【潔西家】副詞子句縮減的分詞構句 講解講義

討拍的必要性

有朋友像潔西一樣常常在網路上討拍嗎?三天兩頭討拍,一天到晚都在討拍,究竟是怎麼樣啦?是需要幫助啦!

潔西也很想像一些朋友上社交媒體總是放上山下海住五星級飯店露營吃大餐的照片,但是生活中就沒有這些事發生啊。憂鬱症的人其實說常常討拍,也真的不會那麼常啦,吞進去肚子沒說出來的更多,總是忍到不能忍,覺得自己快崩潰的時候才會來討拍。

會在網路上討拍的人,大部分是現實生活中沒有可以討拍的對象,或許是需要關注,或許是忍無可忍。大部分的人大概都會覺得習以為常了,見怪不怪了,直接忽視。其實討拍也算是個求救訊號吧?假如你有朋友在網路上討拍,他們其實需要的就是一點關心,問他們好不好,有沒有可以幫忙的地方,有時候或許你可能甚至拯救了一條生命。

很多時候很多話,越是親近的人越說不出口。不好意思總是打擾人家,不好意思承認自己的狀況很糟,不好意思說出心中真正的想法。放在心中是很要不得的喔,不抱怨的人生絕對會得癌症啦!

抱怨要跟對的人抱怨,對象錯誤常常會自己反而受到傷害,討不到拍還被訓一頓,心情更糟。網路討拍可能不受歡迎,但是有時候想不到的人會拉你一把。有時候需要的就只是點關懷。謝謝所有在潔西討拍時回應的人,也一樣感謝默默支持的人,人生就是有這麼多起起落落,你永遠都不知道下一個轉角有什麼在等著你。

小寶今天發票通通沒中,他說這就是為什麼他從前都不拿發票,沒有期待,沒有失望。是沒錯啦,但是潔西說假如不拿就沒有希望,有拿還有點可能性。不買彩卷的人是不可能中樂透的。對發票沒中是應該的,百分之九十五的人都沒中,小寶用的對獎 app 是這麼跟他說的,潔西安慰他說,運氣不要浪費在這種地方。假如潔西有中獎再給他。

潔西當場看載具的也通通沒中,上個月摃龜,上上個月悠遊卡中兩張兩百。剛剛拿起紙本對了一下,哎呀,中一張200,給小寶買宵夜用,哈哈,怎麼我的好運用在這裡了啦。沒關係,要繼續做好事,才可以累積好運在需要的時候用到,遇到貴人,遇到好事。

潔西昨天跟今天努力的把副詞子句縮減的分詞構句生出來了,耶!可以看一下,分詞構句很常見,但是很多人都用錯,今天把最簡單基本的規則講一下。希望對弄不清楚的人有點幫助。影片忘記分開做,所以講解跟翻譯有二十分鐘,可以分開看,因為潔西不會把影片分成兩隻,真是慚愧。大家小週末開心!

A 當 before, after, while, since 帶領的副詞子句,當主要子句跟副詞子句的主詞相同時,可以把副詞子句中的主詞省略,動詞改 V-ing,也就是動詞原型加上 ing 縮減成分詞構句。假如副詞子句中有 be 動詞加 V-ing 時,則把主詞跟 be 動詞去掉。

1 While I was listening to music, I was doing homework. 我一邊聽音樂,一邊做功課。

1 While listening to music, I was doing homework. 我一邊聽音樂,一邊做功課。

2 While I was walking home, I saw Tom. 我在走路回家的路上看到湯姆。

2 While walking home, I saw Tom. 我在走路回家的路上看到湯姆。

3 Before I ate breakfast, I brushed my teeth. 在我吃早餐前,我刷牙。

3 Before eating breakfast, I brushed my teeth. 在我吃早餐前,我刷牙。

4 After Tom took a shower, he went to bed. 在湯姆洗澡後,他上床睡覺。

4 After taking a shower, Tom went to bed. 在湯姆洗澡後,他上床睡覺。

5 Since Jane graduated from college, she has lived alone. 從珍大學畢業後,她一直一個人住。

5 Since graduating from college, Jane has lived alone. 從珍大學畢業後,她一直一個人住。

.

當副詞子句跟主要子句的主詞不相同時,則不可以縮減

6 While I was sleeping, someone called. 當我睡覺的時候,有人打電話來。

7 After John arrived, we started the meeting. 在約翰抵達後,我們開始開會。

.

B 在 while 的副詞子句縮減時,有時候會把 while 也一起省略

8 While Sue was driving home, she had an accident. 當蘇開車回家時,她發生車禍。

8 While driving home, Sue had an accident. 當蘇開車回家時,她發生車禍。

8 Driving home, Sue had an accident. 當蘇開車回家時,她發生車禍。

.

C 句首用 V-ing 開頭常常會有因為的意思。句型是把副詞子句的連接詞 because 省略,主詞省略,把動詞改成 V-ing。副詞子句為否定時,改成 Not + V-ing。副詞子句有 be 動詞的時候,把 be 動詞改為 being 

10 Because I needed some new clothes, I went to the department store to buy some. 因為我需要一些新衣服,我去百貨公司買了一些。

10 Needing some new clothes, I went to the department store to buy some. 因為我需要一些新衣服,我去百貨公司買了一些。

11 Because he didn’t have enough money, he didn’t buy the gift. 因為他沒有錢,他沒有買禮物。

11 Not having enough money, he didn’t buy the gift. 因為他沒有錢,他沒有買禮物。

12 Because I am a vegetarian, I don’t eat meat. 因為我吃素,所以我不吃肉。

12 Being a vegetarian, I don’t eat meat. 因為我吃素,所以我不吃肉。

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翻譯練習

1 當我在看簡訊的時候,我掉了我的手機。

2 因為他提早離開,他沒看到表演。

3 在我們離開演唱會後,我們搭計程車回家。

4 在我上班前,我喝一杯咖啡。

5 因為他很有名,餐廳給他折扣。

6 從他去年開始學英文,他進步很多。

7 因為我不想傷他的感情,我沒跟他說實話。

8 在我下公車後,我發現我忘了雨傘在公車上。

9 在他離職前,他已經找到新工作了。

10 當我搭捷運的時候,我遇到了我的老師。

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翻譯練習 答案

1 當我在看簡訊的時候,我掉了我的手機。

1 While I was checking text messages, I dropped my phone. 

1 While checking text messages, I dropped my phone.

1 Checking text messages, I dropped my phone. 

.

2 因為他提早離開,他沒看到表演。

2 Because he left early, he didn’t see the performance. 

2 Leaving early, he didn’t see the performance. 

.

3 在我們離開演唱會後,我們搭計程車回家。

3 After we left the concert, we took a taxi home. 

3 After leaving the concert, we took a taxi home. 

.

4 在我上班前,我喝一杯咖啡。

4 Before I go to work, I drink a cup of coffee. 

4 Before going to work, I drink a cup of coffee. 

4 Before I went to work, I drink a cup of coffee. 

4 Before going to work, I drank a cup of coffee.

.

5 因為他很有名,餐廳給他折扣。

5 Because he is famous, the restaurant gave him a discount. 

5 Because he is famous, he got a discount. 

5 Being famous, he got a discount. 

.

6 從他去年開始學英文,他進步很多。

6 Since he started to learn English, he has made a lot of progress.

6 Since starting to learn English, he has made a lot of progress.

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7 因為我不想傷他的感情,我沒跟他說實話。

7 Because I didn’t want to hurt his feelings, I didn’t tell him the truth. 

7 Not wanting to hurt his feelings, I didn’t tell him the truth. 

.

8 在我下公車後,我發現我忘了雨傘在公車上。

8 After I got off the bus, I realized I had left my umbrella on the bus. 

8 After getting off the bus, I realized I had left my umbrella on the bus. 

.

9 在他離職前,他已經找到新工作了。

9 Before he quit, he had found a new job. 

9 Before quitting, he had found a new job. 

.

10 當我搭捷運的時候,我遇到了我的老師。

10 While I was taking the MRT, I ran into my teacher. 

10 While taking the MRT, I ran into my teacher. 

10 Taking the MRT, I ran into my teacher. 

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 95 形容詞子句的縮減,分詞構句,分詞片語

因為大家都說每次文法都講很多懶得看,這次特別出了個簡短篇的跟詳細篇的,分別跟不同需要的人參考。要繼續做發音的影片了,所以晚點再來碎碎念。假如有問題歡迎提出,謝謝大家支持。啊,另外假如覺得有幫助的話歡迎利用下面小額贊助的頁面支持潔西,感恩!小額贊助

 

簡短說明形容詞子句縮減的分詞構句

 

 

詳細的說明形容詞子句縮減的分詞構句與練習題解答

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

95 ing 與 ed 片語

 

The person talking to Ken is my brother.

The person who is talking to Ken is my brother.

 

The car parked outside is my neighbor’s.

The car that is parked outside is my neighbor’s car.

 

形容詞子句縮減來的分詞構句

A 分詞構句的形成

分詞構句或分詞片語是由一個分詞加上一些字所組成,可以用來修飾名詞跟代名詞。分詞構句經常是由形容詞子句縮減而來,所以有時也叫做縮減子句(reduced clauses)。

 

縮減方式如下:

1 把形容詞子句中的關係代名詞去掉(只有關係代名詞為主詞時),

2 把動詞的助動詞去掉,主要動詞依主動或被動改為現在分詞或過去分詞,

3 保留原有的標點,

 

A 現在分詞,主動

1

The man who is sitting in front of John is Tom.

The man (who is sitting in front of John) is Tom.

The man sitting in front of John is Tom.

 

2

The girl who is playing basketball is my sister.

The girl (who is playing basketball) is my sister.

The girl playing basketball is my sister.

 

3

Many students who study at this university are from foreign countries.

Many students (who study at this university) are from foreign countries.

Many students studying at this university are from foreign countries.

 

4

Anyone who wants to join us is welcome.

Anyone (who wants to join us) is welcome.

Anyone wanting to join us is welcome.

5

English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters.

English has an alphabet (that consists of 26 letters).

English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters.

 

6

Everyone who will take the TOEIC next month must preregister.

Everyone (who will take the TOEIC next month) must preregister.

Everyone taking the TOEIC next month must preregister.

 

7

My parents, who did not have much money, never went on holiday.

My parents, (who did not have much money, never went on holiday.

My parents, not having much money, never went on holiday.

 

B 過去分詞,被動

1

I only drink juice that is made from fresh fruit that is grown organically.

I only drink juice (that is made from fresh fruit) (that is grown organically).

I only drink juice made from fresh fruit grown organically.

 

2

Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page.

Be sure to follow the instructions (that are given at the top of the page).

Be sure to follow the instructions given at the top of the page.

 

3

The selfie that was taken by my brother is funny.

The selfie (that was taken by my brother) is funny.

The selfie taken by my brother is funny.

 

4

They live in a house that was built in 1890.

They live in a house (that was built in 1890).

They live in a house built in 1890.

 

形容詞跟形容詞片語也有相似的用法

1

Ann is the woman who is responsible for the error.

Ann is the woman (who is responsible for the error).

Ann is the woman responsible for the error.

 

2

There was one seat that was available on the flight.

There was one seat (that was available) on the flight.

There was one seat available on the flight.

 

2 分詞構句的位置與標點符號

分詞構句可用在限定子句或非限定子句。

限定子句中的分詞片語只可接在修飾名詞的後面,不加逗號。

A woman who hurried to catch a bus tripped and fell.

A woman hurrying to catch a bus tripped and fell.

 

非限定子句中的分詞片語,可以放在修飾名詞的後面,或放到修飾名詞的前面,一定要以逗號將分詞片語與整個句子隔開。

Teresa, who hurried to catch a bus, stumbled and fell.

Teresa, hurrying to catch a bus, stumbled and fell.

Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.

 

注意事項:切記分詞片語在前面時,這個片語一定要是修飾後面句子的主詞。

Hoping for an A, my exam grade disappointed me.(X)

                      S            V

Hoping for an A, I was disappointed in my exam grade.(O)

 

Having run out of gas, Tom was late for school. (X)

Because the car ran out of gas, Tom was late for school. (O)

 

修飾整個句子的分詞片語應該用逗號將整個句子與分詞片語隔開。

The team won the championship, which shocked their opponents.

The team won the championship, shocking their opponents.

 

練習:

將下列句子改成分詞構句

1 The man who is talking to John is from Korea.

2 Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.

3 The film that starts at 8 is a drama that is based on a true story.

4 The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary.

5 The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

6 I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

7 The children who attend that school receive a good education.

8 The scientists who are researching the causes of cancer are making progress.

9 The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood.

10  Ham which is made in the traditional way costs more, but tastes better.

11 We have an apartment which overlooks the park.

12 Luggage that is left unattended will be taken away by police.

13 Left-handed children who are forced to write with their right hands often developed psychological problems.

 

翻譯下面的句子

1 你認識那個在跟我爸爸說的話男人嗎?

2 那個正在照顧我媽媽的護士對她很好。

3 我住的公寓是在2005年蓋的。

4 有一台停在外面黑色的車裡有兩個警察坐在裡面。

5 在書裡被呈現的想法很好。

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答案

將下列句子改成分詞構句

1 The man who is talking to John is from Korea.

1 The man talking to John is from Korea.

 

2 Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.

2 Our solar system is in a galaxy called the Milky Way.

 

3 The film that starts at 8 is a drama that is based on a true story.

3 The film starting at 8 is a drama based on a true story.

 

4 The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary.

4 The photographs published in the newspaper were extraordinary.

 

5 The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

5 The people waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

 

6 I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

6 I come from a city located in the southern part of the country.

 

7 The children who attend that school receive a good education.

7 The children attending that school receive a good education.

 

8 The scientists who are researching the causes of cancer are making progress.

8 The scientists researching the causes of cancer are making progress.

 

9 The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood.

9 The fence surrounding our house is made of wood.

 

10  Ham which is made in the traditional way costs more, but tastes better.

10  Ham made in the traditional way costs more, but tastes better.

 

11 We have an apartment overlooking the park.

11 We have an apartment which overlooks the park.

 

12 Luggage that is left unattended will be taken away by police.

12 Luggage   left unattended will be taken away by police.

 

13 Left-handed children who are forced to write with their right hands often developed psychological problems.

13 Left-handed children forced to write with their right hands often developed psychological problems.

 

翻譯練習

1 你認識那個在跟我爸爸說的話男人嗎?

1 Do you know that man talking to my father?

 

2 那個正在照顧我媽媽的護士對她很好。

2 The nurse looking after my mother is very kind to her.

 

3 我住的公寓是在2005年蓋的。

3 I live in an apartment built in 2005.

 

4 有一台停在外面黑色的車裡有兩個警察坐在裡面。

4 There’s a back car parked outside with two policemen sitting in it.

 

5 在書裡被呈現 are presented 的想法很好。

5 The ideas presented in the book are good.

分詞構句,形容詞子句縮減成分詞形容詞片語,副詞子句縮減成副詞片語

一不小心就說了一個多小時,潔西覺得一講就講不完啊,真的會有人有時間花一個多小時聽嗎?不過真的可以一邊打掃房間一邊洗碗做家事的時候或運動的時候一邊聽,潔西聽 Ted Talks 大概都這樣,典型 multi-tasking 多工型,日文叫做 ながら, 就是同時一起做好幾件事的人。

 

潔西就一個離題王,而且給很多例子,不過真的例子多做就有概念了,因為潔西自己說到後面都覺得,都快背起來了,一直說重複的東西,真的有聽過一次真的會印象還蠻深的,潔西自己覺得。不過呢一下子講太難的東西,感覺可能從中間看的人也不知道要從何看起。下次挑簡單一點的好了,然後可以開放點時間給大家問問題。今天忘記了,因為講好久了,不知不覺就一個多小時。

 

然後開台有個大好處就是,YouTube會自己主動轉檔,超快的,潔西平常上傳到都快瘋掉的久,開完台沒多久就轉好了。缺點是,恩,所有都會錄進去,然後很不好意思的是,潔西最後面明明停止了,結果摸了很久突然發現,啊!!!!!怎麼會什麼時候又自己打開了,還是剛剛沒關好,然後就看到潔西一直在捉該去洗的頭的圖,恩,後面請大家自己省略不要看。潔西再來上網查查看能不能修改,看怎麼樣把後面修掉,這應該很多學生都會,他們實況主,啊,但是他們都有專人幫忙重事後製,他們只要坐著數鈔票就好了(誤),等等被打,還想要找人家出來吃飯,到時候沒人要理潔西就糗大了。今天這捉頭圖已經夠糗了,然後自己看的時候發現一個更好笑的是,因為設定的關係,所以鏡頭是聰明的還是笨蛋的呢?他會自己主動調整距離,一下子拉近,一下子縮遠,還蠻好玩的,唉,是蠻好笑的。懶得聽的人可以看文字,這次有加一點比較簡單的例句進去,希望有點幫助。

 

 

詞性是很多人的弱點,中文都是興趣,英文動詞,名詞,形容詞還分現在分詞跟過去分詞的 ed 形容詞跟 ing 形容詞,每個用法都不一樣,要特別注意一下啊!

English has always interested me. (Verb)

I’ve always had an interest in English. (Noun)

English is interesting. (present participle/adjective)

I’m interested in English. (past participle/adjective)

I lost interest halfway through the book and I never finished it.

Unfortunately, I lost interest half way through the film.

He never seems to show any interest in his children.

 

 

 

Participial Phrases  分詞片語                        

. 分詞的定義與種類

分詞(participle是由動詞詞轉變而來的形容詞。

 

現在分詞(present participle)可以是由主動動詞(active verb)而來,有ing的結尾。

 

The news surprised everyone.

She told me a surprising thing.

 

過去分詞(past participle)可以是由被動動詞(passive verb)而來,常有ed結尾,也就是動詞的第三態。

His wallet was stolen.

It’s illegal to buy stolen goods.

 

 

下面有一點要很注意的在影片裡面重複很多次就是,主詞一定要一樣才可以縮減,不要忘記了喔。

. 分詞片語的形成

分詞片語是由一個分詞加上一些字所組成,可以用來修飾名詞跟代名詞。分詞片語經常是由形容詞子句縮減而來,所以有時也叫做縮減子句(reduced clauses)。

縮減方式如下:

 

  1. 把形容詞子句中的關係代名詞去掉(只有關係代名詞為主詞時),
  2. 把動詞的助動詞去掉,主要動詞改為分詞,
  3. 保留原有的標點,
  4. 否定句則將not放到分詞前即可。

 

The man (who is sitting in front of John) is Tom.

The man (sitting in front of John) is Tom.

 

The girl (who is playing basketball) is my sister.

The girl playing basketball is my sister.

 

The taxi driver, (who did not realize what happened), continued on.

The taxi driver, not realizing what happened, continued on.

 

 

Anyone (who wants to join us) is welcome.

Anyone wanting to join us is welcome.

 

The selfie (that was taken by my brother) is funny.

The selfie taken by my brother is funny.

 

A pedestrian (who had been hit by a speeding taxi) was lying in the street.

A pedestrian hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.

 

 

An ambulance (that was summoned by a bystander) came quickly.

An ambulance summoned by a bystander came quickly.

 

 

你認識那個跟珍說話的男生嗎?

Do you know that man?

The man is talking to Jane.

Do you know the man who is talking to Jane?

Do you know the man talking to Jane?

 

我住的公寓是在2005年蓋的。

I live in an apartment.

It was built in 2005.

I live in an apartment that was built in 2005.

I live in an apartment built in 2005.

 

 

. 分詞片語的位置與標點符號

分詞片語可用在限定子句或分限定子句。

 

限定子句中的分詞片語只可接在修飾名詞的後面,不加逗號。

A woman (hurrying to catch a bus) tripped and fell.

 

非限定子句中的分詞片語,可以放在修飾名詞的後面,或放到修飾名詞的前面,一定要以逗號將分詞片語與整個句子隔開。

Teresa, (hurrying to catch a bus), stumbled and fell.

Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.

 

 

注意事項:切記分詞片語在前面時,這個片語一定要是修飾後面句子的主詞。

Hoping for an A, my exam grade disappointed me.(X)

S            V

Hoping for an A, I was disappointed in my exam grade.(O)

 

Having run out of gas, Tom was late for school. (X)

Because the car ran out of gas, Tom was late for school. (O)

 

 

 

修飾整個句子的分詞片語應該用逗號將整個句子與分詞片語隔開。

The team won the championship, shocking their opponents.

The team won the championship, which shocked their opponents.

 

 

. 現在分詞片語

現在分詞片語可能是由現在式,過去式,或未來式所形成。

現在簡單式

Many students (who study at this university) are from foreign countries.

Many students studying at this university are from foreign countries.

 

現在進行式

Students (who are taking calculus must) buy a graphing calculator.

Students taking calculus must buy a graphing calculator.

 

過去簡單式

The team members, (who looked happy after their victory), were cheered by the fans.

The team members, looking happy after their victory, were cheered by the fans.

 

過去進行式

The crowd, (which was cheering wildly as the game ended), would not leave the stadium.

Cheering wildly as the game ended, the crowd would not leave the stadium.

 

未來式

Everyone (who will take the TOEFL next month) must preregister.

Everyone taking the TOEFL next month must preregister.

 

 

. 過去分詞片語

過去分詞片語可能由現在式或過去式的被動動詞形成。

現在簡單式

Lab reports (that are not handed in by Friday) will not be accepted.

Lab reports not handed in by Friday will not be accepted.

 

I get up at 7.00.

 

過去簡單式

The proposed law, (which was opposed by the majority of the people), did not pass.

The proposed law, opposed by the majority of the people, did not pass.

 

minority

 

 

 

. 副詞子句的縮減

有些副詞子句也可以用相同的方式縮減成分詞片語。分詞片語在前面時,用逗號將之與獨立子句分開,分詞片語在後面時,則不須逗號。

 

When you enter a theater, you should turn off your cell phone.

You should turn off your cell phone when you enter a theater.

When entering a theater, you should turn off your cell phone.

You should turn off your cell phone when entering a theater.

 

While I was taking the MRT, I ran into my ex-boyfriend.

While taking the MRT, I ran into my ex-boyfriend.

Taking the MRT, I ran into my ex-boyfriend.

 

 

縮減方式如下:

  1. 確定主要子句跟副詞子句的主詞是相同的,
  2. 省略副詞子句的主詞,假如必要的話,把分詞片語移到最前面(因為有時候改成分詞片語語義會引起誤會,所以要放到最前面),
  3. 將副詞子句改為適當的分詞片語,
  4. 根據下列規則,保留或刪去某些副詞子句的從屬代名詞。
  5. 保留before跟時間子句的since
  6. 保留after, while, when,假如這些從屬代名詞放在主要子句後面。當這些從屬代名詞放在主要子句前時,可保留也可省略。
  7. 省略表示理由的because, since, as與表示時間的as。

 

 

. 副詞子句的縮減

Before a student chooses a college, he or she should consider several factors.

Before choosing a college, a student should consider several factors.

A student should consider several factors before choosing a college.

 

 

After he had passed the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman in college.

After passing the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman in college.

 

 

Because Carlos came from a very conservative family, he was shocked at the U.S. system of coed dormitories.

Coming from a very conservative family, Carlos was shocked at the U.S. system of coed dormitories.

 

mixed, guest house, youth hostel, male, female, mixed

 

As he gradually got used to the way of life in the United States, he became less homesick.

Gradually getting used to the way of life in the United States, he became less homesick.

 

 

 

七. 翻譯練習:請用分詞構句寫出下列句子

 

1 我在超市買東西的時候,遇到一個老朋友。

While I was shopping in the supermarket, I ran into an old friend.

 

2 在出門上班前,我吃了早餐。

Before I left for work, I had breakfast.

Before I left for work, I had had breakfast.

Before leaving for work, I had breakfast.

 

3 自從來這家公司上班後,她學了很多。

Since she worked for this company, she has learned a lot.

Since working for this company, she has learned a lot.

 

4 缺乏必需的資格(qualification),他沒有拿到那份工作。

He lacked the necessary qualification, he didn’t get the job.

Lacking the necessary qualification, he didn’t get the job.

 

 

負擔不起車子,我買了一臺摩托車。

Because I am not able to afford a car, I bought a scooter.

Because not being able to afford a car, I bought a scooter.

Because being unable to afford a car, I bought a scooter.

Being unable to afford a car, I bought a scooter.

 

paper driver

 

 

  1. 七. 翻譯練習:請用分詞構句寫出下列句子
  2. While shopping in the supermarket, I ran into an old friend.
  3. Before leaving for work, I ate breakfast.
  4. Since working for this company, she has learned a lot.
  5. Lacking the necessary qualification, he didn’t get the job.
  6. Being unable to afford a car, I bought a scooter.