心地說,潔西可以先去找隨便一個店員,請他幫潔西拿幫潔西保留要換貨的褲裝,然後再去櫃檯就可以了。

 

隔天潔西早上十點的課,八點起床,八點半出門,有三堂課,上到兩點半,因為當天晚上要去國家音樂廳聽演奏會,所以打了電話去兩廳的表演藝術圖書館預約了閱覽室,就是一個小房間,有沙發,很舒服,潔西三不五時會去混一下。上星期去的時候已經有人了,所以想說先預約看看。本來想說要不要預約五點,不過三點半下課,先去明曜換個衣服,從東區到中正紀念堂不遠,應該四點半到得了吧?就預約四點半了。因為那是一間小房間,上完課很累,有個沙發可以躺,把東西像平時一樣丟得到處都是,一邊聽音樂一邊準備一下隔天要上的課應該不錯。

 

潔西的如意算盤一點都不如意啊!平常下課就走人了,幾乎沒有學生會來問問題,不過因為當天教的是初級寫作的形容詞子句,這真的不容易,不管是說還是寫,潔西常聽到改到同學說錯寫錯的,因為這部英文跟中文的句型有相當大的差異,只有一個很強的學生沒問題,大部分的人都有點一臉茫然,潔西想說講的應該是中文,不是英文啊,哈哈。對學生來說潔西說的可能是像外星文一樣難懂吧。潔西有安慰他們初級剛開始學比較難,慢慢再多學一些多重複幾次上到就會比較容易了。下課後有幾個人來問問題,然後上星期只有兩個學生潔西有給他們作業,因為今天來的另外六七個都是上星期沒來的,所以就沒有對答案,學生請潔西幫他看答案,然後潔西把錯的地方解釋給他聽,到後面另外一個同學說好像有老師要上課,先出去好了,潔西把東西收收黑板擦好,一個學生說沒關係先走了,另外一個留下來,潔西解釋一些他沒法理解的點。潔西是挺樂意回答學生的問題,但是平常沒事都沒人問啊,有事同學就會有問題啊,哈哈。結果離開補習班已經接近大概三點快五十了吧,想說要快點,不然會來不及啊。

 

其實補習班在忠孝復興站,明曜在忠孝敦化站,但是下課的時候下狂暴雨,所以走地下街,一邊走一邊趕,啊,等等不快點會來不及四點半的預約。潔西到了明曜的 UNIQLO 人爆多,因為他們剛好在做活動,潔西找一個店員要請他幫潔西拿潔西預約的褲裝,結果他要潔西直接去櫃檯。一樓櫃台起碼排了二十個人,潔西上次在二樓買過東西,想說二樓應該會好一點吧,就上二樓,也差不多十來個人,好不容易等到潔西的時候,櫃台的人員說,小姐,不好意思,換貨要到那邊的櫃檯喔,旁邊有另外一個櫃檯專門處理退換貨,潔西這時候臉色應該很難看了,店員說我去幫你拿褲子,那邊有兩個人在處理應該很快。

 

潔西等他拿褲子還真的等蠻久,店員才把褲子拿過來,然後要潔西再去退貨的櫃檯再重新排隊。不開心,潔西先前在旁邊櫃檯排假的嗎?不過是換個尺寸而已,褲子拿過來的人就不能幫潔西一起處理嗎?所以潔西只好再從頭繼續排要退換貨的隊伍,前面有兩三個人吧?退換本來就比較弄慢,弄有點久而且只有一個人在處理。然後總算潔西前面那個人的退貨處理好了,退貨的婦人又要跟店員要收據,貨都退了,還要什麼收據?婦人跟他說是公司要報帳的,所以要有退的收據,明明就退兩件新出女生穿的就像男生當內褲穿的那種四角褲,這都可以報帳?問題退貨就不會給單據啊,婦人跟他盧了很久說報賬一定要有證明之類的,最後店員說那去幫她影印他們公司退貨的單據,然後用對講機找人幫他印,別人也在忙的樣子,他就跟客人說您等一下,我去幫您印,大概要三分鐘。

 

潔西忍不住發飆了,「可以快一點嗎?我在趕時間,我快要生氣了。」忘記了,就是類似的話。先前在等的時候就一邊做去上心理回饋的治療師教的呼吸法,一把火已經有壓半把了,潔西要來不及了,然後半退貨的人又要離開,又不知道要等到什麼時候,真的是一把火就燒上來了,雖然對店員很不好意思。那個要去影印的人跟旁邊櫃檯的人應該有嚇到,因為潔西本來就被說不笑看起來就很兇的人,當時臉色應該很難看吧,店員馬上說,不好意思,那我請我們店長幫你處理。原來店長就是先前幫潔西拿褲裝的人。其實 UNIQLO的人員大多時候都非常有禮,潔西也覺得自己失態,店長一直道歉跟潔西說不好意思,潔西也跟她說不好意思,不過因為真的趕時間,而且覺得他們公司換貨制度很有問題,解釋給她聽。

 

明明中和店的人說請個店員先幫拿褲子就再去辦換貨,可是潔西去到明曜的店員又不去幫潔西拿,叫潔西去櫃檯,然後去櫃檯也不跟潔西說要去專門辦退換貨的櫃檯,的確在右邊有個小小的標示寫退換貨在此,問題你看到一堆人在排隊當然直覺就是去跟著排了,誰會去注意到,而且當初潔西在中和的做退換貨的時候就是在一般櫃檯,並沒有去什麼專門退換貨的櫃檯,排半天到潔西時要潔西到旁邊退貨櫃臺,去幫潔西拿褲子回來後居然又要潔西再重新排隊,就算潔西沒有在趕時間大概也會火冒三丈。浪費潔西多少時間?不過就換個褲子,起碼弄了二三十鐘。潔西還要跟店長說,不好意思,我知道你們很忙,但是我真的趕時間。雖然也不是什麼很重要的大約定。

 

潔西覺得凶店員的人實在是沒品的奧客,但是潔西真的是一把火,也有反省了。也沒很兇,只是用很生氣的聲音說我快要生氣了這樣,後來口氣都很和緩,解釋為什麼會那麼生氣的時候,不過店長好像都沒在聽潔西說,只是一直說很不好意思,感覺沒有在聽潔西說話,這樣反而讓人覺得沒誠意啊。潔西自己也一直說不好意思。覺得究竟是誰的錯啊?

 

弄好的時候已經四點二十左右了,坐捷運到西門站已經快四點半了,潔西打電話去閱覽室說會來不及,能不能幫潔西保留,被告知說,會保留十分鐘,但是呢假如有人要使用的話十分鐘後就會給現場的人使用。潔西下中正紀念堂捷運站的時候幾乎用跑的,然後外面下狂大雨,潔西穿白褲子,快暈倒。趕下去閱覽室的時候四點四十五分,差五分還有機會吧? 結果問了櫃台,櫃檯說,不好意思,已經讓給現場的人了。啊!啊!啊!就差五分鐘。在UNIQLO不要浪費那麼多時間的話絕對來得及的,可惡。

 

不過潔西最近狀況沒有太差,還能做到正面思考轉念,在擠死人的捷運上就在想,萬一趕不上的話怎麼辦,聽黑膠好了,黑膠那邊也有沙發。所以被告知已經被使用了就只有,啊!慘叫一聲,也沒生氣就接受了啊,就來不及了啊。還了DVD,就去黑膠唱片區晃,找了潔西很喜歡的 Ella Fitzgerald 聽聽爵士樂放鬆一下,然後再找了小澤征爾指揮的貝多芬第九號交響曲,聽那個令人振奮的歡樂頌。一邊聽也沒有閒著,隔天早上還有兩堂課,講義拿出來準備,雙人沙發上,另外一個位置堆滿了潔西的東西,起來要上洗手間的時候發現堆得一團亂,覺得真不好意思,趕快整理一下。

 

快七點的時候去聽當天音樂會的導覽,七點半開始演出,伏特加之夜,潔西開玩笑發文說愛喝伏特加的一定不能錯過的,哈哈。潔西對俄羅斯的樂曲還頗有好感的。第一首是荒山之夜,第二首是柴可夫斯基的第一號鋼琴協奏曲,鋼琴演奏家是葉孟儒,超厲害的。潔西基本上是音痴,對音樂流行古典都一樣,好聽不好聽只是自己喜歡不喜歡的直覺,上星期聽了行星組曲的音樂會,也有鋼琴的獨奏的部分,偷懶不查了,是一個外國的鋼琴家,潔西聽了沒什麼感覺,但是這個鋼琴家,潔西超喜歡的,一上場就是非常有自信那種,完全知道自己要做什麼信心滿滿,潔西上次坐右邊,後來有做功課說聽鋼琴演奏的話可以選左邊的位置比較可以看得到鋼琴家,聲音也比較好?連安可曲,潔西完全沒聽過的曲目都可以讓潔西感動到眼淚就自己流出來。聽現場演奏真的非常有療癒性啊!

 

潔西上次坐第十排,上網查聽說很多人覺得第十五排最好,這次坐第十七排,可能是年紀大了耳朵不好,覺得第十排聽得比較清楚,還是左邊跟右邊聽起來也不同呢?潔西因為要上課大包小包,所以都選中間最旁邊走道的位置,腳還可以往旁邊伸,一整個坐不住的人,一直動來動去,後面的人應該很討厭潔西。不過很巧,當天後面坐的剛好是潔西先前有次去聽某個音樂講座的講者。

 

星期六那天早上八點半出門,回到家已經十一點了,吃個宵夜邊看影集邊準備隔天上課的東西,然後再洗個澡,也不知道怎麼摸的,要躺上床的時候已經三點半了。超累,想說應該不用吃藥就可以睡著,結果躺了半個小時都睡不著,躺到四點起來吃藥上FB發廢文的時候,剛好去 UCLA 念 summer school 的學生在美國剛到宿舍,超大的宿舍只有他一個人,就又聊一下了,後來潔西真的不行了,他們那邊下午一點半,潔西在台灣已經是四點半,而且潔西十點半要上課,所以就下線昏迷了。

 

隔天上課還好沒遲到,還挺早到的,潔西上課上得比較習慣了,所以最近上課都很開心,恩,自己上的很開心,學生開不開心就不知道了,哈哈,感覺上課氣氛都還不錯。上完後小寶找吃飯,約了板橋的定食八,快餓死了,還讓潔西等了三十分鐘,可惡的臭小寶,吃飽飯還陪小寶去買太陽眼鏡。結果一進去店家潔西的包包就嗶嗶叫,那天要進去 Zara 的時候也是,一進去就開始叫,潔西只好滾出去了。

 

不過今天這家店員很好心的說你是不是買了什麼東西沒消磁?潔西說應該是包包,先前也是一直叫。店員就說你要不要把東西拿出來試試看,有時候甚至是化妝品沒消到磁都有可能喔。潔西就把大包小包的東西拿出來測,測到最後就剩下一個空包包,還是叫,果然罪魁禍首就是它。店員很好心的拿去幫潔西消磁,果然,店員說應該是在袋子的最下面,有些防盜的會縫在袋子裡面,所以看不到也找不到。真是感恩,店員人好好。然後看了一下包包,厚,又是讓潔西不太開心的 ZARA ,這袋子超有印象的,好多年前跟幾個學生去那家現在永遠外面排滿滿的二男日本料理吃中飯,吃完後兩個男生回去吃橘子,哈哈,不是啦,人家在橘子工作,已經離職了的女同學跟潔西一起去逛,潔西超喜歡這個包,但又覺得重,也不缺包,同學就在旁邊搧風點火,哈哈就是喜歡就買啊,也不貴,又好看,所以就帶回家了。

 

又亂扯了,因為在等看醫生,昨天其實很可憐,因為連續兩天上課,又去音樂會,又備課到很晚,下午回家的路上潔西就跟小寶說潔西大概知道過勞死是什麼樣的感覺了,回到家就開了冷氣躺在沙發上動不了了。不幸地,睡了兩三個小時吧,起來的時候頭狂痛的痛醒,吃了藥還是狂痛,整個人真的覺得快要死掉了。而且太累了,又沒有早吃藥,所以痛超久的,自己都覺得很可憐啊XD

 

幹嘛把自己弄的這麼累?其實也還好,星期六三堂課都是個一個半小時,中間都有休息半小時,覺得這樣很不錯,不用趕,可以慢慢上。不過第一堂居然只有一個人,上一對一,上星期連假都還有三個人,不知道是不是三個人都不喜歡潔西的上法,還是有事,週末本來人就比較少,上星期寫作也只有兩個人。潔西跟學生說你賺到了耶,不過學生是害羞型的,一對一壓力應該頗大,不知道下星期會不會有人出現了啊?

 

第二個會話班有個同學程度有點太好,潔西聽到 missile 的字就走過去了,恩,飛彈?怎麼會講到這個,是要說 miso 味增嗎XD 走過去了解,結果發現原來同學是軍官,負責愛國者飛彈 patriot missile 的事宜常會跟外國人溝通,那堂課是他第一次上課第一堂課,試水溫吧,潔西建議他可以直接跳去上外師的課了,單字量多,又流利,上初級會話跟他練習的同學應該壓力都很大吧。然後潔西又一整個開始迷糊,找不到講義,筆之類的,都靠同學幫潔西找到,哈哈。這一班同學都有一點程度,上起課氣氛也不錯,只是潔西記不住同學名字,又開始亂叫,怎麼叫怎麼錯,真的還挺開心的啊!

 

第三個班是初級文法班,講形容詞子句,講義放下面,順便發部落格好讀板好了,有一個部分圖表格式以為會跑掉,不過隔沒問題。不過FB會跑掉,而且長文難讀。潔西其實花了很多時間在整理這個講義,上個星期弄超久,雖然也只不過是把舊的重新整理一下,找多點簡單易懂的練習,還是參考了那一堆文法書中的其中幾本,把容易錯的地方,儘量給多一點例子讓同學練習。

 

潔西覺得教文法大概就是盡量要表達的用簡單易懂的方式講出來,然後讓同學當場做題目,因為聽可能都聽得懂,但是自己要寫可能又是另外一回事了,寫的時候也才會發現哪裡有問題。這新補習班潔西目前為止都很喜歡,可能是因為潔西剛好都上假日班,人少,最多不到十個人,那天最少還一對一,不知道會不會有一個人都沒有來上的課啊。人少的話所以潔西可以到處遊走,看看學生寫的,有沒有問題可以解答。

 

然後現在在醫院等看醫生,警鈴大響,應該是不小心壓到,應該不用逃吧?醫院一群人要逃的話應該是蠻恐怖的。大家在觀望中,突然煙味好重,護士安撫病人說,沒事已經有人處理了,大家不用太緊張,有個人很好笑,他說雖然你這樣說,但我還是覺得我想走比較安全,哈哈。

 

看完醫生了,後來發現剛跟醫生說的重點都沒說到,因為一直在打這篇廢文,突然就輪到潔西了,還是旁邊的爺爺提醒問潔西說你幾號?ㄟ,就是潔西啊。醫生後面坐著四個醫生,平常會有一兩個實習醫生在後面,這麼多還沒看過,潔西一進去第一句話,哇!好大的陣仗,醫生說就只有這一次了,不會再有了。哈哈。跟醫生聊完就回家了,很累,去一趟醫院,等了三個小時,買了同學說很好吃的泰國餐館的炒牛肉河粉,不怎麼樣耶。

 

回到家馬上昏過去了,醒來買個晚餐吃,九點半又昏睡過去,半夜三點半起來小寶跟大寶都還醒著,潔西在看一直沒時間看的權力遊戲的時候小寶進來了,星期一沒看權力遊戲都沒辦法刷FB,很容易會被爆雷。然後小寶的朋友來潔西家過夜,但是已經睡著了,沒事做的小寶就進來跟潔西聊天一聊就聊到早上六點多,兩個人把昨天潔西請小寶買的蛋糕跟他自己也買了的蛋糕拿出來,兩個人就吃了蛋糕當早餐。六點多,把大寶叫醒,他要去拍他們班的畢業歌的 MV,然後小寶就昏睡過去,潔西也昏睡過去了。九點半潔西起床,總算把一直都還沒看的最精彩的第九集看了,正精彩的部分,打鬥太多這一集,潔西走溫和派的,打戰的部分都省略掉。

 

好長的廢文,這幾天就是忙,累,病,總算可以好好休息一下了,要來去剪個頭髮。這次要早點把這星期的課準備一下。發現兩個級數一樣的班,學生本身的程度也會差異性頗大,還是要看學生來準備不同的東西,繼續調試中。第一次代課被幾個學生直接出走,還給負評打擊真的有一點。不過這次看到學生給的評論,寫作有學生給很正面的評論,說老師上課很認真,受益良多,謝謝。還有一個會話課同學留言說謝謝老師,您的教材生活化,上課互動佳,補充多,助於我的吸收,再次感謝您。潔西真的是超感動感動啊,雖然也有人可能沒那麼喜歡,就留個 OK。

 

其實真的就是沒法討好每一個人也沒有必要,潔西上次代課準備了起碼八個小時,這次代課跟備自己的課其實也花很多時間,因為剛開始上新的課程,大概準備都超過每一堂課實際的上課時間一點五個小時多很多,不過因為是喜歡的工作,會願意花時間下去,上課上得順利也會很開心。不過也是有人不喜歡潔西的上法,不適應,其實真的沒有一個最適合所有人的上法,大概就是只能找到最適合自己的上法才有最好的效果。去剪頭髮,被美容師拒絕。因為頭髮剛好及肩,開始亂翹,潔西髮量又,想修一下,結果美容師說潔西這個長度剛好很尷尬,不然就剪短,修一下再來還是會亂翹,乾脆不要剪。結果今天特白別跑一趟公館,在美容院等美容師等了半個小時,所以回家順便繞去買了烘焙用品,結果公車站牌改位置找半天找不到,滿身大汗,熱死人的天氣啊!

 

超累的,才出去一下也沒做什麼事,回來就超累的,一躺上床又昏睡到八點半,最近好容易累,作息超不正常啊!什麼事都沒做,兩天又過去了。好像該做點事啊!下面是重寫的形容詞子句的講義。

 

然後因為補習班只能印六頁講義,所以潔西沒辦法印答案給學生,潔西給學生郵件地址說需要答案的人可以給寫信給潔西,都沒人寫,是潔西留錯地址了嗎?上次代課請學生寫信給潔西要講義還有兩個人寄。潔西留錯的地址的可能信還頗高的。

 

(參考各大文法講義書,請不要任意轉載,感恩)上課有找到有錯的地方,但是還有一個地方找不到,有發現的人在麻煩告知,謝謝。

 

 

形容詞子句 Adjective Clauses                         

A 形容詞子句簡介

定義:

形容詞子句,也叫做關係子句,是非獨立子句的一種。整個子句當作形容詞,用來修飾名詞或代名詞。用來定義某個代名詞或給予額外的資訊。

a 用來定義名詞:

I know the woman who lives there. 我認識那個住在那裡的女人。

b 給額外資訊:

Rome is a city which attracts tourists. 羅馬是個吸引很多觀光客的城市。

 

後衛修飾:

形容詞子句是後衛修飾,永遠放在修飾名詞或代名詞的後面。一般中文是用前衛修飾,把形容詞放在修飾名詞前面。但是當修飾內容有動詞時,英文不可以直接把形容詞堆在名詞前面。所以除了前衛外也常用後衛修飾,把形容詞或形容詞子句放到所要形容的名詞或代名詞後面。例句:

The bride must wear something old, something new, something borrowed, and something blue.

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

 

結合句子:

也可以把形容詞子句看作是兩個句子的結合。我姊姊住在美國。她有三個孩子。把兩個句子重複的地方結合在一起。有時候會可以有兩種結合方式,看要強調的部分在哪,放在主要子句。

My sister lives in the U.S.  My sister has two children.

 

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

強調有兩個小孩

 

My sister who has two children lives in the U.S.

強調住美國

 

關係代名詞為主詞

關係代名詞帶領的形容詞子句,其中的關係代名詞,也就是代替連結兩個句子相同之處,或者用來修飾前面名詞或代名詞的這個關係代名詞,當它是用來引導句子當主詞時,可以用 who 或 that 來取代人,用 which 或 that 來取代事物或地點,用 whose 加上名詞來取代某人的所有物。

New work is a city which never sleeps.

 

關係代名詞為受詞

關係代名詞為受詞時,用 whom 或 who 或 that 來取代人,用 which 或 that 來取代事物。

He is the actor who I saw on TV.

 

限定形容詞子句與非限定形容詞子句:

限定形容詞子句是用來定義,不可缺乏,明確的說明定義他修飾的對象。而非限定是用來補充說明,可有可無,只是給予額外的資訊。

I have three phones. The phone which is in the kitchen is broken.

I have only one phone. The phone, which is in the kitchen, is broken.

 

 

B 名詞解釋

a 子句:

是由一組字所組成,其中包括主詞與動詞,可能為獨立或非獨立子句。

 

b 獨立子句:

是一個完整的句子,其中包括主要的主詞與動詞,語意完整,可以單獨存在,也可以用為主要子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

 

c 非獨立子句:

是一個不完整的句子,如名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。由從屬連接詞,關係代名詞,疑問詞等為首帶領的子句。雖然其中也包括了主詞與動詞,但是語意不完整,需要與獨立子句結合,才能為一個完整的句子。

 

d 形容詞子句:

是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。形容詞子句也叫做關係子句。

 

e 關係代名詞:

也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有who, whom, which, that, 跟whose。關係副詞有when與where。

 

f 先行詞:

形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句大部分的時間都要緊接在修飾的先行詞的後面。

 

g 限定性形容詞子句:

用來辨別,限定前面的先行詞所以是必要的,不可省略,子句前後都不可以有逗點。

 

h 非限定性形容詞子句:

用來修飾前面的先行詞,給與額外的資訊,所以可以省略,必須用逗號把它跟主要子句分開。先行詞為專有名詞時多為非限定性形容詞子句。

在結合兩個獨立子句

1 My sister lives in the U.S.

2 My sister has two children.而形成的

3 My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children. 中

上面 3 的句子中

My sister has two children. 為 b 獨立子句/主要子句

who lives in the U.S. 為 c 非獨立子句/形容詞子句

who 用來帶領整個形容詞子句為 d 關係代名詞

sister 為 f 先行詞

 

g 限定子句:

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

我住在美國的姊姊有兩個小孩。

沒有逗號,表限定,我有好幾個姊姊,有兩個小孩的是住美國的那個。

 

h 非限定子句:

My sister, who lives in the U.S., has two children.

我住在美國的姊姊有兩個小孩

有逗號,非限定,只是補充說明,我只有一個姊姊,這姊姊有兩個小孩。

 

 

C 學習形容詞子句的重點

1 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

形容詞子句常為兩個句子的結合。關係代名詞應使用主格、所有格或受格是依形容詞子句中與先行詞重複的部分在形容詞子句的位置來決定。可以把主要子句與形容詞子句分為兩個句子來看,找出重複的部分,就知道應該使用的關係代名詞。

a 主格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister has two children.

My sister who has two children lives in Canada.

 

b 受格

My sister lives in Canada. You talked to my sister last night.

My sister whom you talked to last night lives in Canada.

 

c 所有格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister’s children are doctors.

My sister whose children are doctors lives in Canada.

 

關係代名詞的種類

關係代名詞 :

人:who, whom, whose, that

事,物:which, whose, that

 

關係副詞:時間:when ,地方:where

 

主詞(主格) 受詞(受格) 介係詞+受詞 形容詞(所有格)
 

限定

 

 

 

 

who

that

 

whom

who

that

X

whom…to

who…to

that… to

X…  to

to whom

whose
事,物 which

that

which

that

X

which …to

that…  to

X…   to

to which

whose
非限定

 

, who , whom , whom …to

 

, whose
事,物  , which , which , which… to , whose

上面粗體字為正式用法,寫作時多用正式用法, X 表示省略

 

 

2 關係代名詞的位置:

關係代名詞所帶領的形容詞子句應緊接著先行詞,放在先行詞後面。先行詞一定是名詞,名詞片語或代名詞。

 

a 形容詞子句可能在句中也可能在句尾。

I have a friend who speaks five languages.

My friend who lives in Switzerland speaks five languages.

 

b 形容詞子句假如沒有緊接著先行詞容易造成誤解。

He left the car on the street that he had just bought.

He left the car that he had just bought on the street. (比較清楚)

 

c 形容詞子句有少數不直接跟在先行詞後面。通常是先行詞後有介系詞片語時,為了

語意的完整,會放在介系詞片語的後面,但比較少見。

The first thanksgiving feast in the United States, which took place in 1621 lasted three days.

 

d 形容詞子句也可以用來修飾整個句子,這時用which來帶領形容詞子句,一定放在句尾,一定為非限定。

The team won the championship, which shocked the opponents.

 

練習一: 填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

  1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.
  2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.
  3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.
  4. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.
  5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.
  6. I like the people with _______ I work.
  7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.
  8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.
  9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.
  10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.
  11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.
  12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.
  13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

 

不要重複關係代名詞與代表的主詞,受詞或所有格

關係代名詞帶領的形容詞子句中因為關係代名詞就代表了原句子中的主詞,受詞,或所有格,所以切記不要再重複這些字。

Scott is someone who he loves sports. (X) Scott is someone who loves sports.

Scott is the man whose his dog barks all day. (X) Scott is the man whose dog barks all day.

Scott is the writer whom I saw him on TV. (X) Scott is the writer whom I saw on TV.

 

4 形容詞子句中的動詞與主詞一致

形容詞子句中的動詞必須跟形容詞子句中的主詞一致,按主動詞一致原則,所以必須依主詞不同來作動詞的變化。

 

a 當關係代名詞是主格時,依先行詞做變化

Ben is my friend who lives in Boston.

Al and Ed are my friends who live in Boston.

 

b 當關係代名詞是所有格時,依所有格+名詞,就是形容詞子句中的主詞做變化。

He’s the man whose dog barks all day.

He’s the man whose dogs bark all day.

 

c 當關係代名詞是受格時,依形容詞子句中的主詞而變化。

I like the columns which he writes.

I like the column which they write.

 

練習二:填入正確的關係代名詞跟動詞

  1. People _________ __________ (have) moved a lot have few friends.
  2. People _________ __________ (have) lived in the same place have more friends.
  3. The qualities ________ ________ (be) most important in a friend are loyalty, warmth, and the ability to keep secrets.
  4. Someone _________ ________ (face) a crisis turns to friends before family.
  5. Betrayal is the cause ___________ ____________ (be) most often response for ending a friendship.
  6. Many people have friends __________ social or religious backgrounds _________ (be) different from theirs.
  7. Most people __________ friends __________ (include) members of the opposite sex say that these relationships are different from relationships with people of the same sex.
  8. A survey _______ ____________ (appear) in a magazine may not represent everyone.
  9. Someone ________ ___________ (not read) the magazine might have other ideas.

 

5 限定與非限定形容詞子句

限定子句 Restrictive(Identifying) Clause

用來定義或辨認 (identify)先行詞,缺少這個限定子句時語義會不清楚,所以限定子句不可省略,不可使用逗號。that 只可以用在限定子句。

Mr. Lee is a teacher who cares about his students.

I have three phones. The phone which is in the kitchen is broken.

 

b 非限定子句 Nonrestrictive (Non-identifying) Clause

用來給予先行詞額外的補充資訊,非限定子句可以省略,所以非限定形容詞子句一定要用逗號將主要子句分隔開來。人名或專有名詞為先形詞時,後面幾乎都用非限定子句。

Our family cottage, which has a tennis court, is on a lake.

I have only one phone. The phone, which is in the kitchen, is broken.

 

練習三:結合下面的句子,注意在非限定子句時要用逗號。關係代名詞可以省略的情況下就省略

1 I bought a cell phone. I can use it to send and receive e-mail.

_______________________________________________________

 

2 My new cell phone has become a necessary part of life. I only bought it a month ago.

_______________________________________________________

 

3 Now, there are psychologists. They help technophobes use technology.

_______________________________________________________

 

4 Michelle Weil wrote a book about “technostress.” She is a psychologist.

_______________________________________________________

 

5 A lot of people suffer from technostress. Those people work in my office.

_______________________________________________________

 

6 Some people dream of a job. They can do the job without technology.

_______________________________________________________

 

依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號

 

7 (that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.

8 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often need a babysitter.

9 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.

10 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.

11 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.

12 ( who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.

 

6 關係代名詞的受格的位置

關係代名詞的受格可作為介系詞的受詞。最正式的用法將介系詞放在關係代名詞前 (此時只可用whom代表人,which代表事物,不可以用who、that,也不可以省略關係代名詞)。非正式用法時把介係詞放在句尾,關係代名詞可省略。

The candidate for whom I voted lost the election.          Formal

The candidate whom I voted for lost the election.

The candidate who I voted for lost the election.

The candidate that I voted for lost the election.

The candidate I voted for lost the election.              Informal

 

7關係副詞where, when

where跟when皆為關係副詞,可用來帶領形容詞子句,別表地點與時間。可為限定或非限定子句。

 

where用在形容詞子句表達地點時,相當於”方位介系詞+which”,介系詞不可省。

That’s the library where she works.

That’s the library in which she works.

That’s the library which she works in.

That’s the library that she works in.

That’s the library she works in.

 

when用在形容詞子句來表達時間時, 相當於 ”時間介系詞 + which”。除了將介系詞放在which前外,其他用法時介系詞都會省略掉。

I remember the day when I met him.

I remember the day on which I met him.

I remember the day that I met him.

I remember the day I met him.

 

 8 關係代名詞的省略

在口語中常常會省可省略某些關係代名詞。

1 可以省略的:

限定子句中的受格 whom, which, that 與表時間的 when。

That’s the man (whom) I love.

That’s the computer (that) I bought

I remember the day (when) I met him.

 

2 不可省略的:

非限定子句中的所有關係代名詞,限定子句中的主格、所有格與表地點的 where 。

I remember Max, who I visited often.

He is my friend who lives in New York.

That’s the writer whose books I like very much.

That’s the school where I work.

 

練習四:翻譯

1 我不喜歡一直說笑話的人。

2 那個我未婚夫買給我的項鍊是情人節禮物。

3 那個射殺了兩個警察的人已經去坐牢了。

4 那就是我父親工作的公司。

5 彼得買了一台狀況還是很好的二手車。

6 剛剛跟我講話的湯姆是個醫生。

7 湯姆烤的那個蛋糕很好吃。

 

練習五:合併句子

1 A person is luck. That person has a lot of friends.

2 Emily and I shared a room. We spent nights talking there.

3 I remember one summer. The whole family went to the lake then.

4 Jenny has a sister. Her sister’s name is Ruby.

5 The houses were sold out. The houses are located in the city center.

 

答案

練習一: 填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

  1. The people who/that moved into town are Italian.
  2. The lamp that/which/x I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.
  3. Everyone who/that came to the audition got a part in the play.
  4. Rice is the teacher whose class I enjoy most.
  5. The man whom/who/that/x I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.
  6. I like the people with whom I work.
  7. I have a friend whose father is a famous artist.
  8. The camera that/which/x I bought takes very sharp pictures.
  9. Students who/that have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.
  10. Flying squirrels that/which live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.
  11. The people whose car I dented were a little upset.
  12. The person to whome you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.
  13. Monkeys will eat almost anything that/which/x they can find.

 

 

練習二:填入正確的關係代名詞跟動詞

1 People who/that have moved a lot have few friends.

2 People who/that have lived in the same place have more friends.

3 The qualities that/which are most important in a friend are loyalty, warmth, and the

ability to keep secrets.

4 Someone who/that faces a crisis turns to friends before family.

5 Betrayal is the cause that/which is most often response for ending a friendship.

6 Many people have friends whose social or religious backgrounds are different from

theirs.

7 Most people whose friends include members of the opposite sex say that these relationships are different from relationships with people of the same sex.

8 A survey that appears/appeared/has appeared in a magazine may not represent everyone.

9 Someone who doesn’t read/hasn’t read the magazine might have other ideas.

  

練習三:結合下面的句子,注意在非限定子句時要用逗號。關係代名詞可以省略的情況下就省略

1 I bought a cell phone. I can use it to send and receive e-mail.

I bought a cell phone I can use to send and receive e-mail.

2 My new cell phone has become a necessary part of life. I only bought it a month ago.

My new cell phone, which I bought a month ago, has become a necessary part of

life.

3 Now, there are psychologists. They help technophobes use technology.

Now, there are psychologists who(that) help technophobes use technology.

4 Dr. Michelle Weil wrote a book about “technostress.” She is a psychologist.

Dr. Michelle Weil, who is a psychologist, wrote a book about “technostress.”

5 A lot of people suffer from technostress. Those people work in my office.

A lot of people who work in my office suffer from technostress.

6 Some people dream of a job. They can do the job without technology.

Some people dream of a job they can do without technology

7 (that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.

This car is a lot cheaper than the one that Claire drives.

8 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often need a babysitter.

Olivia, who has twins, often needs a babysitter.

9 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.

The person who took Rita to the party was Tom.

10 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.

Henry, who has a bad temper, shouted at the waiter

11 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.

The team which Tom supported is United

12 ( who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.

We all climbed up except Vicky, who is afraid of heights.

 

 

練習四:翻譯

1 我不喜歡一直說笑話的人。

1 I don’t like people who tell jokes all the time.

2 那個我未婚夫買給我的項鍊是情人節禮物。

2 The necklace my fiancé bought for me is a Valentine’s Day gift.

3 那個射殺了兩個警察的人已經去坐牢了。

3 The man who shot two policemen has gone to prison.

4 那就是我父親工作的公司。

4 That’s the company where my father works.

5 彼得買了一台狀況還是很好的二手車。

5 Peter bought a second-hand car whose condition is still very good.

6 剛剛跟我講話的湯姆是個醫生。

6 Tom, who I just talked to, is a doctor.

7 湯姆烤的那個蛋糕很好吃。

7 The cake that Tom baked was delicious.

 

 

練習五:合併句子

1 A person is luck. That person has a lot of friends.

1 A person who has a lot of friends is lucky.

2 Emily and I shared a room. We spent nights talking there.

2 Emily and I shared a room where/in which we spent nights talking.

3 I remember one summer. The whole family went to the lake then.

3 I remember one summer when/that the whole family went to the lake.

4 Jenny has a sister. Her sister’s name is Ruby.

4 Jenny has a sister whose name is Ruby.

5 The houses were sold out. The houses are located in the city center

5 The houses are located in the city were sold out.

 

 

 

進階文法L12 第二十章 條件句和願望 Conditional Sentences and Wishes

Jessie has such a bad memory that she would forget her head if it weren’t attached to her body.

潔西超健忘到假如她的頭不是接在她的身體上的話,她一定會把頭也給忘掉XD

呵呵,沒錯,這是真的。今天要說的是有點小複雜,有點難的假設語氣,或叫做條件句,條件子句等等。在英文因為有時態的關係,所以if所帶領的假設條件的句子會依照有可能發現在現在,未來的事實,還有跟現在事實相反的假設,過去事實相反的假設等等句子的時態會有所不同。而這些不同的時態也就代表了不同的意思。

每本書用的都不太一樣,潔西覺得Oxford用0,1,2,3條件句來分,還挺清楚的。

0條件句:If + S + V1, S + V1.  if條件句跟主要子句都用過去簡單式。兩者是一對一之間的關係,每次if子句的條件成立時,後面的子句就會跟著成立。

If I heat the water, it boils. 假如我煮水,水會沸騰。

If I drink too much, I have a headache the day after. 我只要喝太多酒,隔天就頭痛。

1條件句:If + S + V1, S + will + V1.  if條件句用現在簡單式代替未來是,主要子句用未來是,表達未來可能發生的假設。

If it rains tomorrow, I will stay home. 假如明天下雨,我就會待在家。(可能下雨也可能不下雨,下雨的話我就會在家)

If I get married, I will invite all my friends and students. 假如我結婚,我會邀請我所有的朋友跟學生。(可能會也可能不會結婚)

2條件句:If + S + V2, S + would + V1.  if條件句用過去式,主要子句用would加動詞原型。表示跟現在事實相反的假設。

If I had two children, my life would be very different. 假如我有兩個孩子,我的生活會非常不同。(但是我沒有兩個孩子,所以不能用If I have

two children)

If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. 假如我是你的話,我就不會那麼做。(但是我不是你,所以be要用過去式,所有人稱都用were)

3條件句:If + S + had + V3, S + would + have + V3.  if條件句用過去完成式,主要子句用would have 加過去分詞。表示跟過去事實相反的假設。常用

在懊悔,批評,指責等等。

If I had gotten married twenty years ago, I would have been divorced. 假如我二十年前結婚的話,我應該早就離婚了。(但沒結婚,所以也沒

離婚)

If you had worked harder, you wouldn’t have gotten fired.  假如你過去努力一點工作,你就不會被開除了。(但是你沒有努力工作,所以你被

開除了。)

簡單來說就是上面幾個例子,比較複雜的,詳細的部分可以看下面的說明。假如基礎比較差的人可以看每個句型的前面幾個重點就可以了。這次潔西放了很多例題。多做例題多想想就會比較有概念。就會發現,其實也沒有那麼難喔。 請勿任意轉載使用,歡迎個人使用, 尊重一下寫到手都快斷掉的潔西。另外裡面的例題多出自于Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。版權完全歸原書所有。

A. 條件句概論

條件句 Conditional Sentences / Conditionals 或叫做假設語氣。指的是某個先決假設的條件下,會有的結果。在不同的假設狀態下,英文會用不同的時態來表達。有時候是可能發生的現實狀況,If it rains,有時會是與現在事實相反的假設,If I were a bird,有時會是與已經發生的過去事實相反的假設,多半用於反省,指責,懊悔等,If I had studied harder。

在不同的條件下會用不同的時態,所以分零條件句Zero Conditional, 第一條件句First Conditional, 第二條件句Second Conditional, 第三條件句Third Conditional。也就是可能成真的現在或未來事實,與現在相反的事實,與過去事實相反的事實的假設。

B. 零條件句 Zero Conditional /與現在事實相符的假設條件句

這指的是一件事總是自然而然接著另外一件事發生。 這樣子的條件句,if子句用現在簡

單式,主要子句也用現在簡單式。主要子句可以放在前面,放前面時,不需要逗號。

If + S + V1, S + V1.  / S + V1  if + S + V1.

a. 用現在的事實的條件句來描述一些一般的真理general truths或科學上的事實scientific facts。

If you heat the water, it boils.

It’s 11:00 P.M. in New York if it’s noon in Taipei.

b. 也可以用來表達一些習慣habits或重複發生的活動recurring events。

If Daniel has money, he spends it.

Bill orders a special meal if he flies.

c. 主要子句的部分也可以視情況用情態助動詞modals。

If you practice your English every day, you can improve quickly.

You might learn more if you watch American TV series.

d. 主要子句的部分也可以用祈使句imperative。

If you come to Taipei, stay with me.

Don’t leave your seat if the seat belt light is on.

C.  Match the sentences and join them with if.  (Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate P.347)

  1. You get promoted.   2. I drink coffee late at night.     3. You don’t pay the bill.
  2. I try to fun fast.    5. Someone enters the building.    6. You lose your credit card.
  1. I can’t sleep.           b. You get a warning letter.           c. You have to ring the bank.
  2. Your salary goes up.    e. The alarm goes off.               g. I get out of breath.

1. ______________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________

3. ______________________________________________________________

4. ______________________________________________________________

5. ______________________________________________________________

6. ______________________________________________________________

D. 第一條件句First Conditional / 與未來事實相符的假設條件句

這指的是在某些特定的條件下,未來會發生什麼事,這個假設跟結果都是可能發生的。

這時if子句用現在簡單式來代替未來式,主要子句用未來式。

If + S + V1, S + will/be going to + V1.  / S + will + V1 if S + V1.

a. 當要描述未來可能會發生的事,跟這樣的事產生的結果時,if子句用來描述可能的條件,主要子句描述產生的結果。if子句是副詞子句,所以用現在簡單式代替未來式,主要子句可以用will或be going to表達未來的結果,也可以用情態助動詞,或祈使句。

If we hurry, we’ll catch the bus.

If she wins, she’s going to fight crime.

If it rains, everyone can eat inside.

If you don’t vote, you might regret it.

If anyone calls, please take a message.

b. 在if子句中,有時會用情態助動詞 should ,這個用法跟用現在簡單式的差別在於多了一些不確定性。當基本上意思是相同的。

If anyone should call, please take a message.

If it should rain tomorrow, we’ll cancel the picnic.

c. if跟unless兩者都可以用在條件句,但兩者意思非常不同。unless用在否定的條件,相當於if…not。

If you vote, you’ll have a say in the future of our city.

Unless you vote, you won’t have a say in the future of our city.

If you don’t vote, you won’t have a say in the future of our city.

d. if子句可以用現在進行式或現在完成式,主要子句用未來式。

If we’re expecting visitors, the flat will need a good clean.

If you’ve finished with the computer, I’ll put it away.

e. 第一條件句可以用來表示提供幫助或給予建議。

If you need a ticket, I can get you one.

We can take a bus tour if you feel like seeing the sights.

f. 第一條件句可以用來也可以用來警告或威脅。

If you go on like this, you’ll make yourself ill.

I’ll never speak to you again if you don’t apologize.

g.  if 子句通常不會用未來式,但是假如用來表達請求時,可以用未來式。

If you’ll just wait a moment, I’ll find someone to help you. (Please wait a moment…)

h. 條件句的if子句為副詞子句,通常不會用未來式,會用現在簡單式代替未來式,但是名詞子句中if帶領的名詞子句在表達未來的時候用未來式。

If it snows tomorrow, the roads will be closed.

I don’t know if it will snow tomorrow.

E. a. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses and if or unless. (Longman Grammar Express P.284)

  1. A: What’s the first thing you ___________ (do) ______________ (if/unless) you __________ (get) elected?
  2. B: Well, it’s been a long, hard campaign. _________ (if/unless) I _________(win), I _________ (take) a short vacation before I begin my new job.
  3. A: Sounds good. Where to?
  4. B: Sorry, but I’d rather not say. ___________ (if/unless) I __________ (become) mayor, I _____________ (try) to keep my personal life private. Even mayors need privacy.
  5. A: I can understand that. Now, every election has a winner and a loser. What ________ you _______ (do) ___________ (if/unless) you _________ (lose)?
  6. B: _______ (if/unless) I ________ (lose) this election, I _________ (continue) to be active in politics as a private citizen. ____________ (if/unless) both parties _______________ (cooperate), this city __________ (not be) as great as it can be. Finally, __________ (if/unless) the people ____________ (not elect) me to office this time, I ____________ (be) back in four years to try again!

b. Comment of the situations.  (Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate P.347)

example:

It might rain. If it does, everyone can eat inside.

–If it rains, everyone can eat inside.

The children mustn’t go near Nick’s dog. It’ll bite them.

—If the children go near Nick’s dog, it’ll bite them.

1. Rachel might fail her driving test. But she can take it again.

__________________________________________________________

2. United might lose. If they do, Tom will be upset.

__________________________________________________________

3. The office may be closed. In that case Mark won’t be able to get in.

__________________________________________________________

4. Nick may arrive a bit early. If he does, he can help Tom to get things ready.

__________________________________________________________

5. The party might go on all night. If it does, no one will want to do any work tomorrow.

__________________________________________________________

6. Emma may miss the train. But she can get the next one.

__________________________________________________________

7. Is Matthew going to enter the race? He’ll probably win it.

__________________________________________________________

F. 第二條件句Second Conditional / 與現在或未來事實相反的假設條件句

這指的是用在假設跟現在或未來事實相反的條件下,所會產生的結果。這樣的句子中,

if子句用過去簡單式,假如是be動詞時,不論主詞,多用were,主要子句用主詞加

would加動詞原型。

If + S + V2, S + would + V1.  / S + would + V1 if S + V2.

a. 這個句型用在描述與現在的事實不符,相反的假設條件,可能是不真實unreal,假的

untrue,想像的imagined,或不可能的impossible的條件,跟可能產生的結果。這樣的

先決條件下所會產生的結果。

If I loved him, I would marry him. (But I don’t love him, so I won’t marry him.)

If I had more time, I would travel. ( But I don’t have time, so I don’t travel.)

If I told you, I’d have to kill you. (But I don’t tell you, so I don’t have to kill you.)

b. if子句雖然用的是過去簡單式,但沒有過去的意思,指的是與現在事實相反。

If I had money now, I would take a trip around the world.

If it were sunny now, I would go to the beach with you.

c. if子句不可以用would,would用在主要子句。

If she knew the answer, she would tell you.

Not If she would knew the answer, she would tell you.

d. 主要子句也可以用could或might。

If we had a calculator, we could work this out a lot quicker.

If Rachel worked harder, she might do even better at her studies.

e. if子句的動詞是be動詞時,不論人稱,通通用were。在非正式談話中,was會與I, he, she, it跟任何可用這些代名詞代替的名詞連用。

If I were rich, I would travel around the world.

Sally would answer the phone if she were in her office right now.

f. 當句子以 If I were you開始,常常會用在給予忠告give advice。

If I were you, I would study harder.

If I were you, I’d ask a lawyer for some advice.

g. if子句可以用過去進行式,表示與現在正發生的事實是相反的。

If Rachel was playing her stereo, it wouldn’t be so quiet in here.

h. 第二條件句可用來提供幫助或給予建議。但比較不那麼直接,說話的人沒有那麼確定。

If you needed a ticket, I could get you one.

If you felt like seeing the sights, we could take a bus tour.

G. 第一條件句跟第二條件句的比較

第一條件句,if子句為現在簡單式,表示這個條件,這個狀況有可能,但也可能不會發生。

第二條件句,if子句為過去件單式,表示這個條件是非真實的,是假的,是不會發生的。

If you have a lie-down, you’ll feel better.

If I had a million pounds, I’d probably buy you a yacht.

比較下面兩個句子

If we take the car, we’ll have to pay for parking.

If we took the car, we’d have to pay for parking.

這兩個句子都表達未來的可能性,但是第二條件句表示那個行為是比較不可能的。可能是我們已經決定不開車後說的話。

H. a. Comment on these situations. Use a Second Conditional with would or could.

Examples:

Andrew is such a boring person because he works all the time.

—You know, if Andrew didn’t work all the time, he wouldn’t be such a boring person.

You can’t take a photo because you don’t have your camera.

—How annoying. If I had my camera, I could take a photo.

1. You can’t look the word up because you don’t have a dictionary.

I’m sorry. ____________________________________________________

2 .You don’t write to your friends because you’re so busy.

I’ve got so much to do. ___________________________________________

3. You can’t play tennis because your back is aching.

It’s a nuisance. ________________________________________________

4. Claire won’t marry Henry because she doesn’t love him.

Of course, ____________________________________________________

5. Nick can’t find the way because he doesn’t have a map.

Nick’s lost, but ________________________________________________

6. David has so many accidents because he’s so clumsy.

You know, ____________________________________________________

H. b. Complete the conversation. Put the correct form of the verb. You may need to use will or would.

A: I haven’t forgotten your birthday, you know. If you like, I’ll book (I/book) a table

for Thursday at our favorite restaurant.

B: My birthday is on Wednesday, Matthew. You’re playing basketball then, aren’t you?

If you cared for me, (1) _______________ (you/not/play) basketball on my

birthday.

A: What’s the difference? If (2) __________________ (we/go) out on Thursday,

it’ll be just the same. If (3) ______________ (I/not/play), I’d be letting the

team down.

B: Yes, I suppose (4) ______________ (it/be) a disaster if you missed one game.

Well, if (5) _______________ (you/think) more of your friends than you do for

me, you can forget the whole thing.

A: I just don’t understand you sometimes, Emma.

B: If (6) _______________ (you/think) about it, you’d understand. And I think

(7) _______________ (it/be) better if we forgot all about my birthday.

A: Don’t be silly, Emma. If you get into one of your bad moods,

(8) ___________________ (it/not/do) any good.

B: If you were interested in my feelings, (9) _________________ (I/not/get) into a

bad mood.

H. c. Read this boy’s journal entry. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of the present unreal conditional (second conditional).

I’ve got to stop staying up late reading “Peanuts”! If I weren’t always to tired, I will be able to stay awake in class. Whenever the teacher calls on me, I don’t know what to say. Then I get really embarrassed because of that cute red-haired girl that I like. I would talk to her if I wouldn’t be so shy. My friend Jason says, “If I was you, I’d ask her to a party,” but I’m too afraid that if I asked her, she would have said no. After class, I played baseball. Nobody wanted me on their team. If I play better, I would get chosen sometimes. Life is hard! I can really understand that Charlie Brown character in “Peanuts.” If fact, if I didn’t laugh so hard while reading “Peanuts,” I would cried!

I. 第三條件句Third Conditional / 與過去事實相反的假設條件句

這是用在過去已經發生的事情,但是跟你想要的情形是不同時,用來表示假如過去是在

一個不同的條件下時,所會產生的結果。這個句型的if子句用的是過去完成式,主要子

句用的是主詞加上would have + V3(過去分詞)。

If + S + had + V3, S + would have + V3.  / S + would have + V3 if + S + had + V3.

a. 這個句型用來表達過去的條件跟結果都是不可能發生的。if子句帶領的事與過去事實相反的假設條件,而條件句則是在這個不可能的條件下所產生的結果。因為事情其實已經發生了,所以if條件子句的條件是不存在的,但我們常用這樣來表示假如過去是如何的話,就會產生怎麼樣的後果。

If we had gone two weeks earlier, we would have had better weather.

(But we didn’t go two weeks earlier, so we didn’t have better weather.)

If David had been more careful, he would have passed the exam.

(But David were careful, so he didn’t pass the exam.)

b. 主要子句可以用其他的情態助動詞如might, could,再加上have + V3。

If I had had my mobile yesterday, I could have contacted you.

We just caught the train. If we had stopped to buy a paper, we might have missed it.

c. had跟would都可以跟主詞合併縮寫成’d。

If you’d rung me, I’d have come to see you.

If you had rung me, I would have come to see you.

d. 第三條件句常用來表達後悔過去所做的事。

If I had known Mary was in town, I would have invited her to the party.

If I hadn’t fallen ill and missed the interview, I might have gotten the job.

e. 第三條件句有時可用來批評別人或指出他們的錯誤。

If you’d been a bit more careful, you wouldn’t have cut yourself.

If Matthew had set his alarm clock, he wouldn’t have overslept.

f. if 子句可以用過去完成進行式,表達過去某時點並沒有發生的某個狀態。

If it had not been raining, I would have gone for a walk.

J. 第二條件句跟第三條件句的比較

比較下列例子

If you planned things properly, you wouldn’t get into a mess. (You don’t plan.)

If you had planned things properly, you wouldn’t have gotten into a mess. (You

didn’t plan)

第一個句子表示你現在並沒有計劃,所以現在弄得一團糟。但第二個句子表示你過去沒

有計劃,所以在過去你把事情弄得一團糟。

K. a. Complete: George is thinking about the past. Complete his thoughts with the correct form of the words in parentheses.

  1. I didn’t go into business with my friend Sam. If I _____________ (go) into business with him, I __________________ (become) a success.
  2. I couldn’t go into the army because I was deaf one ear. I ________________ (go) into the army if I ___________________ (not lose) my hearing in that ear.
  3. Mary and I weren’t able to go on a honeymoon. We _________________ (can/go) away if my father ____________________ (not get) sick.
  4. Clarence showed me how the world would look without me. I _______________ (not know) that I was so important if Clarence ___________________ (not show) me.
  5. My old boss once made a terrible mistake. If I ___________________ (not help) him, he ____________________ (can/go) to jail.
  6. Mary ______________________ (may/not/lead) a happy life is she _______________ (not marry) me.
  7. Life here ____________________ (be) really different if I ________________ (not live)

b. Comment on each situation using a Third Conditional with if. Use would have, could have, or might have.

In a bookshop yesterday Daniel saw a book he really wanted. The only problem was that he didn’t have any money.

— Daniel would have bought the book if he had had any money.

Rita often goes to concerts at the town hall, although not to every one. There was one on Saturday, but she didn’t know about it.

— Rita might have gone to the concert if she had known about it.

1. On Sunday the guests had to have their lunch inside. Unfortunately it wasn’t warm enough to have it outside.

______________________________________________________________

2. There was a bomb scare last Tuesday. Sarah wanted to fly to Rome, but she wasn’t able to. The airport was closed.

______________________________________________________________

3. Laura has only met Nick once, and it’s possible she would recognize him. He passed her yesterday, but he had a crash-helmet on.

______________________________________________________________

4. Sarah has been quite busy, and she hasn’t watered her plants for some time. As a result, they’ve died.

______________________________________________________________

5. Nick likes ice hockey, but he didn’t have a ticket to the game last week, so unfortunately he wasn’t able to get in.

______________________________________________________________

L. 條件句的混合使用

條件句裡面的時間跟結果子句(主要子句)的時間可能是不同,可能是過去發生什麼事的條

件,導致現在的某個結果。或說明現在的條件是過去已經發生的結果的原因等等。可以

混合使用第二條件句跟第三條件句。

If he had eaten breakfast, he would not be hungry now.

(He didn’t eat breakfast, so he is hungry now.)

If he were a good student, he would have studied for the test yesterday.

(He is not a good student. He did not study for the test yesterday.)

If you hadn’t left all these dirty dishes, the place would look a bit tidier.

If I didn’t have all this work to do, I would have gone out for the day.

M. Complete the conversations. Put in the correct form of the verb. Use Past Simple, the Past Perfect, would, or would have.

A: You look tired.

B: Well, if you hadn’t woken (you/not/wake) me up in the middle of the night,

I wouldn’t be (I/not/be) so tired.

1. A: Is Trevor a practical person?

B: Trevor? No, he isn’t. If _______________________ (he/be) practical,

_________________________ (he/put) those shelves up a bit quicker. It

took hime ages.

2. A: Why are you sitting in the dark?

B: Let’s just say that if _________________________ (I/pay) my electricity

bill last month, ____________________________ (I/not be) in the dark now.

3. A: Why are you so angry with me? All I did yesterday was play basketball.

B: If _________________________ (you/love) me,

______________________ (you/not leave) me here alone on my birthday.

N. 條件句中if的省略

條件句中有were, had, 跟should這幾個助動詞時,條件句中的if可以省略。但在省略時,

if省略而子句必須要倒裝,也就是把助動詞were, had, should放到主詞前。

If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. — Were I you, I would do that.

If I had known, I would have told you. — Had I known, I would have told you.

If you should change your mind, please let me know immediately.

— Should you change your mind, please let me know immediately.

O. Create sentences with the same meaning by omitting if.

If you should need more money, go to the bank before six o’clock.

— Should you need more money, go to the bank before six o’clock.

  1. Your boss sounds like a real tyrant. If I were you, I would look for another job.
  2. She would have gotten the job if she had been better prepared.
  3. If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
  4. If there should be a global nuclear war, life on earth as we know it would end forever.
  5. If I were your teacher, I would insist you do better work.

P. Wish的用法

a. 當說話者所希望的跟現在或未來的事實不同,甚至相反時,wish後面接的子句中的動詞必需用過去簡單式。這種狀況下,動詞是be動詞時,所有的主詞皆用were。

S + wish (that) S + V2.

He wishes he had a yacht. (He doesn’t have a yacht, but he wants one.)

I wish I knew French. (I don’t know French.)

I wish she would tell me. (She will not tell me.)

Sometimes I wish I were a child again.

b. 當說話者要表達的是對於過去已經發生的事情的後悔或希望事情沒有發生時,wish後面接的子句中的動詞必須用過去完成式。

S + wish (that) S + had + V3.

They wish they had moved to the city. (They didn’t move to the city, and now they

think that was a mistake.)

c. 在wish後面可以接would,用來表達希望某個人或某件事會有不同的做法。表示希望未來可以按說話者的希望的方式發生,這個願望可能會實現,但也可能不會實現。常用來提出請求,或者抱怨,或後悔。

It’s raining. I wish it would stop. (I want it to stop raining.)

I’m expecting a call. I wish the phone would ring. (I want the phone to ring.)

We’re going to be late. I wish you would hurry.

I wish you would cook breakfast. You have more time than I do.

I wish she would visit more often. I really miss her.

wish後面的字句不用will。  I wish she will visit more often.

d. 在wish後面可以接could或could have 來表達想要當沒有實現的能力ability。

He wishes he could earn more money now.

He wishes he could have found a better job when he was younger.

I wish Mary could have come. (Mary couldn’t come.)

wish後面不用can。 He wishes he can earn more money.

e. wish用來祝福人的時候,不用子句的方式。直接加人跟祝福的話語

We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

He shook my hand and wished me luck.

Q.

a. Wish … the Past

Vicky is fed up. What is she saying? Use I wish.

(She can’t think straight.) — I wish I could think straight.

  1. (She is so tired.) ________________________________________________
  2. (She gets headaches.) ____________________________________________
  3. (Her work isn’t going well.) _________________________________________
  4. (She can’t concentrate.) ___________________________________________
  5. (Life is so complicated.)___________________________________________

b. Wish… Past Perfect

Complete the sentences. Use these words: accepted, caught, found ,played, saved, stayed

I spent all my money. — I wish now that I had saved it.

  1. I missed the train. I really wish ______________________________________
  2. Rita left the party early. I really wish _________________________________
  3. Emma refused the offer. But her parents wish ___________________________
  4. I looked everywhere for the key. I wish ________________________________
  5. The injured player could only watch. He wishes ___________________________

c. Complete: Read this article from a psychology magazine. Complete it with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses.

Wishes and Solutions

The old saying goes, “If wishes were horses, then beggars would ride.” “ I wish it

1. __________ (be) that easy,” says the therapist Joel Grimes. “But we can’t just wish problems 2. ________________ (will/go away). We have to make our own solutions. “ According to him, complainers are really saying, “I wish I                         3. ______________ (have) a magical solution. I wish I                                              4. _______________________ (not have to / deal) with this myself.” One client, for example, kept complaining, “ I wish I 5. ______________ (can/entertain) people, but my apartment is too small.” Grimes urged her to solve the problem. This year, she hosted a holiday open house, with people coming at different times. She still wishes she _________________ (can/invite) her whole family last year, but she learned she could solve her own problems. “At first clients get angry at me for not handling them solutions,” says Grimes. “But when they experience their own power, they wish they ______________ (know) about it sooner.”

Answer Key

C. 

  1. If you get promoted, your salary goes up.
  2. If I drink coffee late at night, I can’t sleep.
  3. If you don’t pay the bill, you get a warning letter.
  4. If I try to run fast, I get out of breath.
  5. If someone enters the building, the alarm goes off.
  6. If you lose your credit card, you have to ring the bank.

E. 

a. 

  1. will do, if, get
  2. If, win, will take
  3. If, become, will try
  4. will, do, if, lose
  5. If, lose, will continue, Unless, cooperate, won’t be, if, don’t elect, will be

b.

  1. If Rachel fail her driving test, she can take it again.
  2. If United loses, Tom will be upset.
  3. If the office is closed, Mark won’t be able to get in.
  4. If Nick arrives a bit early, he can help Tom to get things ready.
  5. If the party goes on all night, no one will want to do any work tomorrow.
  6. If Emma misses the train, she can get the next one.
  7. If Matthew enters the race, he’ll probably win it.

H. 

a

  1. If I had a dictionary, I could look the word up.
  2. If I wasn’t so busy, I would write to my friends.
  3. If my back wasn’t aching, I could play tennis.
  4. if Claire loved Henry, she would marry him.
  5. if he had a map, he could find his way.
  6. if he weren’t so clumsy, he wouldn’t have so many accidents.

b. 

1. you wouldn’t play   2. we go   3. I didn’t play  4. it would be   5. you think   6. you thought  7. it would be   8. it won’t be  9. I wouldn’t get

H.

c.  

I’ve got to stop staying up late reading “Peanuts”! If I weren’t always to tired, I would be able to stay awake in class. Whenever the teacher calls on me, I don’t know what to say. Then I get really embarrassed because of that cute red-haired girl that I like. I would talk to her if I weren’t so shy. My friend Jason says, “If I were you, I’d ask her to a party,” but I’m too afraid that if I asked her, she would say no. After class, I played baseball. Nobody wanted me on their team. If I played better, I would get chosen sometimes. Life is hard! I can really understand that Charlie Brown character in “Peanuts.” If fact, if I didn’t laugh so hard while reading “Peanuts,” I would cry!

M. 

  1. he were, he would have put
  2. I had paid, I wouldn’t be
  3. you loved, wouldn’t have left

K. a. 

had gone, would have become   

could (would) have one OR would have been able to go, hadn’t lost

could have gone, hadn’t gotten

wouldn’t have known, hadn’t shown

hadn’t helped, could have gone

might not have led, hadn’t married

would have been, hadn’t lived

K. b.

The guests could/would have had their lunch outside if it had been warm enough /if it hadn’t been so cold.

Sarah could/would have flown to Rome if the airport hadn’t been closed/had been open.

Laura might have recognized Nick if he hadn’t had a crash-helmet on.

Sarah’s plants wouldn’t have died/might not have died if she’d/she had watered them.

Nick could/would have got in (to the ice hockey game) if he’d/had had a ticket.

O. 

  1. Were I you, I would look for another job.
  2. Had she been better prepared, she would have gotten the job.
  3. Had they realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
  4. Should there be a global nuclear war, life on earth as we know it would end forever.
  5. Were I your teacher, I would insist you do better work.

Q. 

a. 

  1. I wish I weren’t so tired.
  2. I wish I didn’t get (these) headaches.
  3. I wish my work were going well.
  4. I wish I could concentrate.
  5. I wish life weren’t so complicated.

b. 

  1. I had caught it.
  2. she had stayed.
  3. she had accepted it.
  4. I had found it. / I could have found it.
  5. he could have played.

c. 

  1. were   2. would go away  3. had   4. didn’t have to deal  5. could entertain

6. could have invited/had been able to invite  7. had known