【潔西家】劍橋文法 99 副詞子句 when …

好餓喔,直播到一半學生說晚上可以提前上課,那我就出門去了。昨天晚上用英文直播好玩好玩,今天晚上再來,可是晚上回到家可能會比較晚了,到時候再貼連結,沒睡覺的人可以來聊天。先出門上課去!

前面是講義,後面是一邊講一邊寫的講義,就是有說明的

副詞子句概述       名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句

a. 副詞子句通常是由一個從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunction 開始一個句子,比方說 although, because, when 等。這個連接詞表達了這個副詞子句跟主要子句之間的關係。

Although the sun’s shining, it’s freezing outside this morning.

I’m not going out because it’s so cold.

b. 副詞子句在句首時,用逗號分開主要子句。副詞子句在後面時,因為從連接詞很明顯就可以看出副詞子句的開頭,所以通常不用逗號。

Before he goes to bed, he brushes his teeth.

He brushes his teeth before he goes to bed.

  1. 一個句子可以用一個以上的副詞子句

Don’t touch the paint before it has dried because bubbles may form if anything touches it.

B 連接句子的方式

1 用從屬連接詞來連接句子來表示句子間的關係。

   After you have a rest, you’ll probably feel better.

   I can’t listen to music while I’m studying.

2 副詞子句是個非獨立子句,不可以用來當作獨立的句子,一定要與獨立子句合併成為一個句子。副詞子句不可再加上對等連接詞 (如: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) 來合併句子。

Because there were no lights, I couldn’t see anything.

It was dark, so I couldn’t do any work.

Because there were no lights, so I couldn’t do any work. (X)

We couldn’t use our computers because there was no electricity this morning.

We couldn’t use our computers. Because there was no electricity the morning. (X)

3 某些連接字如 after, before, than 可以當從屬連接詞或介系詞。當從屬連接詞時帶領副詞子句也就是後面加主詞,動詞,來連接句子,也可以當成介系詞用,當介系詞時後面加名詞。

I’ll talk to you after I get out of my next meeting. = I’ll talk to you after the meeting.

Tony had arrived before we got there. = Tony had arrived before us.

We had more money than they had. = We had more money than them.

4 某些用在副詞子句的連接詞,有一些跟他們的意義是相似的介系詞片語,後面加名詞

There were delays because the weather was bad.

= There were delays because of bad weather.

Although she’s old, Agnes still plays tennis.

= Despite her age, Agnes still plays tennis.

He got injured while we were playing.

= He got injured during the game.

  

5 表達時間的副詞子句用現在簡單式來代替未來式

You won’t pass the test if you don’t study.

I will be sleeping when you get home.

翻譯練習:

1 因為很熱,所以我們打開冷氣。

2 雖然很冷,他還是每天去游泳。

3 我出門前把燈關掉。

4 我總是一回到家就換衣服。

5 潔西通常一邊看日劇一邊吃飯。

6 Lily 在百貨公司逛街的時候看到她前男友。

7 當那個小男孩輸了比賽,他哭了。

8 飛機因為天氣不好延誤了。

9 儘管他很生氣,他還是按時完成企劃案。

10 我們會等你準備好。

講解

副詞子句概述       名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句

a. 副詞子句通常是由一個從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunction 開始一個句子,比方說 although, because, when 等。這個連接詞表達了這個副詞子句跟主要子句之間的關係。

Although the sun’s shining, it’s freezing outside this morning.

連接詞              動詞

                                     主要子句:主詞+動詞=獨立子句:語意完整

I’m not going out because it’s so cold.

主 動                 連接詞

b. 副詞子句在句首時,用逗號分開主要子句。副詞子句在後面時,因為從連接詞很明顯就可以看出副詞子句的開頭,所以通常不用逗號。

Before he goes to bed, he brushes his teeth.

He brushes his teeth before he goes to bed.

一個句子可以用一個以上的副詞子句

Don’t touch the paint before it has dried because bubbles may form if anything touches it.

B 連接句子的方式

1 用從屬連接詞來連接句子來表示句子間的關係。

   After you have a rest, you’ll probably feel better.

   I can’t listen to music while I’m studying.

2 副詞子句是個非獨立子句(語意不完整),不可以用來當作獨立的句子,一定要與獨立子句合併成為一個句子。副詞子句不可再加上對等連接詞 (如: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) 來合併句子。

Because there were no lights. (X)

Because there were no lights, I couldn’t see anything.

   副詞子句(非獨立子句)           主要子句(獨立子句)

It was dark, so I couldn’t do any work.

獨立子句            獨立子句

Because there were no lights, so I couldn’t do any work. (X)

Because there were no lights, I couldn’t do any work.

There were no lights, so I couldn’t do any work.

We couldn’t use our computers because there was no electricity this morning.

We couldn’t use our computers. Because there was no electricity the morning. (X)

3 某些連接字如 after, before, than 可以當從屬連接詞或介系詞。當從屬連接詞時帶領副詞子句也就是後面加主詞,動詞,來連接句子,也可以當成介系詞用,當介系詞時後面加名詞。

I’ll talk to you after I get out of my next meeting.

主要子句        連接詞 主 動

= I’ll talk to you after the meeting.

                              

Tony had arrived before we got there.

                連接詞 主 動    

= Tony had arrived before us.

                                

We had more money than they had.

主 動                    連接   

= We had more money than them.

                          

I usually have late night snacks after I finish work.

I usually have late night snacks after work.

4 某些用在副詞子句的連接詞,有一些跟他們的意義是相似的介系詞片語,後面加名詞

There were delays because the weather was bad.

                           連接詞              

= There were delays because of bad weather.

                               介片        

Although she’s old, Agnes still plays tennis.

= Despite her age, Agnes still plays tennis.

= In spite of her age,

He got injured while we were playing.

= He got injured during the game.

  

5 表達時間的副詞子句用現在簡單式來代替未來式

You won’t pass the test if you don’t study.

I will be sleeping when you get home.

翻譯練習:

1 因為很熱,所以我們打開冷氣。

2 雖然很冷,他還是每天去游泳。

3 我出門前把燈關掉。

4 我總是一回到家就換衣服。

5 潔西一邊看日劇一邊吃飯。

6 Lily 在百貨公司逛街的時候看到她前男友。

7 當那個小男孩輸了比賽,他哭了。

8 飛機因為天氣不好延誤了。

9 儘管他很生氣,他還是按時完成企劃案。

10 我們會等你準備好。

答案

翻譯練習:

1 因為很熱,所以我們打開冷氣。

1 Because it was hot, we turned on the air conditioner.

   We turned on the air conditioner because it was hot.

   It was hot, so we turned on the air conditioner. (應該是 turn on 才對,影片打 on 打成 of 是錯的)

2 雖然很冷,他還是每天去游泳。

   Although it is cold, he still goes swimming every day.

   Although it was cold, he still went swimming every day.

3 我出門前把燈關掉。

   I turn off the light before I go out.

   I turned off the light before I went out.

4 我總是一回到家就換衣服。

4 I always change clothes as soon as I get home.

5 潔西一邊看日劇一邊吃飯。

5 Jessie was eating while she was watching a Japanese drama.

6 Lily 在百貨公司逛街的時候看到她前男友。

6 Lily was shopping in a department when she saw her ex-boyfriend.

7 當那個小男孩輸了比賽,他哭了。

7 When the little boy lost the game, he cried.

8 飛機因為天氣不好延誤了。

8 The plane was delayed because of the bad weather.

9 儘管他很生氣,他還是按時完成企劃案。

9 Although he was angry, he still finished the project on time.

9 Despite his anger, he still finished the project on time.

10 我們會等你準備好。

10 We’ll wait until you are ready.

  

副詞子句

A 副詞子句概述

a. 副詞子句通常是由一個從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunction 開始一個句子,比方說 although, because, when 等。這個連接詞表達了這個副詞子句跟主要子句之間的關係。

Although the sun’s shining, it’s freezing outside this morning.

I’m not going out because it’s so cold.

b. 副詞子句在句首時,用逗號分開主要子句。副詞子句在後面時,因為從連接詞很明顯就可以看出副詞子句的開頭,所以通常不用逗號。

Before he goes to bed, he brushes his teeth.

He brushed his teeth before he goes to bed.

c 一個句子可以用一個以上的副詞子句

Don’t touch the paint before it has dried because bubbles may form if anything touches it.

 

B 連接句子的方式

1 用從屬連接詞來連接句子來表示句子間的關係。

   After you have a rest, you’ll probably feel better.

   I can’t listen to music while I’m studying.

 

2 副詞子句是個非獨立子句,不可以用來當作獨立的句子,一定要與獨立子句合併成為一個句子。副詞子句不可再加上對等連接詞 (如: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) 來合併句子。

Because there were no lights, I couldn’t see anything.

It was dark, so I couldn’t do any work.

Because there were no light, so I couldn’t do any work. (X)

We couldn’t use our computers because there was no electricity this morning.

We couldn’t use our computers. Because there was no electricity the morning. (X)

 

3 某些連接字如 after, before, than 可以當從屬連接詞或介系詞。當從屬連接詞時帶領副詞子句也就是後面加主詞,動詞,來連接句子,也可以當成介系詞用,當介系詞時後面加名詞。

I’ll talk to you after I get out of my next meeting. = I’ll talk to you after the meeting.

Tony had arrived before we got there. = Tony had arrived before us.

We had more money than they had. = We had more money than them.

 

4 某些用在副詞子句的連接詞,有一些跟他們的意義是相似的介系詞片語,後面加名詞

There were delays because the weather was bad.

= There were delays because of bad weather.

Although she’s old, Agnes still plays tennis.

= Despite her age, Agnes still plays tennis.

He got injured while we were playing.

= He got injured during the game.

 

副詞子句

A 時間子句 when, while, as, after, before, until, since 等

1.1 when 用來表示一件事接著另外一件事

When we heard the news, we were delighted.

1.2 when 用來在打斷另外一件事時

We had just reached the shelter when the rain started pouring down.

I was sleeping like a baby when the alarm went off.

1.3 when 可以用來表達每一次,有點像 if 的用法,表示每一次發生某事時。

When demand increases, prices rise.

2.1 while 可以表示在某段期間,這時跟 when 可以通用

While/when you were out, your mother called.

I felt asleep while/when I was reading.

2.2 while 也可以用來表示兩件實情同時發生

There was nowhere to park, so I just drove round in the car while Tim was in the bank.

3.1 as 跟 when 跟 while 都可以用來表達再發生某件事的某段期間

As/When/While I was getting ready to leave, I heard that my flight had been canceled.

3.2 as 或是 just as 可以用來強調事件發生的確切時間點,這時不可以用 while

As I walked out of the hotel, a gust of wind blew my hat off. It happened just as I stepped outside.

3.3 as 可以用來表時連接一段期間的變化,這時不可以用 whlile

As I get older, I care less about what other people think.

4.1 after 用來表示在某個時間點之後

After they left, we cleaned up and went to bed.

What will you do after you graduate?

4.2 after 常用在跟現在簡單式與現在完成是而不會用 will 表達一段完成的動作

I’ll help you after I write/have written my report. (not after I will write my report)

5 before 用來表示在某個時間點之前

Before he leaves, I’ll ask him about the money.

They had eaten breakfast before we got up.

6 until 用來表示直到某個時間點,用來強調結局或結束的時間點。

We’ll wait until you’re ready.

Heat the wax until it melts. (not Heat it before it melts)

7 since 用來表達從某個時間點到另外一個時間點,表示在某個時間點開始的另外一個子句的是在那之後能就是事實。

How long is it since you’ve been here?

I’ve lived here since I was ten. (not since I’m ten)

8 once 用來帶領一個子句描述一個動作或情況的開始的時間點。once 跟after 一樣 常用在跟現在簡單式與現在完成來表達一段完成的動作

Once you’ve seen Ani, you won’t forget her.

Everybody likes it here once they get used to it.

9 as soon as 用來表達一件事馬上緊接著另外一件事發生或是 immediately 來帶領子句

I came as soon as I heard the news.

Immediately I saw him, I recognized his face.

10 the instant/minute/moment/second (that) 可以用來表示一件事緊接著另外一件事發生

There are some students who rush out of the room the minute (that) class ends.

1 因為我的電視壞掉了,所以我們聽收音機。

2 雖然天氣很冷,但是他還是去游泳。

3 他很帥,但是他弟弟長相平庸。

4 假如明天下雨的話,演唱會就會被取消。

5 當他一回到家,他就打開他的電腦。

 

答案

1 Because my TV was broken, we listened to the radio.

2 Although it was cold, he still went swimming.

3 He is handsome, but his brother is plain.

4 If it rains tomorrow, the concert will be canceled.

5 As soon as he got home, he turned on his computer.

子句與句子的簡單說明

這裡的子句跟句子簡單地講了一下,總之寫出來的句子一定都是要在四種句子裡面,獨立子句跟非獨立子句的結合也就只有三種形式:名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。寫句子跟講句子的留意一下。才十點,又超不多要睡了,大家晚安:)

 

噢,差點忘了,有錄影片:

 

D 子句的種類  types of clauses 

子句有三種,分名詞子句、形容詞子句跟副詞子句。

1. 名詞子句 noun clause:整個子句當名詞用,不是當句子的主詞就是受詞,主詞補語。

2. 形容詞子句 adjective clause:整個子句當形容詞用,一定是用來修飾名詞。

  1. 副詞子句 adverb clause:整個子句當副詞用,像時間子句,條件子句等都是副詞子句,整個子句當副詞用,用來修飾動詞或整個句子。

1. 名詞子句 noun clause

I   think  that Jessie  is  a crazy teacher.

(        S       V                      )    —noun clause

S    V                    O

That the earth  is  round  is   true.   It’s true that the earth is round.

(         S          V          )                        —noun clause

S                  V   SC

I don’t know where she lives.     Where does she live?     I don’t if it will rain tomorrow?

(          S   V   )                     —noun clause

S     V                O

名詞子句放在最前面帶領子句的有that,whether,if,疑問詞what、when、where、who等。that除了在句首外一般可以省略,其他的疑問詞等則不可省。

2. 形容詞子句 adjective clause

The book  which  I  read  last night  was  great.   The book was great. I read the book last night.

(        S   V                 )                  —adjective clause

S                                          V    SC

I  like  movies   that  make  me laugh.       I like movies. The movies make me laugh.

(  S     V               )                 —adjective clause

S  V    O

I’ll never forget the day when I  got married.

(      S   V             )      —adjective clause

S            V        O

形容詞子句又叫關係子句。而放在最前面帶領形容詞子句的字就叫做關係代名詞,如that、what、who、when、where、whose等。通常做為受詞的關係代名詞如which、whom、that,可以省略,可是在限定子句時又不能省。名詞與副詞子句都有who、what、where這些疑問詞,所以容易混淆。其實只要注意子句本身的功能與修飾的對象,應該就可以分得很清楚了。

3. 副詞子句 adverb clause

He ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

(            S   V                  )     –adverb clause

S   V        O

If you don’t have enough money, you can give it to me next time.

(    S       V                          )                                     –adverb clause

S     V

He was driving  while he was talking on the phone.

(        S       V                         )              –adverb clause

S          V

副詞子句一般是大家最熟悉的,種類也最多。副詞子句可以用來表達時間、因果、對比、條件、讓步等等。副詞子句最前面帶領子句的字叫做從屬連接詞subordinating conjunctions,是用來連接主要子句跟副詞子句的橋樑。

當主要子句在前面時,因為很清楚的可以知道副詞子句是由從屬連接詞開始,所以不需要逗號,如第一與第三句。而當副詞子句在句首時,要有一個逗號清楚地把副詞子句跟主要子句隔開來,如第二個句子。當然這些從屬連接詞是都不能省略的囉。

例外:

當while表示對比,或者是though, 或although在中間時,也會有逗號,但是其他連接詞在中間時,則不需要逗號。

Schools in the north tend to be better equipped, while those in the south are relatively poor.

I thought he’d been drinking, though I wasn’t completely sure.

You can copy down my answers, although I’m not sure if they’re right.

E 句子的種類 types of sentences     

四個句子的種類

1. simple sentences 簡單句

I love beef.

2. compound sentences 並合句

I love beef, but I hate pork.

3. complex sentences 複合句

Although I love beef, I hate pork.

4.compound-complex sentences 混合句

My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a day.

  1. 簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,但整體視為

一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

  1. 並合句是由對等連接詞(and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet,可以用fanboys記)將兩個獨立

子句連接而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.    I love beef, but I don’t like beef noodles.

  1. 複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(如because, although, when, before等)所帶

領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。可能包

含了一個名詞子句,或形容詞子句,或副詞子句。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

I can’t believe she is only 17.

4. 混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句形成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did nothing.

F 並合句 Compound Sentence:用對等連接詞連接句子

要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。對等連接詞可以用來合併句子,形成並合句。

對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個:常用的是 and, but, so, or 其他還有 nor, for 跟yet。可用fanboys來記:for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

For 用來表原因:I am very tired, for I worked very hard today.

And 用來表達同等的概念:I am very tired, and I want to rest for a few minutes.

Nor 用來表達否定的選擇:I am not tired, nor am I hungry right now.

But 用來表達對比:I am tired, but I have no time to rest now.

Or 用來表達選擇:I will take a nap, or I will go out jogging.

Yet 用來表達對比:I will take a nap, yet I am unable to relax.

So 用來表達結果:I am tired, so I will take a nap.