報告/寫作順序的轉折語

還是很無奈地一直睡,不過還是有記得要吃飯,中午吃了個飯糰,晚上吃了個麥片,感覺不太夠啊!但是也吃不太下,不過有好好的同學帶了起士蛋糕給潔西吃,耶,上完課有蛋糕吃了!
寫作跟報告的時候,記得都要用 first of all, secondly, then, after that, finally 這些轉折語來讓自己的文章更漂亮,報告更清晰喔。
參考 Business One:One intermediate

 

 

I’d like to outline our initial proposals very briefly.

我想要簡單地報告一下我們提案的大綱。

 

First of all, I’d like to propose that you have a meeting once a month.

首先,我想要提議你一個月開會一次。

 

Secondly, I’d like to propose that you recruit new marketing staff.

其次,我想要提議你招募新的行銷人員。

 

Our third proposal is to investigate the Asian market.

我們的第三個提案是調查亞洲市場。

 

Finally, I recommend planning the production together.

最後,我推薦一起計畫商品。

 

Thank you very much for your help.

謝謝你的幫忙。

Thank you very much for your support.

謝謝你的支持。

Thank you very much for your cooperation.

謝謝你的合作。

 

 

 

寫作文法二:用連接詞來連接句子

 

 

 

連接詞的用法

 

快要死掉的潔西不想再繼續躺床上,因為還是蠻生氣的,所以繼續整理寫作時講到的連接詞的部分。fanboys 對等連接詞,for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 這些還好,但是關係連結詞 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor ,只要看到學生的文章出現後面這個關係連接詞頭就很痛,說百分之八十會用錯應該不誇張。

 

因為潔西教的都是比較初級的學生,當然還是有很好的程度的人蠻麻煩就不要對號入座說,老師我明明就沒寫錯,你怎麼可以這樣說我,哈哈。一樣前面廢文後面正文,另外還有不少的練習,文法跟寫作真的就是要清楚用法後,多做練習,多去看母語使用者用在哪裡,然後自己練習出來才能學起來。文法是語言的整理,不是先有文法才有語言的。所以不用死記文法,背了一堆規則卻不知道該用在哪或用錯。然後看到聽到跟上課老師講的文法不一樣的句子也不用太意外,語言是活的跟人一樣,聽歌聽多就知道了,就像沒有所有的人的國語都百分之百正確,說的標準,用字正確一樣的意思。

 

潔西很生氣的主要原因是今天是小寶的畢業典禮,然後潔西調了很多個鬧鐘因為早上八點要到,順便插話,畢業典禮為什麼都要在一早?整死誰啊?反正結果就是鬧鐘一直被潔西按掉,然後頭還大痛,想說再睡一下好了,再次醒來九點半,訊息問老姐,她說畢業典禮已經結束,在拍照,不用過去了。唉!大寶的畢業典禮那天也是頭痛到爆。畢業典禮症候群?頭痛已經很習慣了,但是像今天這樣這麼生氣還是第一次。氣自己還是氣偏頭痛啊?唉。

 

昨天才去跟醫生討論頭痛的問題,醫生有介紹另外一個醫生,潔西預掛幾個星期後,居然還 93 號,早上的門診 93號是要看到幾點?要幾點去啊?昨天其實頭好壯壯,下午看醫生,晚上跟同學吃飯,中間那段期間就去信義誠品混,研究學生教潔西的放空,找個地方坐下來,找本書,翻一翻就整個放空,本來帶了講義想說可以準備,但是覺得累,不想思考,就發呆發呆什麼都不想,還挺舒服的,能什麼都不想就腦袋一片空白也不錯,但是也不容易,對潔西這種人而言。時間也過得很快。晚上跟同學吃很久很想吃一直沒吃的泰國菜。四個人叫了七道菜再加上甜點,吃超飽,真好,難得食慾這麼好,最近都亂吃,也吃不下,常常水果就一餐,蛋糕也可以是一餐。

 

晚上回家不知為何超累,可能是因為星期六上課,星期天上課,星期天上課完後又去聽演奏會,星期一起床後還沒整理到前幾天的一團混亂又出門鬼混。而且回到家突然心情很差,最近不太想看新聞, Orlando Massacre 美國奧蘭多的大屠殺,有的是用 Shooting ,潔西覺得 Massacre 才貼切,49人死亡,53人受傷,潔西剛剛刷FB不小心看到很喜歡的 CNN 記者 Anderson Cooper 在報導相關新聞,第一句話就說他不打算說槍手的名字跟相關訊息,已經被報導的太多了,看過十一季,每季二十多集的犯罪心理美國影集的潔西完全明白他的意思。有不少的人做這樣的事只是想要出名留名,潔西看了這種新聞除了傷心外又生氣,唉,不想談這部分,最近還是遠離新聞比較好些。

 

突然想到前些日子寫的夜店迷思,更難過。潔西還去過一些 gay bar ,先前也寫過,去 foam party 泡泡派對的時候,在舞池旁的超好的帥哥同志還會幫潔西把沾在臉上的泡泡抹掉。有些無知的人又要攻擊去什麼夜店,跑什麼 gay bar ,對某些特定的族群的歧視跟種族的對立就是因為無知的人被利用被煽動,自以為做了正確的事,整個世界才會越來越糟。波斯頓馬拉松受到攻擊的人跟這些在 gay bar 被殺害的人有什麼不同呢?都是人生父母養的孩子啊!又要掉眼淚了。覺得學好英文多出去旅遊多看看世界開拓一下自己的心胸跟視野,當宅男宅女沒什麼不好,但是自己的思考模式價值觀是不是被媒體被特殊的人影響,有沒有在某個不知道的地方偏差掉了?好好用自己的腦子想想,大腦不用也會生鏽的啊!
回來偏頭痛,其實偏頭痛有時候有跡可循,有時候一整個莫名其妙,氣壓的變化已經是有被證實也會影響,所以就很怕突然好天氣突然下雨,一下冷一下熱這種天氣,醫生都知道這種時候病人就會多起來。然後潔西吃藥後的狀況也是時好時壞,頭痛通常會壓下來,只是時間問題,但是有時候吃完藥沒多久又頭好壯壯沒事般,有時候會像今天這樣全身沒力疲憊到不太能動,一整個覺得快要不行了,大概就是只能一直睡。今天一早起來還肩膀酸痛,腰酸背痛,一整個虛到爆。

 

一直睡會更氣,笑了,有時候好氣的?因為就會覺得一事無成啊,所以現在就是躺在椅子上,腳翹在床上跟桌上,把上星期上課的講義再整理分享一下,感覺比較沒有那麼廢,不會對自己那麼生氣。生氣也沒用的事,也不會改變任何事實,能做能改的就去改,對於不能改變的事就是接受,往前進,不用再回頭了,也不用想太多了。只是潔西狀況好的時候就會一直衝,然後完全失智,一直到掉下來,累啊!真的是該來躺一下了。連接詞還真的蠻重要的,用錯語意有時候就錯了。不難,只是容易用錯,尤其是 either … or, nerither … nor 這種。下面講點規則,做做練習應該希望會有點概念。

 

 

英文有八大詞類( the parts of speech)分別是動詞,名詞,代名詞,形容詞,副詞,連接詞,介系詞跟感歎詞。要學好英文,詞性非常重要。學到一個新單字的時候要先注意它的詞性,不同詞性的用法可能不同,適用於不同句型的句子。千萬不可以只是中翻英。

 

其中連接詞 conjunctions可以用來連接單字 (words)、片語 (phrases),子句 (clauses)或句子(sentences)。注意連接詞所連接的詞性必須一致。這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號,連接句子的時候則需要逗號。另外應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

 

連接詞可以分下面幾種

 

a 對等連接詞 coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, yet, so

It was raining, but they still went to the park.

 

b 從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunctions: if, before, because, when

Although John was sick, he still went to work.

 

c 關係連接詞 correlative conjunctions: either…or, neither…nor, both…and,

not only…but also

He’s the kind of person you either love or hate.

 

要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。這也是學生最常犯的錯誤之一,用逗號分開兩個獨立的句子,假如兩個句子關係密切可以用 ; 分號,但是絕對不可以用逗號,需要用對等連接詞來合併句子,形成並合句。

 

對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個:常用的是 and, but, so, or 其他還有 nor, for 跟yet。可用fanboys來記:for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 。潔西去紐約的學生放假回來台灣加強補文法,喔,這也是讓潔西印象深刻的同學,潔西幫她上一對一,她說她以為 fanboys 只是美國老師瞎掰,居然連潔西也這麼說,恩,其實寫作書上都有寫啦。

 

對她印象深刻是因為她只放假回來一個月就要回美國去了,所以時間很趕,很難改時間,潔西有一次幫她上一對一頭痛得很厲害,問說可不可以改時間,她沒辦法,所以潔西就撐著頭痛去上課,坐公車到捷運站一下車就吐得亂七八糟。到了補習班上課勉強上到一半又衝去廁所吐,後來真的上不下去不行,跟學生勉強又約了別的時候然後潔西坐計程車回家睡覺了。在文化推廣部上課的時候有一次也是,頭痛到爆,還有半個小時下課就忍不住衝出去教室去廁所狂吐,然後很抱歉地跟學生說下次再補回時間。頭痛真的是沒痛過的人不知道,這種還是不知道比較幸福。 Ignorance is bliss. 無知是種福氣,潔西又濫用成語了。

 

下面是幾個對等連接詞的用法,要記住什麼時候用的是哪一個,不要用錯了喔。

 

For 用來表原因:I am very tired, for I worked very hard today.

And 用來表達同等的概念:I am very tired, and I want to rest for a few minutes.

Nor 用來表達否定的選擇:I am not tired, nor am I hungry right now.

But 用來表達對比:I am tired, but I have no time to rest now.

Or 用來表達選擇:I will take a nap, or I will go out jogging.

Yet 用來表達對比:I will take a nap, yet I am unable to relax.

So 用來表達結果:I am tired, so I will take a nap.

 

Nor 的句子要特別注意的是,nor 本身有否定的意思,就不要再有 not 了,另外 nor 後面的句子要倒裝,就是要把助動詞放到主詞前面。

 

練習一:用對等連接詞 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 把下列句子合併成一個句子。

1 The shepherd has  cooperative flock of sheep.

They will cheerfully donate their wool.

 

2 The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo.

He is appreciated by the bull riders.

 

3 Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today.

You should get in line early.

 

4 Young Billy will surely get first prize in the science fair.

He has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

 

5 The aardvark does not make a good pet.

It gets rid of ants.

 

6 Are you comfortable?

Shall I turn on the air conditioner?

 

7 The couple liked their new house.

They didn’t like the spiders.

 

8 Children should not play with fire.

They should not play with power tools.

 

9 The entire junior class worked on the project.

Every member should be rewarded.

 

10 After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers.

He can’t remember the names to go with them.

 

 

配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 有四個:

both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor

 

這四個真的很致命,因為跟中文不太一樣的用法,很多人位置放錯,詞性用錯,主動詞一致沒用對。先說明他們的用法

 

1 both … and:用來強調就某件事,某個人,某種狀況來說,不光只是一個是真確的對另外

一個也是,也就是兩者皆…的意思

2 not only … but also:用來表達兩件都是真實或發生了的事情,特別是令人感到意外的

3 either … or:用來表達兩個或多個選項之一。或用在假如一件事沒發生,則另外一件事會

發生

4 neither … nor 用來表達兩者皆非,既不…也不…

 

所以要連接的時候就要想說,是要表達兩個都是相同的狀況,用 both … and 或強調的時候也可以用 not only … but also 。而兩個選一個的時候就用 either … or 。只有在要表達兩者皆非,兩個都不是的時候才會用 neither … nor 。

 

這些配對連接詞知道要選用哪一個後,要特別注意的是主動詞的一致。當主詞用這些配對連接詞連用時,both … and …  的動詞要用複數形,其他 not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor  的動詞則取決於動詞靠近的主詞。所以就記 both … and 因為有兩者,所以那個句子的動詞一定是複數形,而其他的三個用法的動詞就取決其靠近動詞的主詞。假如接近動詞的主詞是單數時則用單數的動詞,主詞是複數的時候則用複數動詞。

 

把下面的句子配合規則看過記一下再做下面練習題就會發現,其實也沒有那麼難喔。

 

Both my mother and my sister are here.

Not only my mother but also my sister is here.

Not only my sister but also my parents are here.

Neither my mother nor my sister is here.

Neither my sister nor my parents are here.

Either Mr. Lee or Ms. Lin is going to teach our class today.

 

練習二: a 練習 在空格中填入 is 或 are

1 Both the teacher and the student __________ here.

2 Neither the teacher nor the student __________ here.

3 Not only the teacher but also the student __________ here.

4 Not only the teacher but also the students __________ here.

5 Either the students or the teacher __________ planning to come.

6 Either the teacher or the students __________ planning to come.

7 Both the students and the teachers __________ planning to come.

8 Both the students and the teacher __________ planning to come.

 

 

練習三:b 改錯

1 Either John will call Mary or Bob.

2 Not only Sue saw the mouse but also the cat.

3 Both my mother talked to the teacher and my father.

4 Either Andy or Bobby are going to clean the room.

5 I enjoy not only reading novels but also magazines.

6 Oxygen is plentiful. Both air contains oxygen and water.

 

 

接下來是練習合併兩個句子,幾個重點

1 找出兩個句子的共同點

2 決定應該用的連接詞

3 把連接詞放在對等的字詞片語子句前面,兩邊的詞性一定要一樣

4 注意主動詞的一致,除了 both … and 連接主詞時用複數動詞外,其他的幾個連接主詞時,動詞都要依照接近的那個主詞的單複數一致。

 

不要用看的,真的,文法看不會的,沒有自己實際寫一寫,不會知道錯在哪裡,然後看得懂,要寫的時候卻又寫不出來,注意一下自己的學習方式,怎麼樣才最有效?潔西是聽說打字動感型的,看書看不下去的時候要用念的才會懂,不然就用打字的,看十分鐘可能在同一頁,但是打字或唸出來大概三五分鐘就可以理解,每個人不同,找出適合自己的方法吧!

 

答案都在最後面

 

練習四:c 合併句子

用 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor 來連接或改寫下面的句子

1 He does not have a pen.

He does not have paper.

 

2 Ron enjoys bungee jumping.

Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

 

3 You can have tea, or you can have coffee.

 

4 Jamie is not in class today.

Lucy is not in class today.

 

5 Ken is absent.

David is absent.

 

6 We can fix dinner for them here, or we can take them to a restaurant.

 

7 She wants to buy a Mercedes Benz or she wants to buy a BMW.

 

8 The leopard faces extinction. The tiger faces extinction.

 

9 The library doesn’t have the book I need.

The bookstore doesn’t have the book I need.

 

10 We could fly, or we could take the train.

 

11 The president’s assistant will not confirm the story.

The president’s assistant will not deny the story.

 

12 Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

 

13 Smallpox is a dangerous disease.

Malaria is a dangerous disease.

 

14 Her roommates don’t know where she is.

Her brother doesn’t know where she is.

 

15 According to the news report, it will snow tonight, or it will rain tonight.

 

 

 

 

答案在下面,不要偷看不要偷看不要偷看,很重要,所以要說三次,有空的時候自己練習一下再對答案吧!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

練習一:用對等連接詞 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 把下列句子合併成一個句子。

1 The shepherd has cooperative flock of sheep.

They will cheerfully donate their wool.

The shepherd has cooperative flock of sheep, and they will cheerfully donate their wool.

 

2 The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo.

He is appreciated by the bull riders.

The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo, but he is appreciated by the bull riders.

 

3 Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today.

You should get in line early.

Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today, so you should get in line early.

 

4 Young Billy will surely get first prize in the science fair.

He has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

Young Bill will surely get first prize in the science fair, for he has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

 

5 The aardvark does not make a good pet.

It gets rid of ants.

The aardvark does not make a good pet, yet it gets rid of ants.

 

6 Are you comfortable?

Shall I turn on the air conditioner?

Are you comfortable or shall I turn on the air conditioner?

 

 

7 The couple liked their new house.

They didn’t like the spiders.

The couple liked their new house, but they didn’t like the spiders.

 

8 Children should not play with fire.

They should not play with power tools.

Children should not play with fire, nor should they play with power tools.

 

9 The entire junior class worked on the project.

Every member should be rewarded.

The entire junior class worked on the project , so every remember should be rewarded.

 

10 After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers.

He can’t remember the names to go with them.

After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers, but he can’t remember the names to go with them.

 

 

練習二: a 練習 在空格中填入 is 或 are

1 Both the teacher and the student are here.

 

2 Neither the teacher nor the student is here.

 

3 Not only the teacher but also the student is here.

 

4 Not only the teacher but also the students are here.

 

5 Either the students or the teacher is planning to come.

 

6 Either the teacher or the students are planning to come.

 

7 Both the students and the teachers are planning to come.

 

8 Both the students and the teacher are planning to come.

 

 

 

練習三:b 改錯

1 Either John will call Mary or Bob.

John will call either Mary or Bob.  / Either John or Mary will call Bob.

 

2 Not only Sue saw the mouse but also the cat.

Sue not only saw the mouse but also the cat.

 

3 Both my mother talked to the teacher and my father.

Both my mother and my father talked to the teacher.

 

4 Either Andy or Bobby are going to clean the room.

Either Andy or Bobby is going to clean the room.

 

5 I enjoy not only reading novels but also magazines.

I enjoy not only reading novels but also reading magazines.

 

6 Oxygen is plentiful. Both air contains oxygen and water.

Oxygen is plentiful. Air contains both oxygen and water.

 

 

 

練習四:c 合併句子

用 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor 來連接或改寫下面的句子

1 He does not have a pen.

He does not have paper.

He has neither a pen nor paper.

(He doesn’t not have a pen or paper)

 

2 Ron enjoys bungee jumping.

Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

Both Ron and Bob enjoy bungee jumping.

Not only Ron but also Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

 

3 You can have tea, or you can have coffee.

You can have either tea or coffee.

 

4 Jamie is not in class today.

Lucy is not in class today.

Neither Jamie nor Lucy is in class today.

Not only Jamie but also Lucy is absent.

 

5 Ken is absent.

David is absent.

Both Ken and David are absent.

 

 

6 We can fix dinner for them here, or we can take them to a restaurant.

We can either fix dinner for them here or take them to a restaurant.

 

7 She wants to buy a Mercedes Benz or she wants to buy a BMW.

She wants to buy either a Mercedes Benz or BMW.

 

8 The leopard faces extinction. The tiger faces extinction.

Both the leopard and the tiger face extinction.

 

9 The library doesn’t have the book I need.

The bookstore doesn’t have the book I need.

Neither the library nor the bookstore has the book I need.

 

10 We could fly, or we could take the train.

We could either fly or take the train.

 

11 The president’s assistant will not confirm the story.

The president’s assistant will not deny the story.

The president’s assistant will neither confirm nor deny the story.

 

12 Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Both coal and oil are irreplaceable natural resources.

Not only coal but also oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

 

13 Smallpox is a dangerous disease.

Malaria is a dangerous disease.

Both smallpox and malaria are dangerous diseases.

 

14 Her roommates don’t know where she is.

Her brother doesn’t know where she is.

Neither her roommates nor her brother knows where she is.

 

15 According to the news report, it will snow tonight, or it will rain tonight.

According to the news report, it will either snow or rain tonight.

 

寫作文法ㄧ:英文文章跟句子的基本架構

英文寫作,用英文寫 email 難嗎?恩,是真的沒有那麼簡單,但是也沒有那麼難,抓住一些重點的話。

 

潔西的教學改寫作的經驗這麼多年下來覺得除了單字不足中式英文外,最大的問題應該是句型跟邏輯的問題。邏輯?沒錯,就是邏輯。

 

下面廢話後面潔西把英文文章組合的整體大概念跟基本的句子,潔西盡量用口語能懂的方式解釋了一下句型做一個簡單整理介紹,後面有一點練習,老王潔西自己覺得還蠻有用的,哈哈,花了蠻多時間整理的,有空可以看一下。這是比較簡單的,更詳細的說明有空會再寫。星期一的垃圾文提早了,因為等等要去看醫生,哈哈。

 

句型的話很多人對於英文的基本句型完全沒有概念,想要怎麼寫就寫,把想表達的意思用中式英文寫,然後單字就直接去找中翻英的英文,完全沒管找到的那個字的詞性或用法,寫出來真的是會很可怕的句子,恩,不可怕啦,只是人家看不懂XD

 

邏輯的話就是西方人是線性思考,尤其是寫作的時候,一樣一樣推斷,因為 A,所以 B,C,結論是 D。類似這樣,不過台灣人很常就是直接從A跳到D,省略中間很多東西,所以讀者會根本不知道你要表達的是什麼,寫作很重要的一點事要從讀者的觀點來看文章,但是很多人只是從自己的角度,你覺得應該別人會懂得,別人不一定會懂,跳得太快太遠了,常常。

 

另外答非所問,比方說潔西問學生說上個週末過得如何?學生回答去看電影。這沒有回答到問題大家有發現嗎? How was your weekend? 過得好?還是不好?開心?不開心?看電影是你做的事,可能好看開新也可能不好看不開心。諸如此類的。

 

然後最最最重要的就是,當你要寫,或說一個英文句子的時候,麻煩不要直接用中翻英的句子,要想想該怎麼樣把想要表達的意思套進英文句型寫出來。英文句型那麼多怎麼套?其實英文句型沒有想像的複雜,最基本的句型記起來後,在做適當的連結,就可以把想要表達的意思用正確的英文句子說出來了。

 

上星期代課講到的是連接詞,連接句子,這也是很多人的痛處,很多人寫文章都是一個句子一個句子,沒有表達出中間的連貫性,文章就會單調乏味。

 

下面是潔西教寫作的時候整理的至少應該要知道的英文的基本句型,後面有點練習,可以參考一下。真心覺得這學好英文的人一定要記住。

 

寫作的時候想想一篇文章的元素究竟是什麼呢?從最簡單的字母,幾個字母合成一個單字,兩個以上的單字就組成片語,把一些單字適當組合,當中有主詞,動詞,跟其他必要部分就可以成為子句,子句本身也可以是一個句子,或者把幾個子句合併成句子。然後幾個句子合己來變成一個段落。一個段落可以就是一篇文章,但是也可以把幾個段落合併在一起變成一篇文章。就這樣,簡單嗎?哈哈。不太難吧!

 

letter 字母

word 單字

phrase 片語

clause 子句

sentence 句子

paragraph 段落

essay 文章

 

下面解釋一下

 

1 字母 letter

 

英文有二十六個"字母" ,如”w”,潔西上課的冷笑話都是問學生英文有幾個字母,26?不對,是24,為什麼?因為 ET 回家了,哈哈,好冷。不過前天學生很可愛說,老師是21個啦,因為 UFO 也走了,哈哈,上課真開心。

 

 

 

2 單字 word

 

一個或一個以上的字母組合就形成單字,如”a”, “walk”。記一個單字的時候一定要連詞性用法一起記,背再多單字不會用都沒用,所以與其被一堆單字,還不如多記片語跟句子。

 

 

 

3 片語 phrase

 

兩個以上單字形成片語,有動詞片語、名詞片語、形容詞片語、副詞片語與介系詞片語等。非常好用,不過不用死背,看到一個記一個,去背一整本片語書背完還是忘光的。片語如“walk around”, “my friends”, “very spicy”, “very quickly”, “on the corner”

 

 

 

4 子句 clause:

 

當一些字中有一組主詞與動詞與其他必要部分的時候就叫一個子句。子句有分獨立子句跟非獨立子句,獨立子句可以單獨存在,非獨立子句就像寄生蟲一樣,哈哈,一定要寄生在別人身上才活得下去,恩,就是必須搭配上獨子子句才能表達完整的語意,才能變成一個句子。

 

 

a 獨立子句 independent clause:

 

一些字當中有主詞,有動詞,語義完整。獨立子句本身表達一個完整的概念,能夠單獨存在寫成一個句子。獨立子句如下:

 

I have the money. 我有錢。

It’s not my fault. 這不是我的錯。

 

 

b 非獨立子句 dependent clause:

 

一些字當中有主詞,有動詞,但語意不完整,無法單獨成為一個完整的句子,需要依靠一個主要子句來表達完整的語意。非獨立子句如下

 

When I have the money 當我有錢的時候

Even though it’s not my fault 雖然這不是我的錯

 

然後呢?上面兩句的意思都不完整,需要再加上獨立子句才能成為一個句子。

 

而在英文又有三種非獨立子句,這三種子句學生常常會單獨寫出來,其實是錯誤的,他們一定要跟獨立子句結合才會成為一個完整的句子,表達正確的語意。

 

 

b1 名詞子句 noun clause

 

that Jon Snow will be the king 這就不是個完整的句子

 

名詞子句整個子句用來當名詞用,可以當主詞,受詞,或補語。 如:that Jon Snow will be the king 這是一個名詞子句,雖然有主詞有動詞,看起來語意也完整,但是他的前面有一個 that ,這個 that 本身沒有意義,但是因為有加上that,所以就不是完整的句子,但是 Jon Snow will be the king. 就是個完整的句子。

 

I think that Jon Snow will be the king.

我認為 Jon Snow 會當國王。

 

這才是一個完整的句子。 that Jon Snow will be the king 整個當名詞用,最為 think 的受詞用。

 

 

b2形容詞子句 adjective clause

 

who made the mess 有人弄得一團糟,也不是個完整的句子

 

形容詞子句是整個子句當形容詞用,用來修飾名詞。who made the mess,這就是個形容詞子句,他的語意是不完整的,中文可能覺得語意完整啊,但是英文這樣的句子是不完整的,所以呢要改成

 

The person who made the mess needs to clean it.

弄得一團糟的人需要去清理。

 

這樣才是個完整的句子,而當中的 who made the mess 用來修飾前面的那個人 person。

 

 

b3 副詞子句 adverb clause

 

If you were having an affair 假如你有外遇的話,這個子句語意不完整

 

副詞子句是整個字句當作副詞用,用來修飾表達跟主要子句之間的關係。如:If you were having an affair 假如你有外遇的話,這個子句語意不完整,這只是個條件,在這個條件下會怎麼樣呢?

 

If you were having affair, I would kill you.

假如你有外遇的話,我就會殺了你。

 

好可怕的恐怖情人大家要小心啊!不過這樣子的結合就變成了一個完整的句子了。 if you were having an affair 就是個副詞子句,表示在這條件下會有什麼狀況。

 

 

所以上面這三個名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句都不會單獨存在,但是卻很常看到同學寫這樣的句子啊,請記住,他們都是寄生蟲,一定要找到適合的寄生對象啊!

 

 

 

5 句子 sentence:

 

一個句子有主詞,有動詞,語義完整。這就是一個句子,句首大寫,句尾有句點,或問號,或驚嘆號,這就是一個完整的句子。正式寫作的話每個句子一定都是要是一個完整的句子。 email 的話或閒聊的話就會比較不受限。

 

英文的句子可以用獨立子句跟非獨立子句結合成下面四種句子,而當你在寫英文寫作的時候每一個句子也一定要都是這下面四種句子當中的一種句型,不然寫出來會是錯誤的句子喔。

 

等等,那一般的五大句型呢?五大句型所寫出來的句子就是一般的簡單句,然後再搭配其他句子,就可以產生很多的變化,不過總言之就是只有這四個大類

 

 

四個句子的種類

 

a 簡單句 simple sentence:

 

She did the work well.

她工作做得很好。

 

也就是一個獨立子句。有主詞有動詞,語意完整,大家一般最常寫的就是簡單句。但是太多簡單句的話文章會很乏味,所以就要用適當的連接詞把句子組合起來。

 

 

b 並合句 compound sentences:

 

She did the work well, and she was paid well.

她工作做得很好,而且她的薪水也很好。

 

用 and 連接 she did the work well 跟 she was paid well 這兩個獨立子句。

 

用對等連接詞把一個獨立子句跟另外一個獨立子句合併起來的句子就是並合句,中文翻譯有很多不同說法,可以記英文就是 compound sentences 。

 

對等連接詞可以用 fanboys 來記,這七個對等連接詞就是 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 。對等連接詞的兩邊一定都是獨立子句,合併的時候要在對等連接詞前面加上逗號。

 

 

c 複合句 complex sentences:

 

Because she did the work well, she was paid well.

 

前面的 because she did the work well 是非獨立子句中的副詞子句,加上了 she was paid well 後語意才完整,成為一個完整的句子。

 

不能單獨存在的非獨立子句,名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句加上一個獨立子句,變成了一個完整的句子,這樣的句子就叫做complex sentences 。一樣中文有很多不同翻譯,可以記英文比較不會錯。

 

 

d 混合句 compound-complex sentences:

 

Because she did the work well, she was paid well, and she was satisfied.

因為她工作做得很好,所以她的薪水也很好,她也就很滿意。

 

這裡的非獨立子句副詞子句 because she did the work well 加上獨立子句 she was paid well 就可以是一個完整的句子,但是可以再用對等連接 and 把獨立子句 she was satisfied 結合在一起,就成了一個完整的混合句。

 

當有兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句結合在一起的時候就變成了 compound-complex sentence 混合句。很多時候看到文章裡面有那些又臭又長的句子就是混合句了。不過潔西的建議是初學者先從前面三種句子開始寫起,混合句觀念不清楚的人,很容易就寫錯了,實話實說應該會被打的潔西的真心話,因為可能潔西教的學生程度都比較基礎,看到學生寫混合句大概百分之八十以上都是錯的,真的。別拿石頭砸潔西啊!

 

所以切記切記,當你要寫英文的句子的時候,一定要把你想表達的意思套入這些句型中才會寫出正確的句子。

 

 

 

6 段落 paragraph

幾個句子就形成一個段落。每個段落都有一個主旨,短的段落可能只有一句,長的可以到十句或更多。這裡就不多說,只是簡單介紹。

常見的段落模式如下

topic sentence 主題句,用來說明段落大意

supporting sentences 支持句,用來闡述說明主題

concluding sentence 結論句,用來結尾

 

 

 

 

7 文章 essay

幾個有組織的段落就形成一篇文章

 

 

這樣大概有一點概念了嗎?對於寫文章與寫句子。這邊潔西主要是真最寫句子,句子要先寫對才能談其他的啊,句子都寫不好怎麼寫文章呢?對吧?

 

 

下面一點練習看看大家對於字句句子片語跟不同種類的句子有沒有一點概念

 

 

A 判斷下列何者為獨立子句 (I) ,非獨立子句 (D) ,或片語 (P)

 

1 Under the table

2 After I baked the apple pie

3 I baked an apple pie.

4 To fall in love

5 Jay is in love.

6 Over the bridge and through the woods

7 We chased the wind over the bridge and through the woods.

8 Which is one the floor

9 Find your new socks.

10 Because of the new guidelines

11 Standing on the corner

12 Why are we standing on the corner?

 

B 判斷下列何者為簡單句 (S) ,並合句 (CD) ,複合句 (CX),並在適當的位置加上逗號,假如需要的話

 

1 I’m going to go scuba diving next weekend.

2 My father is going to retire next year but my mother is going to continue working.

3 After he came home from the beach Gina took a shower.

4 Irene is going to call you when she gets home from work.

5 We’re going to go to the mall and the beach next Sunday.

6 William is going to go to college next year but his brother is going to get a job.

7 When the game is over we’re going to CKS Memorial Hall.

8 How often do you work out at the gym?

9 Peter and Josh are brothers but they don’t get along very well.

10 Bill and his friends went to the hockey game and cheered for their team.

11 If the pilot gets sick during a flight the copilot takes over.

12 The copilot plays an important role in the success of a flight.

 

 

答案在下面,不要偷看啦,沒有練習光用看的是學不好英文的喔

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A 判斷下列何者為獨立子句 (I) ,非獨立子句 (D) ,或片語 (P)

 

1 Under the table (P)

 

2 After I baked the apple pie (D)

 

3 I baked an apple pie. (I)

 

4 To fall in love (P)

 

5 Jay is in love. (I)

 

6 Over the bridge and through the woods (P)

 

7 We chased the wind over the bridge and through the woods. (I)

 

8 Which is on the floor (D)

 

9 Find your new socks. (I)

 

10 Because of the new guidelines (D)

 

11 Standing on the corner (P)

 

12 Why are we standing on the corner? (I)

 

 

B 判斷下列何者為簡單句 (S) ,並合句 (CD) ,複合句 (CX),並在適當的位置加上逗號,假如需要的話

 

1 I’m going to go scuba diving next weekend. (S)

 

2 My father is going to retire next year, but my mother is going to continue working. (CD)

 

3 After he came home from the beach, Gina took a shower. (CX)

 

4 Irene is going to call you when she gets home from work. (CX)

 

5 We’re going to go to the mall and the beach next Sunday. (S)

 

6 William is going to go to college next year, but his brother is going to get a job. (CD)

 

7 When the game is over, we’re going to CKS Memorial Hall. (CX)

 

8 How often do you work out at the gym? (S)

 

9 Peter and Josh are brothers, but they don’t get along very well. (CD)

 

10 Bill and his friends went to the hockey game and cheered for their team. (S)

 

11 If the pilot gets sick during a flight, the copilot takes over. (CX)

 

12 The copilot plays an important role in the success of a flight. (S)

 

這裡有人可能會弄錯是因為對等連接詞可以連接主詞,動詞,或其他片語等,但是只有連接兩個獨立子句的時候才是 compund sentence 喔,不然都只是簡單句喔。

全民英檢中級寫作 L1 Paragraph Structure段落結構

 

 

全民英檢中級Writing  L1 Paragraph Structure段落結構  Jessie  P.1                      

 

 

  1. A.  考試方式簡介

全民英檢中級英文寫作能力測驗共分中譯英及英文作文兩部分,測驗時間為40分鐘。中譯英四十分,英文作文六十分,滿分為一百分,通過檢定須達到八十分。

  1. B.  題型範例
    1. 中譯英

說明:請將下列的一段中文翻譯成通順、達意且前後連貫的英文。答案請寫在「寫作能力測驗答案紙」標示的位置上。

 

小時候,我和鄰居John同校。那時我們常一起打籃球,度過許多快樂時光。畢業以後,他和家人移居到國外。從此我們就失去連絡了。

 

  1. 英文作文

說明:請依下面所提供的文字提示寫一篇英文作文,長度約一百二十字(8至12個句子)。作文可以是一個完整的段落,也可以分成兩段,請書寫在「寫作能力測驗答案紙」標示的位置上。評分重點包括內容、組織、文法、用字遣詞、標點符號、大小寫。

 

臺灣的機車數量很多。許多家庭擁有一部以上的機車,每天上班、上學都用機車代步。你認為在臺灣機車這麼普遍的原因何在?請說明你的看法。

 

  1. C.  常見寫作的評分項目跟比例:
    1. 內容 Content (0-24):主旨論點(thesis statement),由個人經驗、描述、事實等所發展出的論點,有效地使用敘述、因果關係、比較與對比等方式表達,論點的一致性等。
    2. 組織 Organization(0-20):有力的前言,有邏輯順序的論點,結論,適當的長度等。
    3. 文章的整體性 Discourse (0-20):有主題句(topic sentence),段落的一致性,轉折語,凝聚性(cohesion),流暢度,變化性等。
    4. 文法結構 Syntax (0-12):時態、詞性、句子變化等。
    5. 單字 Vocabulary (0-12):單字的用法正確與否,單字多樣性等。
    6. 技術性細節 Mechanics (0-12):如拼字、大小寫、標點符號、手寫字跡等。

節摘自Categories for evaluating writing J. D. Brown, 1991

 

全民英檢中級Writing  L1 Paragraph Structure段落結構  Jessie  P.2

D. 段落的架構  Paragraph Structure

 

  1. 段落定義 What is a paragraph?

一個英文的段落是ㄧ些句子的組合,這個組合表達一個主旨。段落本身

是完整的,也可能同時為文章中的一部份。

 

2. 段落的外觀 What does a paragraph look like on the page?

段落的開頭要留幾個空格,叫縮格(indentation),用來表示段落的開始。

  1. 段落與文章的不同 What is the difference between a paragraph and an essay?

段落是文章的一部份,幾個句子組合成段落,幾個段落組合成一篇文章。

 

4. 段落的長度 How long is a paragraph?

段落不能太長也不能太短,約為八到十二句。不應短到無法充分解釋主旨,也不能長到包含了很多個次主題,後者則應分幾個段落來寫。

 

5. 段落的組織 How is a paragraph organized or developed?

所有的段落都有一個基本的目標,就是要清楚地,有效地傳達一個主旨。

在任何段落裡都應該具有下列要點

 

  1. The paragraph should contain only one central idea

個段落只有一個中心主旨。如有超過一個中心主旨,則應該分作幾個段落。

 

  1. The paragraph should have unity

段落應該有整體性。整個段落應該有一個共同的目的,有統一性。

 

  1. The paragraph should have coherence and continuity

段落應該有連貫性與一致性。連貫性指的是段落應該是有邏輯性的安排

與連接。一致性指的是連接的部份應該是很流暢的。

 

  1. The paragraph should be adequately developed

段落應該適當地發展。大部份的段落都有三個基本部份。一個開始,一個

中間,跟一個結束。也就是前言,討論,跟結論。前言跟結論會是相似的。

 

 

 

 

全民英檢中級Writing  L1 Paragraph Structure段落結構  Jessie  P.3

D. 段落的架構  Paragraph Structure

SUMMARY總結

 

Your paragraph will be clear and enjoyable to read if you follow the directions summed up here. First, remember to indent the paragraph—once only! Second, remember that the paragraph should be neither too short nor too long; make it approximately eight to twelve sentences in length. Third and most important, organize and develop your paragraph carefully. Remember that the paragraph should contain one central idea only, that it should have unity, coherence, continuity, and adequate development. If you follow these directions, your paragraph should be as good as or better than this one.

 

Writing the paragraph and the short composition  Fifth Edition Kathleen E. Sullivan

 

E. 段落的三個部份

  1. Topic Sentence主題句:一開始就要清楚的告訴讀者將要討論的主題是什麼。包括了主題topic跟限定主旨controlling idea。主題的範圍不能太大,也不能太小。

 

  1. Supporting Sentences支持句:提供主題的細節。支持句一般會有幾個支持的論點,論點後可以用具體的細節,給予原因,結果,優缺點,類別,事實,例子,統計資料,引言等來支持論點。支持句中要特別注意的是每個句子都要跟主題相關,不能有不相關或重複的支持句。

 

  1. Concluding Sentence結論句:表示段落即將結束,並且提醒讀者所提過的主題。首先在開頭就會有結束的標示語conclusion signals。接下來可以用重述restate主題句的方式或總結summarize前面講過的論點。記得千萬不要在段落的最後跑出新的主意new idea。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

全民英檢中級Writing  L1 Paragraph Structure段落結構  Jessie  P.4

F. 翻譯練習

中譯英說明:請將下列的一段中文翻譯成通順、達意且前後連貫的英文。

 

小時候,我和鄰居John同校。那時我們常一起打籃球,度過許多快樂時光。畢業以後,他和家人移居到國外。從此我們就失去連絡了。

 

翻譯要訣:

  1. 瞭解大意:先把題目讀過,確定明白題目大意。
  2. 決定時態:根據題目內容,敘述過去的事多用過去簡單式,敘述習慣事實用現在簡單式,說到經驗的時候要用完成式。注意題目可能不是從頭到尾同一個時態,可能混和了不同時態。
  3. 用英語的句型寫句子:最基本的英文句型是主詞+動詞+受詞+地點+時間。英文的句子中心點是主詞動詞,切記每個完整的句子都一定要有主詞跟動詞。翻譯很容易就寫出中翻英的句子,記得要先把英文句型放在心中。
  4. 用適當的連接詞連接兩個句子:英文絕對不能用逗號分開兩個完整的句子。翻譯的時候不可以按照中文的句型結構直接翻譯,應該要按照英文的句型結構分成兩個句子或找適當連接詞連接兩個句子。
  5. 山不轉路轉:遇到不會的單字或中文沒有相同的字時,記得用同義字,反義字,或者解釋的方式來翻譯。絕對不要寫中文!
  6. 檢查修正錯誤:寫完後留一點時間把答案無聲地念過,看是否通順,檢查每個句子是否有主詞動詞,是否有正確的連接詞連接,標點符號,文法時態是否正確。

 

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

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全民英檢中級Writing  L1 Paragraph Structure段落結構  Jessie  P.5

G. 修改文章

a. Fragments 片段:片段的意思指的是不完整的句子。英文一個完整的句子需要有主詞有動詞,而且語意完整。在寫作的時候要注意不要寫出片段。

下列左邊的片落都少了一些東西,按照右邊的解釋寫出錯誤的地方。

____1. Because I was late for school         a. no subject 沒有主詞

____2. A big, new building next to the river   b. prepositional phrase 介系詞片語

____3. After the three o’clock school bell    c. no verb 沒有動詞

____4. Played tennis every day last summer   d. subordinate clause從屬子句

 

b. 閱讀下列文章,找出與標點,大小寫,時態,冠詞,單複數,片段的錯誤,並改正。

 

I would like to introduce myself. My name is Nancy Lee, and I am from Taiwan. I grow up in the countryside. When I was in high school, my family moved to Taipei. Because my father changed jobs. We live in a new apartment right near a park. Where I play tennis on Sundays. Beside from tennis, my main interest is watching foreign movie. Especially old, romantic movies, like “Gone with the Wind.” I am a sophomore in college, I take my studies seriously. I am a business major, and I am also studying Spanish. I want to be a international businesswoman. My dream is work for a big company and live in Spain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

全民英檢中級Writing  L1 Paragraph Structure段落結構  Jessie  P.6

H. see, watch, look, read 的區別                         

  1. 1.  see用在眼睛自然而然進到你的視線的,也可以是故意看的。

比方說在教室裡面,潔西問What do you see? 你視線範圍所看到的都是see,所以可以說I see ten students, twenty chairs, a teacher, a fan, and a whiteboard.

 

I saw a beggar on the street last night. 我昨天在街上晚上看到一個乞丐

Have you seen Paul? 你有看到Paul嗎?(你知道Paul在哪嗎?)

 

注意!see 可以與watch通用的是用在看電視節目,電影,戲劇,演唱會等時。

He saw a movie with his girlfriend yesterday. 他昨天跟女友去看電影

 

see還有其他意思就不會跟watch通用

I see. 我明白了。

I’ll see what I can do. 我在看看還有什麼我可以做的。

Is she seeing anyone at the moment? 她現在有在交往的對象嗎?

 

 

2. watch用在刻意地看某件事情一段時間。比方說你在上課時偷偷在手機上看電影,潔西叫了你。你可以發FB狀態說I was watching a movie on my cell phone when Jessie called my name.

 

They went to Tamsui to watch the sunset. 他們去淡水看日落

He watched three movies yesterday. 他昨天看了三部電影

 

注意!只有在表達看電視節目,電影,戲劇,演唱會等時,watch跟see可以通用。但是只會說watch TV看電視,不用see TV。

watch a movie=see a movie 看電影

watch a concert=see a concert 看演唱會

We saw the basketball game on TV. 我們看電視上的籃球賽

 

其他用法

Watch out! 小心,注意。

I have to watch my weight. 我必須要留意我的體重。

 

 

 

全民英檢中級Writing  L1 Paragraph Structure段落結構  Jessie  P.7             

3. look用在刻意轉移視線去看某個東西,盯著某件事物。比方說潔西要你們看課本的圖片時:Please look at the picture on page 15 in your book. 請看你書上十五頁的圖。通常只用一個字Look! 是要某人看,注意某件事物。假如後面有對象或事物的時候,就必須要用look at這個片語。look常跟其他介系詞結合成片語。look up to someone尊敬某人,look down on someone輕視某人,look for尋找,look out小心,look forward to期待。

 

“We’re going to be late,” Jane said, looking at her watch.

我們快遲到了,Jane看著她的手表說

Don’t look at me like that. 不要那樣看著我

 

其他用法

It looks like it’s going to rain. 看起來好像要下雨了

You look great! 你看來很不錯

 

look 可以用進行式

Someone’s looking at you. 有人正在看著你

see一般不用進行式

I can see the bus coming. 我看到公車來了

 

4. read在英文是閱讀,用來閱讀有文字的書雜誌等等。所以看報紙要用read the newspaper。也可以是說的意思,read it out loud大聲念。

 

Read the instructions carefully before you start. 在開始前小心地閱讀指示。

My dad used to read me bedtime stories when I was a kid.

我爸爸小時候念床邊故事給我聽。

Can anyone here read Chinese? 這裡有人懂中文嗎?

注意!read用來閱讀書,學校科目用study

He’s reading a history book. 他在讀一本歷史相關的書

He’s studying history. 他在唸歷史

 

I saw a funny  picture on Facebook. 我在Facebook 上看到一張好笑的照片

I usually watch a movie on my computer instead of going to a movie theater. 我通常在我的電腦上看電影,而不是去電影院

Look at the funny guy over there What’s he doing? 你看那邊那個好笑的人。他在做什麼?

I read online news every morning. 我每天早上看線上新聞

全民英檢中級Writing  L1 Paragraph Structure段落結構  Jessie  P.8

I. Entertainment 娛樂

Movies Music TV programs
action movies 動作片 rap/hip-hop饒舌樂 cartoons卡通
adventures 冒險片 alternative 另類音樂 documentaries紀錄片
animation 卡通片 blues藍調 game shows 競賽節目
comedies 喜劇片 pop流行音樂 news新聞
disaster movies 災難片 classical 古典樂 reality shows實況節目
documentaries 紀錄片 country 鄉村樂 series影集
drama 劇情片 dance舞曲 sit-com情境喜劇
horror films 恐怖片 heavy metal 重金屬 soap operas連續劇
musicals 音樂劇 salsa騷莎 sports events體育節目
romantic movies愛情片 R&B (rhythm and blues) 節奏藍調 talk shows 談話節目
science fiction 科幻片 jazz爵士樂 variety shows 綜藝節目
thrillers 驚悚片 new age 新世紀音樂 talent shows才藝節目
westerns 西部片 opera歌劇
reggae雷鬼樂
rock搖滾樂
soul 靈魂樂
techno 電音
gospel 福音音樂

 

1.  What kind of movies do you like? I like comedies and musicals.

Who’s your favorite actor/actress? I like Robert De Nino.

2.  What kind of music do you like? I like jazz and classical.

Who’s your favorite singer/performer? I love Louis Armstrong.

3.  What kind of TV programs do you like? I like Korean dramas.

Who’s your favorite TV host? I don’t have a favorite TV host.

 

  

全民英檢中級Writing  L1 Paragraph Structure段落結構  Jessie  P.9

J. 英文作文

說明:請依下面所提示寫一篇英文作文,長度約一百二十字(8至12個句子)。作文可以是一個完整的段落,也可以分成兩段, 評分重點包括內容、組織、文法、用字遣詞、標點符號、大小寫。

提示:請寫一篇簡短的自我介紹,並說明你學英文與上這門課程的原因。

 

Student Name:___________

寫完請檢查下列事項後打勾後,請找一個同學幫你檢查後簽名:__________

1. 拼字 2. 詞性 3. 名詞單複數 4. 動詞時態與接續 5. 主動詞一致
6. 冠詞 7. 大小寫與標點 8. 用字正確 9. 語意清晰 10. 句子接續

 

內容

content

組織organization

文章整體性

discourse

文法結構syntax

單字vocabulary

技術性細節

mechanics

E: excellent   VG: very good   G: good   F: fair  NI: need improvement

答案:

F. 翻譯練習

中譯英說明:請將下列的一段中文翻譯成通順、達意且前後連貫的英文。

 

小時候,我和鄰居John同校。那時我們常一起打籃球,度過許多快樂時光。畢業以後,他和家人移居到國外。從此我們就失去連絡了。

 

參考答案:出自語言測驗中心網站

一、中譯英

 

When I was a child, my neighbor, John, and I went to the same school. At that time, we often played basketball and spent a lot of happy time together. After graduation, he moved abroad with his family, and we have lost contact with each other since then.

 

G. 修改文章

a.

1. d

2. c

3. b

4. a

 

b.

I would like to introduce myself. My name is Nancy Lee, and I am from Taiwan. I grew up in the countryside. When I was in high school, my family moved to Taipei because my father changed jobs. We live in a new apartment right near a park, where I play tennis on Sundays. Beside from tennis, my main interest is watching foreign movies, especially old, romantic movies, like “Gone with the Wind.” I am a sophomore in college, and I take my studies seriously. I am a business major, and I am also studying Spanish. I want to be an international businesswoman. My dream is to work for a big company and live in Spain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

想要用英文思考?從練習寫英文日記開始 More Topics for Journal Writing

心虛的潔西昨天跟同學建議說了要怎麼樣才能用英文思考的方法之一就是寫英文日記。現在Web 2.0的網路時代,實在不能再像從前一樣抱怨沒有英文環境,也不一定要出國留學遊學花大錢才能把英文學好。不過再多的輸入假如沒有輸出還是沒有用。讀了很多,聽了很多,看了很多,但是真正要用的時候什麼都說不出來,什麼都寫不出來,不少人有這樣的問題。為什麼?學習的方法不對啊,一直看一直讀,但是沒有說出來,沒有練習,背了很多單字,但是正確的用法卻不清楚,真的很可惜。

 

因為前些日子被同學問到要怎麼用英文思考,恩,從前也被同學問過,需不需要把中文翻成英文,在潔西說英文前,大家覺得呢?假如要的話,可能上課會卡很久,因為潔西的中文是出名的不好,呵呵,英文寫對,中文說出來是錯的,也不是不常見,呵呵。講英文的時候通常直接按照情境出來了,沒有所謂的翻譯的問題。為什麼?怎麼練習?為什麼潔西沒有很仔細地研究到底什麼時候開始的,不過能說流利英文的人應該都不需要翻譯吧!

 

潔西個人認為,語言只要接觸的夠多,用的夠多,讓它變成生活的一部分的時候,自然而然地就可以用英文思考了吧!就口說來說,就是呢直接按對方的問題,搜尋自己有的字彙句型組合出來。當然沒有想過的事可能要花多點時間,不會說的字就用形容的。就像人家問你How are you?  應該不用想,Fine. Thanks. And you? 就自動出現了吧!對於非常習慣的問題會是這樣,中文也是一樣,有時候就是一個習慣的問題。假如讀得夠多,看得夠多,練習的夠多,用的夠多,很自然的當你在表達的時候就可以用英文直接說出,不過這需要長時間的練習,一兩個月,甚至一兩年都不一定可以練習的起來。但是非常努力的人,我相信一年的時間要辦到也不是不可能。

 

方法,參考一下潔西對於學英文一些想說的事。這邊特別想講的是怎麼樣給自己創造環境。昨天的課程是GEPT,有個部分是看圖描述,大家都有點卡,可能學生不多,潔西在旁邊大家壓力很大,也有人是因為太久沒碰英文。另外一個問題是單字量不夠。單字被很多都忘了,恩,很多東西都不知道名字。其實潔西跟同學說走到哪裡看看週遭自己能不能說出那些東西的名字。拿家裡來說好了,很多人學了很多年英文,微波爐,電冰箱,瓦斯爐,窗簾,衣櫃等等還是說不出來,看到可能認識,可是呢要說都說不出來,那句子當然就造不出了。想像力也不夠豐富,單字都有了,這些人在做什麼,背景有什麼,反應不過來,平常可以多訓練啊,坐捷運或騎車等紅燈,看一下路人甲乙,造造句子,這些人在做什麼,呵呵,這樣一點都不無聊了吧!不過不要大方說出來,小聲練習或在心裡說,不然…

 

寫的話,從寫日記開始,潔西當年學英文的時候都記流水賬,假如連流水帳都寫不出來,表示基礎非常需要加強,每天做的事的單字跟句型都寫不出來的話,那請多看多聽,多從泛讀中學習需要的句型跟單字。對了,請記片語慣用法,然後要表達的把英文句型套進去用,不要自己中翻英創造英文不存在的句型。這樣用字才會準確。上星期去教師研習會中有個非常風趣的俄籍老師說到collocation搭配字,這種東西就是約定成俗的,中文說大雨,同學學了big是大的,rain是雨,所以大雨就直接用big rain,對不起,母語使用者不這麼用,用的是heavy rain/torrential rain/pouring rain。為什麼,真的沒有為什麼。潔西每次都說聽得懂,可是人家就是不會這麼用,就像中文說一箭雙雕,你絕對不會說一箭二雕,一箭兩雕。意思不是一樣嗎?也聽得懂啊。然後英文的rice有米的意思,但是也有飯的意思,所以中文生的是米,熟的是飯,生米煮成熟飯,不過呢,英文就通通用rice這個字。假如學中文的外國人跟你說他要吃米。恩,或許聽得懂,但是沒有一個中文的母語使用者會說我餓了,我要吃米。這是潔西每次上課都舉的同樣的例子,下次再來想新的,不過這樣同學大概就有點懂意思了。有些東西可以創新,但很多東西,非母語使用者還是請多看多聽多學母語使用者的使用方式,這樣才能讓英文精進。

 

明明就是睡前想起昨天跟學生說部落格上有很多的寫作主題,可以上來看,結果自己找了一下,怎麼只有十個,其他的都沒放上來,啊,心虛的想說趕快放上了,不小心又碎碎念了一堆,呵呵。每天寫流水賬很無聊的話,可以找一些主題,下面是潔西從幾本寫作的書裡面整理出來的一些寫日記的主題(所以潔西的書真的是有用,不是放書櫃擺好看的,安慰自己一下),藉由練習不同的主題,也可以增加自己的單字跟表達能力。有些題目可能不符合,有些題目可能想都沒想過。外國人的思考模式跟台灣人是不一樣的,所以他們的問題常常是台灣學生想都沒想過,有時候可能不是英文不好,是反應不夠快,缺乏訓練,多思考一些不同的東西,甚至可以掰,瞎掰也不錯,上課同學不想回答或回答不出來時,潔西就說那可以掰啊make up a story,然後後來常常被同學掰的故事騙到,厚,還是儘量真實啦。這樣要用的時候才說得出來。不然也可以google一下,看看人家怎麼寫,參考一下,然後自己想想寫出自己風味的文章。

 

有的人會說,那自己一直寫寫一堆,怎麼知道對還是錯,請參考這一篇:當自己的英文老師,修正自己的錯誤。所有人的語言學習不可能是從一個老師一本書當中就學好,必須要看很多的書作很多的練習。潔西學法文的時候,不太會自己創句子,要寫簡單的句子,就把教科書上的句型,套入自己的資訊,這是應該不會錯的。除非裡面有些複雜的文法,陰性陽性單數複數,這就樣花時間學句型。不熟的時候先這樣寫,即使寫錯了,也是很好的練習,總比不練習完全是零的好。這樣有夠說服力嗎?然後單字用法不用直接查中翻英,請到英英字典裡面看看英文的句子參考句子寫出關於自己的正確例子,不然去google。太累了,說不完,寫作請參考寫作建議。下面的第一部分十個是前面有過的,另外有60個主題是新的,一個星期寫一兩篇也可以寫很多囉。大家加油。潔西愛睏了。今天不知累什麼,累到連去游泳的力氣都沒,好容易有時間,唉!跟周公約會去,大家週末愉快。Bon weekend!

 

最後面有google docs的連結可以下載:)

Topics for Journal Writing                                                 Jessie Lin           P.1

A. Understanding Sentence Basics  P.29     Great Sentence for Great Paragraph

1. Write about your favorite pet. Why do you like this animal? Do you have one

at home? What does the animal look like? What is its name? How old is it?

2. Write about your favorite type of weather. Why do you like this weather?

What kinds of activities do you do in this weather?

3. Write about your mother or your father. Include their name, age, and

occupation. What kind of personality does your mother or father have?

4. Write about a toy you remember from your childhood. What kind of toy was

it? How long did you have it? Who gave it to you? Do you still have it? If not,

what happened?

5. Write about your experience learning English. Why are you studying English?

How do you feel about English? What is easy for you to understand in

English? What are some difficulties you have in English?

6. Write about your favorite type of fashion in clothing. What kind is it? Why

do you like it?

7. Write about an 『extreme』 sport, such as bungee jumping. How do you feel

about this sport? Do you want to try this sport? Why or why not? Describe

the types of people who enjoy these kinds of sports.

8. What do you miss about your country? Write about something that you cannot

find in the United States.

9. Write about your home. How many rooms are in your home? What color is it?

How old is it? Do you like it? What is your favorite room in the home?

10. Write about what you do in your leisure (free) time. Who do you spend the

time with? What activities do you do? How long do you spend doing these

activities? Are your free-time activities the same during the week and on

weekends

Topics for Journal Writing                                                 Jessie Lin           P.2

B. Connecting Sentences and Paragraphs

P.57    Great Sentence for Great Paragraph

  1. Write about a city. What do you know about it? Do you want to visit this city? Why or why not?
  2. Write about swimming or another sport. Do you like to practice this sport? How often? Why do you enjoy this sport?
  3. Write about your favorite kind of music. Why do you like this music? How do you feel when you listen to this music?
  4. Write about how to use a ______. Explain the steps involved in using this thing.
  5. Write about credit cards. What is your opinion about them? Are they helpful or dangerous? Do you use them?
  6. Write about a good weekend plan. What do you like to do on the weekend? Who do you spend your weekends with?
  7. Choose a person in your class to write about. Explain how the person looks, and what his or her personality is like.
  8. Write about a famous person you like. Who is this person? What is the person’s job? Why do you like this person?
  9. Write about something you do not like. Give three reasons why you do not like this thing
  10. Write about your favorite subject in school. Why do you like this subject? What kinds of things do you practice in this subject?

 

 

 

 

 

Topics for Journal Writing                                                 Jessie Lin           P.3

C. Writing about the Present

P.77    Great Sentence for Great Paragraph

  1. Choose a member of your family. Write a paragraph about this person. Include the person’s name, age, nationality, job, hobbies, etc.
  2. Write about your typical routine for a day of the week. Include the time that you usually wake up, what you eat for breakfast, what your activities are during the day, whom you spend your time with, how you enjoy the day, and what time you go to bed.
  3. Write about a special city in your country. Include the name of the city, the population, the special tourist attractions, and why it is an important city for you.
  4. Write about a job that you are interested in. Include the title of the job, the duties of the job, and why it is interesting to you.
  5. What is your favorite web site? Write about a web site that you like. What is the address? What kind of information does it have? Why do you like it?
  6. Write about your best friend. What is his/her name? Where does he/she live? What makes your friendship special?
  7. Write about a restaurant that you like? What is the name of this restaurant? Why do you like it? What kind of food does it serve? What is the price range? How is it decorated?
  8. Write about your favorite movie. What is the title? Who are the main actors in the movie? What is the story about? Why do you like this movie?
  9. Write about a specific food that you know how to cook. What are the ingredients? Is it easy to prepare? Are the ingredients expensive?
  10. Write about a type of music you do not enjoy. Why don’t you like it? How does it make you feel when you hear it?

Topics for Journal Writing                                                 Jessie Lin           P.4

D. Writing about the Past

P.98    Great Sentence for Great Paragraph

  1.  Describe a pet you had in the past. What was the pet’s name? What kind of animal was it? How long did you have this pet? Why did you like this pet? (Or: Why did you dislike this pet?)
  2. Describe a home you lived in when you were a child. How big was the house? What color was the house? Where was the house? Did you like the house? What was your favorite room in the house?
  3. Write about a movie you saw or a book you read. Did you like it? Who was your favorite character? What was the story about? Did the author have a message for the readers of this book?
  4. Write about what you did last weekend. Where did you go? Who did you go with? Did you enjoy it?
  5. Write about a person you used to know. Who was this person? Where did you meet this person? What was special about this person?
  6. Write about an important even in your life. How old were you? What happened? Why is this event important to you?
  7. Describe a holiday that you and your family spent together. What was the occasion? Which family members were there? What did you do?
  8. Write about something embarrassing that happened to you. How old were you? What happened? Why were you embarrassed? Who saw this happen? How did you feel afterwards?
  9. Write about a day you spent outdoors. What did you do? Where did you go? Who did you go with? What specific activities did you do? How was the weather?
  10. Describe a vacation you took. Where did you go? What did you do? Who went on this vacation with you? How old were you when you went on this trip? Did you like this vacation?

 

Topics for Journal Writing                                                 Jessie Lin           P.5

E. Describing Actions            P.116    Great Sentence for Great Paragraph

  1. Watch several minutes of a television program. Describe what is happening in the show.
  2. Describe how your life is now. Include your studies, your living arrangements, and your free time.
  3. Imagine that you are a private investigator. Imagine a specific character or person. Write down everything that person did for five minutes.
  4. Find a picture in a magazine. Choose a picture of many people who are doing different things. Write a paragraph that describes what each person is doing.
  5. Imagine that you are visiting the zoo. What are the animals doing? Write a paragraph that tells what at least five different kinds of animals are doing. Use the connectors ad, but, or so to combine short sentences into longer sentences.
  6. imagine that you are in a large city like Chicago, Illinois, or Toronto, Canada. Walk around the city and write down the things that you see. What is happening in this large city?
  7. Imagine that you are walking down the street, and you see your favorite movie star walk into a café. Follow this person. What is he/she doing?
  8. Write a letter to your friend explaining what you are doing in this class. Tell about the assignments that you have and the writing skills that you are practicing.
  9. If you have a pet, watch it closely for ten minutes. What is it doing? Where is it going? Is it playing? Jumping? Making noise?
  10. Imagine that you are a news reporter for a movie magazine. You are at the Academy Awards presentation. What are the people doing? Name some of the famous actors. (This word means male and female actors.) What are they doing? What are they wearing? What are they saying to their friends? What are they wondering?

Topics for Journal Writing                                                 Jessie Lin           P.6

F. Writing about the FutureP.143    Great Sentence for Great Paragraph

  1. Write about something that you plan to do in the next two weeks. Include the people who are going to be with you, where you are going to be, and why you are going to do this.
  2. Write about something that you plan to do in the next six months. Be sure to include where this activity is going to happen, who is going to be with you, and why you chose this activity.
  3. Choose a current topic in the news. Read about it. Then write about what you think is going to happen and tell why.
  4. Write about one of your goals. Include what the goal is, why this goal is important to you, and how long it is going to take to achieve.
  5. Write about what you are going to do before you return home today. Make a list: Who are you going to be with? are you going to do this thing for work, school, or pleasure? How long is it going to take you to complete these things?
  6. Describe what your wedding is going to be like. How big is the wedding party going to be? Who is going to be there? Where is it going to happen?
  7. Describe the job you want to have when you finish school. What kind of job is it? What are your responsibilities going to be in this job? Are you going to work for a company or by yourself? How much money are you going to earn in this job?
  8. Write about what you plan to study (your major) in college. Why did you choose this subject? What classes are going to be easy for you, and what classes are going to be difficult? How long is it going to take you to get your degree?
  9. Describe what life is going to be like in the year 2050. what new things are going to be available? How is life going to be better than it is now? How is life going to be worse than it is now?
  10. Write about the future of space travel. What planets are humans going to visit? What things are going to be discovered in space?

 

Topics for Journal Writing                                                 Jessie Lin           P.7

G. Writing Sentences with Adjective Clauses and Place Phrases

P.160    Great Sentence for Great Paragraph

 

  1. Write about an animal that you like. Describe the animal, tell where the animal lives, and tell why you like this animal so much.
  2. Write about your dream house or apartment. Describe what this house looks like (how many rooms, what type of architecture, etc.). Write about the location of the house (in the mountains? on the beach? in a big city?).
  3. Organized sports in school help children grow up to become better adults. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why?
  4. Do you think that young children who know something about computers have an advantage in school today? Why or why not?
  5. What is the worst decision that you ever made? Give details about why it was a bad decision.
  6. What is the best decision that you ever made? Why was it a good decision? Did you come to this decision by yourself? How did you feel after you made this decision.
  7. Write about a book that you like. Describe the book, briefly tell what happens in the story, and tell why you like this book.
  8. Describe a painting that you like. Who painted it? What is in the painting? Describe colors. What do you feel when you look at the painting?
  9. Describe your favorite kind of shopping. Where do you shop? What do you shop for? What do you like about the experience?
  10. Describe your favorite place to visit. Where is this place? When do you go there? Who do you go there?

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1gyGvgRH2qQvC8WsuaFH7_eash_pFukLjfKBT_scJz9k/edit

 

中高寫作第七課 比較與對比 題目與答案

今天潔西去代課,代寫作課,有點緊張,也不是沒上過,也不是第一次上,但是呢有一陣子沒上課了,所以還是花了不少時間復習,整理跟準備,有一點點緊張,因為老實說東區的課不是很好代,怎麼說呢?因為可能學生要求比較高?還是比較率性?代過幾次課,有時候老師沒跟學生說,有時候學生上不習慣,上課上到一半,或是下課的時候就直接走人,毫不留情,所以老師要心臟很強才承受得住。先前就有代過課,下課的時候學生走掉一堆,啊!大受打擊。還好主管都很能體諒。

 

今天的寫作課,自己備完課覺得應該大致上還可以,大部分講課本然後補充一點練習部分,主要是上比較與對比的段落,然後還有轉折語,有一陣子沒講了,所以剛好再復習一下。其實每個老師上法不同,上完課才知道代的是一個非常資深而且很受歡迎的老師的課,還好上課前不知道,不然壓力更大,呵呵。雖然潔西也是老鳥。不過今天的課潔西是自己上的挺high的,因為同學也都還算配合,很認真的學生,中間下課離開的學生不多,還好,下課後同學說有點快,啊,我的步調通常很快,說話也快,不過希望同學都有收獲。然而潔西的課程跟往常一樣,還是上不完,補充練習的講義有兩頁的答案原本想說可以寫在黑板讓同學對,不過因為接下來有課只好心虛的跟學生說請學生google潔西家,上來找。(其實昨天才在跟同學說有些代課老師都會自我推薦,給學生課表時間拉學生上課,給完部落格馬上想到,冤枉啊,呵呵,潔西現在,恩,沒有課,呵呵,所以沒有拉課嫌疑,只是要給學生答案,呵呵)總之寫完雜記後放在最後面,有興趣的同學也可以看看做做練習。

 

晚上第一次上線上學習課程,剛開始也有點緊張有點壓力,看不到同學,非常的不同,肢體語言有限,只能盡量說慢一點說清楚一點,給多一點的例子。而且主管有交待,要把內容上完,所以呢有點趕,不過同學非常的認真用心,潔西也慢慢放鬆,上的還挺開心的,潔西上完今天的課,走去坐公車的時候腳有點要抽筋的樣子,太虛了,而且快說不出話來,不過呢非常的開心,上課是件開心的事,而且潔西發現自己自high功力好像越來越高了,呵呵,這樣也不錯,上課本來就是要開開心心才學的多學得快,希望同學沒被我嚇到。不過呢上完10點到11點的課,回到家就12點了。三更半夜,肚子餓吃個消夜,看個電視,啊,居然剛好看到在加拿大看得CSI紐約,我在加拿大一個月其實電視看的不多,CSI也只有看到這一集,真的很巧,剛剛電視轉開就看到這一集。

 

吃得飽飽的,來把題目跟答案寫一下,然後就該睡了,想練習的人可以先自己做一下喔。答案在後面

下面是從某本寫作還是文法書裡面摘要出來的,主要再說比較跟對比,在寫作或說話表達的時候都非常的有用,同學可以先看一下例子,再做題目。有些用法不是很清楚的人可以再看一下文法連接詞的講義的連接詞之轉折語,跟寫作第七課的 Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs 有問題在問我:)

 

P3

Comparative and contrastive structures

Using comparative structures  使用比較結構,比較是比相同的,所以這邊是一些比相同東西的用法。最前面是一些常用字,後面是例子跟用法。

and: The man and the woman are tall.

both: Both of the tables have broken legs.

both…and: Both my neighbor and I are selling our cars.

also: The stores are closing for the holiday. The bank is also closing.

too: Kathy is planning to go to the party, and I am, too.

neither…nor: Neither Joe nor Steve went to the meeting last night.

similar to: Their new computer is similar to the one my brother bought.

the same as: Is the restaurant where you had dinner the same as the place where I ate last month?

(just) as + adjective + as: His coat is just as warm as the more expensive one.

likewise: My parents were born in a small village. Likewise, my brothers and I also grew up in a small town.

similarly: There are many parks to visit in that city. Similarly, there are several parks in my hometown, too.

 

3. complete these sentences with phrases from above.  這個練習要填入上面適當的詞語,一題可能有幾個不同的答案都可以

a. The architecture of some modern government buildings is ______________ the type of construction used hundreds of years ago.

b. In recent years, new technology such as cellular telephones has made life more convenient. ______________, the Internet has made a wide variety of information available to everyone.

c. __________ the rivers __________ the lakes are clear and beautiful.

d. The capital city is just ___________ modern __________ the cities in many other countries.

 

P.4

Using contrastive structures   使用對比結構,下面的字是用在對比,比較不同點

These words and phrases are used for writing contrasts:

more/less + adjective/adverb + than: Eating out is usually more expensive than cooking at home.

adjective + er + than: My bedroom is bigger than my sister’s room.

but, while, though: I enjoy eating fruit for dessert, but/while/though my friend likes chocolate.

not the same as: This book isn’t the same as the one you bought.

not as … as: Some people feel that doing exercise isn’t as fun as watching TV.

different from: That style of shirt is different from the styles most people wear.

in contrast: The lake was swam in were very clean and beautiful. In contrast, the lakes in my country are polluted.

however: The new store sells its clothing at low prices. However, other stores have better quality clothing.

on the other hand: My boyfriend likes to play sports. On the other hand, I prefer to do yoga.

 

4. Complete these sentences with phrases from above.  這個練習要填入上面適當的詞語,一題可能有幾個不同的答案都可以

a. Some tourists enjoy taking part in a tour group, ___________ many other tourists prefer traveling on their own.

b. The two books are very __________ each other.

c. The cost of studying in a college or university in the United States is very high. ___________, in many other countries, the cost is much lower.

d. Changes in technology are occurring ______________ quickly _______________ in the past.

 

解答:(不要作弊,全部做完再看喔!假如錯很多的話,就全部劃掉,再重做一次吧!又,畫斜線/是表示兩個答案都可以)

3. complete these sentences with phrases from above.

a. The architecture of some modern government buildings is the same as/similar to the type of construction used hundreds of years ago.

b. In recent years, new technology such as cellular telephones has made life more convenient.  Likewise/Similarly, the Internet has made a wide variety of information available to everyone.

c. Both/Neither  the rivers and/nor  the lakes are clear and beautiful.

d. The capital city is just  as  modern  as  the cities in many other countries.

 

 

4. Complete these sentences with phrases from above.

a. Some tourists enjoy taking part in a tour group,  while/though/but  many other tourists prefer traveling on their own.

b. The two books are very  different from  each other.

c. The cost of studying in a college or university in the United States is very high.  On the other hand/In contrast/However,  in many other countries, the cost is much lower.

d. Changes in technology are occurring not as/more  quickly   as/than in the past.

 

方便同學下載,點入就可以看到文件,我睡覺去,大家晚安

題目跟解答的 Google 文件

寫寫英文日記吧!

潔西這幾天剛好跟學生說到寫英文日記是個練習英文的不錯方式。因為真的Practice makes perfect. 英文這種東西是不練就會忘記,就連潔西也是一樣的耶。大家應該第一個反應都是,我連中文日記都不寫了,怎麼可能寫英文日記呢?哎呀,沒辦法囉,中文每天在說不可能會忘,英文可不是天天說的,不天天多給自己練習的機會,那怎麼進步呢?

 

很多人想說要用英文思考,假如你平常沒有養成用英文思考句子的習慣,怎麼可能到了要用的時候馬上反應過來呢?我個人覺得寫英文日記也是個不錯的方式。也不用日記,真的可以的話,把你的facebook status偶而用英文或雙語,那也不錯啊。英文就是要多練習囉。

 

日記要寫什麼?每天寫的東西不都一樣?每天的生活都一樣記記流水賬多無聊啊?那表示你這個人真的很無聊耶。假如你的生活這麼無趣,那你自己就要自我反省了。其實我們一般人最常用到的句子多半都是在講自己,介紹自己,自己的公司,家人,興趣,做過的事。再來真的沒什麼好寫的話,看看社會新聞,有什麼有趣的內容,令人生氣的,令人感動的,令人無法相信的。潔西看到那個高中生居然拿水果刀殺母親,而且有厚厚的一本計劃書真的很感嘆,這個社會的問題真的很大。再來不想寫新聞的人觀察一下周遭。那天潔西坐在圖書館,隔壁坐下一個小女孩,十歲左右,手上翻著一本書,坐下來從目錄在開始從頭興緻勃勃的看著,潔西忍不住偷喵一下,這一看,傻了。這小女孩看的居然是糖尿病的書。哇!究竟是她自己還是家人有糖尿病呢?突然覺得有一股心酸。當然可能潔西太多愁善感了,說不定人家是要做報告,可是十歲小孩放暑假,在圖書館,唉。

 

好啦,又離題了,我這離題王。寫的時候呢,可以寫用free writing 的方式,隨便想寫什麼就寫什麼,甚至中翻英,有不懂的字用中文補上去。然後呢再做第二次修改,最好有網路或很好的字典在一旁。把所有的句子改成是正確句型的句子。用最簡單的方式來表達自己。假如有不確定的方式,或著覺得是中翻英的表達方式,可以google一下用法,看看結果是什麼,就知道用法對不對。假如你覺得根本沒什麼時間做第二次修改,只能有寫一次的時間,那我就建議,條簡單的句型,用簡單的字來表達你的意思。切勿中翻英。因為這樣的結果常常會是錯的,倒不如轉個彎想想怎麼樣用你有限的單字來表達你所要表達的意思。這個時候你就會養成用英文思考的方式,也會知道你自己少的是什麼,單字會句型,還是一些慣用語。

 

好累喔。潔西今天早上又頭痛了。不知道是昨天去聽兩廳的免費的夏日音樂會,非常得不錯,整個人都想放大假,飛到南美去跳森巴了,唉。不過呢因為等不到公車,換車又很久,回到家太晚,所以晚睡,外加去吃飯的時候一顆預防頭痛的藥掉到地上找不到,回到家另外兩顆預防的藥睡前有忘記吃,半夜起來補吃,完全就是我會做的事。早上頭痛到個不行,電視不能看,電腦不能用。現在該睡了。啊,對了,交個筆友或外國朋友也不錯。下面是我寫給一個朋友跟他說我住院的慘狀,大家可以參考一下,呵呵,晚安。

 

It all started from my running out of medication. In Taiwan, the health insurance only pay for 8 tablets of imigran a month. Therefore, when I used up the 8 tablets in three weeks (the first time in over a year), the doctor thought that my migraine was getting worse. He advised me to stay in the hospital for a few days to do some check up and take some medication to prevent the headache.

 

I agreed and was there for five days. The fifth day, they gave me a brain CT scan and something call lumber puncture, which was to put a long thin needles into my spine to get some fluid to check if the pressure in my brain was normal and to check if there were anything wrong. I had to lie flat for 7 hours after that procedure and I did. The results came out to be OK. Everything was fine. They couldn’t find anything wrong with me, at least physically. Thus, the doctor said it could be stress, environment, personality, gene or other possibilities. Actually, the doctor who did lumber puncture for me has the same problem and she couldn’t find any reason and she still has to take 6 tablets of imigran a month.

 

Anyway, they let me go home the next day since they couldn’t find anything. I left the hospital but I didn’t feel right. When I stood, I felt dizzy. I went home and was on bed for two days. I checked out some information on the Internet and found out something called spinal headache. I noticed that if I got up to get some water, I felt dizzy and got a bad headache. It was said normal and it would wear off after a few days. All I could do was to drink a lot of water and rest a lot. I did that. I hardly left my bed for long. On the second day, I tried very hard to take a shower and wash my hair and it hurt so much that as soon as I got out of the bath room, I had to lie down and lie down flat and dry my hair while lying down on my back. It’s really funny now I look back and not at that time.

 

The third day, I tried to get up and go get some water. I sensed something wrong right away: I had a sharp headache, I couldn’t breath, and I felt so much press on my back. I felt much better after I lay down, but it’s the third day, and I couldn’t always lie down flat on the bed. It seemed like it’s getting worse. My sister took me to the emergency room and on the way there, I felt I was going to die. When I talk to the doctor, I was sweating so much and I could hardly talk, I was so sick and felt really weak. Still I asked the doctor, “Is this normal?" “No, it’s not.", the doctor answered. She told my sister to find a bed for me and arranged for me to admitted in the hospital, again!

 

Later the doctor explained to me that it’s because of lumbar puncture. The fluid was flowing away from the small hole they did lumber puncture and my body didn’t make up fast enough as it should be. Therefore, the pressure in my brain was too low, and I had the spinal headache. All I had to do was to lie flat and had a lot of water and they gave me iv at the same time so I could get more water faster. I couldn’t even lie on a pillow cause it would hurt so much. Really. I had to do everything fast otherwise I would have a very very bad headache and all I could do was lying flat on bed. It’s hell.

 

Anyway, it was good that finally I got out of the hospital after almost a week. Then I became very weak. I think most people would become weak if they have to lie on the hospital for two weeks. Sigh. Well, the only good thing is that my headache has become so much better. I’m taking some medication to prevent the headache. However, because of that, I kind of think I am lack of energy. I feel even weaker.

 

As a matter of fact, I fainted the other day. I was going to put the wireless phone back to the living room. And the next minute I found myself lying on the hallway and didn’t know what happened and my whole body hurt. It took me a few seconds to realized that I passed out. So weak! Okay, this is my long story. Not so interesting, a bit miserable, perhaps, haha.  But now I look back, it’s kind of funny, couldn’t believe that happen to me.

潔西的高分傳記The HD Biography

今天跟Louis聊天,同學很過分耶,居然說我去考托福一定拿零分,哇,我要大哭了啦。呵呵,當然他是開玩笑,我也是。我真的太會寫太會繞,太會離題了啦,基本上想到什麼就寫什麼,因為這是部落格,不是考試,所以沒關係啦。其實也會有寫不出來的時候,writer’s block,怎麼樣就寫不出來也有啊,只是最近話很多。

說了很久要放上來的作文,在澳洲寫的第一篇,花了我粉多粉多天,做了很多研究,檢查了很多遍,當然還是有一些錯誤的文章。我們老師給我九十二分,滿分是一百分。她是按著我在寫作那部份放的那種給分方式,內容幾分,組織幾分,文法幾分,單字幾分,全部加整的,太可惜我的成績單丟了,不然再附上來。

還找的到這篇文章是因為老師發回來的時候成績就在最上面,所以很多人都看到,大家告訴大家。後來有個同學只拿了五十多分,非常很不服氣。跑來找我問我到底寫什麼,怎麼寫。我先問她怎麼寫,她說她就去圖書館坐下來,花了兩個小時寫的。我想我花了至少二十個小時以上吧,有過多而無不及。她堅持要我給她看看到底寫了什麼,我就把它放到部落格上,剛剛去捉了下來。所以我真的覺得部落格是最好放東西的地方,絕對找的到,假如不像這Windows Live 易主,害我很多東西都不見,哼。我又digress了,暈倒。

我不太敢看,我自己。因為寫的是我老媽,寫的時候很辛苦,因為一直哭啊哭。寫完檢查又繼續哭,每看必哭。沒有寫的很感人之類的,其實是很普通,我想。只是我老媽是胰臟癌,發現到走六個月,非常艱苦心酸的路,我現在光寫到這兒眼淚就快掉下來了,所以呢,做了幾個深呼吸,還是沒用,沒關係啦。我已經習慣了。這麼多年了,痛還是一樣,走過的人都明瞭吧!所以呢,我就還是不看了。假如同學看了覺得不好也沒關係,但是應該可以看到怎麼樣可以拿高分,呵呵。另外證明我真的不會拿零分啦!這樣怎麼當老師呢?科科

HD means High Distinction is the grading system in Australia means the point you get is over 85.

This is a biography of my mom for my first writing assignment. Since it’s the first assignment, I spent a lot of time and put a lot of effort in it. Besides, it reminded me a lot of sad memories. It’s not perfect and there are some mistakes. However, I got a good mark and was asked to share it. Why not?

The reason I got a good mark is probably because I pay a lot of attention to the grammar and the usage of vocabulary. However, the teacher said it is not good to put the ending at the beginning.

A Biography of Yu-Ian Huang

With the siren wailed through the streets breaking the silence of the night, her daughter sat next to her inside the ambulance and kept telling her, “We are going home.” “Home was the place she dedicated all her life to and she deserved to die at home,” her mother spoke for her and claimed that it would be her last wish since she already lost consciousness a few days ago.

Born on April 10th, 1951, Yu-Ian Huang grew up in a poor Taiwanese family in Taipei with 7 brothers and sisters. Being the oldest child, she did not only take care of her siblings, but also did all the housework when her parents were out working all day. She rarely had time for herself, but she never complained even when her intention of going to junior high school was rejected by her parents. She loved her family and thought that was her responsibility to do everything she could for them so in 1963, after graduating from elementary school, she started to help her parents with their catering business. Even after she got married in 1967 at the age of 16, she still tried hard to take care of both families. .

Her marriage was a source of disappointment rather than excitement. After they had three children, she discovered her husband had a gambling problem. Moreover, she became a victim of domestic violence when her love one lost money.  In 1981, her husband was so addicted to gambling that he sold the apartment they bought in 1976 to pay the debt. That was the last straw. After a big fight, she was broken-hearted so that night she left home and never went back.

Home was the soul of her life so she made up her mind that she wanted to have her own apartment again in order to get together with her children and provide them a stable environment, a real home. Because of that she saved every penny she made and finally in 1986, she had enough money to make a down payment on an apartment in Chungho City. In 1987, Yu-Ian’s three children moved in with her and she regained the happiness she had not had for a long time.

However, the pressure from the 20 year mortgage and the role of being a single mother pushed her to work long hours. Sometimes she chose the graveyard shift just to make more money. In order to save money, she had to be economical, but she tried to satisfy all her children’s needs and she was generous to people around her. She worked so hard that she rarely had time left for anything else. However, whenever her friends or family members needed her, she would always be there for them even though sometimes she had to sacrifice her already little sleep.

In the summer of 2003, finally, she saved enough money to pay off the mortgage. Yu-Ian had never felt that happy before since she had her own apartment with her beloved family. For the first time she felt secured and she was ready to start her new life: to have time for her own to enjoy life. She worked part-time and made plans to travel abroad. Unfortunately, in September the same year, before she could go anywhere, she was diagnosed with pancreas cancer and only had six months left.

Yu-Ian was shocked and could not believe what had happened to her. Even so, as a strong-willed woman, she did not blame anyone for her misfortune. She was the most cooperative patient a doctor could ever have, but it did not help her illness at all. On March 5th, the doctor told her family that it was the end of her life and there was nothing they could do anymore.

The ambulance arrived. She was finally home, the place where she put all the efforts into in her whole life. A few hours later, at 5.07 am on March 6th, 2004, surrounded by her family and friends, she finished her responsibilities and jobs and went on another journey to start her new life in a different world at the age of 53. All her life she devoted herself to her family and friends and she will always be remembered for her generosity and dedication.

大家來寫日記 主題一 Topics for Journal Writing

從 Great Sentences for Great Paragraphs 裡抄下來的一些主題給同學寫作練習用。有事沒事不管有沒有要考試的人,只要多寫,英文一定能加強的。有同學跟我說她兒子就是這樣,真的,Practice makes perfect!

很多人應該都不知道要寫什麼,記流水帳也不錯,我從前都這樣,不過現在呢有東西可以發揮當然更好。我每次放一些,有空的人就寫吧!不一定上寫作課的人,上會話課的同學沒事也可以寫寫看。這些主題還都挺生活化的,會話課的同學應該會發現我們上課其實都聊過了吧 🙂

我也該練習英文寫作了,說不定我也來寫寫呢,呵呵

Here are ten ideas for journal writing.

1. Write about your favorite pet. Why do you like this animal? Do you have one at home? What does the animal look like? What is its name? How old is it?

2. Write about your favorite type of weather. Why do you like this weather? What kinds of activities do you do in this weather?

3. Write about your mother or your father. Include their name, age, and occupation. What kind of personality does your mother or father have?

4. Write about a toy you remember from your childhood. What kind of toy was it? How long did you have it? Who gave it to you? Do you still have it? If not, what happened?

5. Write about your experience learning English. Why are you studying English? How do you feel about English? What is easy for you to understand in English? What are some difficulties you have in English?

6. Write about your favorite type of fashion in clothing. What kind is it? Why do you like it?

7. Write about an “extreme" sport, such as bungee jumping. How do you feel about this sport? Do you want to try this sport? Why or why not? Describe the types of people who enjoy these kinds of sports.

8. What do you miss about your country? Write about something that you cannot find in the United States. 這個呢在台灣的人可以寫出外旅遊或在外地念書的經驗。在雪梨我超想念鹹酥雞!還自己動手做。呵呵。

9. Write about your home. How many rooms are in your home? What color is it? How old is it? Do you like it? What is your favorite room in the home?

10. Write about what you do in your leisure (free) time. Who do you spend the time with? What activities do you do? How long do you spend doing these activities? Are your free-time activities the same during the week and on weekends?

推薦寫作書

一回到家第一件事吃宵夜配新聞。耶!通過免申根簽證了。開始來計畫一下去歐洲玩倒也不錯。吃飽開電腦,想到跟Louis聊天的時候聊到的寫作書,趕快放上來,不來一定忘。同學,我忘了給你我印了寫作B課本習題的講答,你再看看寫信或留言給我,有空跟我拿,假如你沒有的話。

這個書一系列總共三本,我個人很喜歡,上寫作課的時候來挺常拿來做補充。

第一本從句子開始,教你最基礎得怎麼寫好句子,裡面從標點符號,大小寫,時態,查字典等。啊,我一直很想拿一些時間來教同學如何查字典,等我有空來寫一篇好了。基礎不太好的人可以用這本打底。

第二本教你寫段落,第三本教你寫論文。裡面整理的不錯,也都有一些很好的小技巧。

今天上課要說可是忘了,同學看了不同的寫作書可能會有疑問,為什麼書裡面說得東西不太一樣,甚至有些觀念是完全相反的。其實文法書有時候也會有類似的情形出現。寫作會比較嚴重是,其實文章是個非常主觀的東西,所以呢每個人的看法會有差距。最基礎的東西是不會變的,然後一些技巧或者是論點的寫法,不同的作者會有不同想法。

比方說今天用到的這篇比較鄉下跟城市的文章,先前有專心聽我講,恩,沒有睡著的同學,呵呵,可能會記得我說過在比較東西的時候最好選邊站,不要說這個也好,那個也好,說了等於沒說。但是呢今天上的這篇這是這種寫法。兩本不同的書會有兩種不同的觀點,同學呢多看多讀之後自己再下決定,沒有哪一種是最好的答案,因為每個人都不同,改你考卷的老師會覺得哪個好都不一定,所以自己決定吧,自己的人生要自己負責,呵呵,這樣會不會聽起來很不負責的老師。恩,有些東西是有答案,有的真的沒有,又扯遠了,總之。書名在下面,目前我知道敦煌書局有賣,其他書局我不太知道。台灣的外文書有點討厭,有時候都只有進口代理商有販售,所以不容易買,只能在某些書局買到。

這系列的缺點是沒有答案。不知道新版會不會有。

啊,剛剛仔細一看,台灣好像把它又分成五本的一系列,在這個連結。然後改叫Great Writing Series,價錢也提高了,搶人耶。連結再下面。

今天跟Luis說到是講到裡面有很多寫日記的topics可以做參考,等會來放幾個上來吧,然後準備睡覺去,因為明天早上九點有研習會,起得來參加嗎?恩,一點了。啊!

http://www.cavesbooks.com.tw/mainpage/mainpage_bookcontent.aspx?sn=39642&book_classify_sn=96

Great Sentences for Great Paragraphs

Great Paragraphs

Great Essays