【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 25 動詞變化 規則與不規則動詞

潔西真的是被自己打敗,中午煮了酸辣湯飯,因為是一人份,懶得用湯匙舀,想說直接拿鍋子用倒得倒進大湯碗,然後動作太大?速度太快?湯整個甩出來,大概五分之一甩到地上去了,還好沒燙到自己,剛煮好的湯燙到可是不得了。打掃了很久,一邊想為什麼自己會這麼誇張呢?對了,打翻可以用 spill 這個字,Jessie spilled the soup because she was absent-minded. 潔西因為心不在焉所以打翻湯。

前兩天的說到的「短気は損気」, “Haste makes waste.",「欲速則不達」,「甲緊弄破碗」非常好的描述潔西啊。急性子的潔西真的常常打翻東西,走在家裡三不五時也會撞到牆壁,太急了?角度沒算對。唉,慢慢來。

奶油漲價好誇張喔,二十年前潔西第一次做餅乾蛋糕的時候,安佳奶油是45元,當時陽春麵大概二十元吧。剛剛看安佳奶油全聯賣185元,四倍耶,為什麼?昨天半夜突然超想吃自己做的比司吉,但是沒有泡打粉跟小蘇打粉,早上去買回來以為家裡還有奶油,結果不夠,嗚嗚,還是好想吃喔,出門買奶油去。話說,昨天看到家裡的麵粉居然過期半年,早上看小蘇打粉,更誇爭,過期一年,真的太久沒有烘焙了。是個肥滋滋的嗜好,但是香味非常療癒,非常時期,心理衛生也很重要,做比司吉去了。祝大家平安健康,有美好的一天。Have a good day!

動詞像變色龍一樣,在不同時態下,不同情態下,會配合時態或其他動詞作不同的變化。記清楚動詞的四個面貌跟用法對於學好英文有很大的幫助。

1 動詞原型(V1/V0) Base From

a 動詞的第一個形態,在字典中查到的原形:work, play, eat, drink

b 用在現在簡單式,但是現在簡單式的主詞為第三人稱單數名詞時,該動詞要加 s。

I usually take a shower in the morning, but my brother takes a shower before he goes to bed.

I work from 9 to 5.

She works from home.

I eat a sandwich for breakfast.

She eats two eggs for breakfast.

c 用在助動詞 do, did, can, could, will, would, may..等後面的原形 V0。

They didn’t go home until midnight.

I could swim when I was a kid.

I didn’t work this morning.

She can eat five bowls of rice.

d 用在不定詞 to 的後面。to + V0 叫做 infinitive,不定詞動詞。

Sam wanted to go to the party, but his parents didn’t allow him to go.

I want to work four days a week.

She wants to eat a big meal.

2 動詞過去式(V2) Simple Past

a 動詞的第二個形態,規則變化在動詞後面加 ed,不規則變化需要查字典,字典通常只會寫出不規則的變化:worked, played ate, drank

b 只用在過去簡單式。

He worked hard and played hard all his life.

I ate a hamburger and drank some coke for breakfast this morning.

I worked late last night.

She worked for ten hours yesterday.

I ate some cookies earlier.

She ate some fruit for lunch.

3 動詞過去分詞(V3) Past Participle

a 動詞的第三個形態,有時簡稱PP,規則變化在動詞後面加 ed,不規則變化需要查字典,字典通常只會寫出不規則的變化:worked, played, eaten, drunk

b 用在完成式,搭配 have/has/had 用在完成式。可能是現在完成,過去完成,未來完成式。

They have worked for this company since 2000.

I have never eaten Greek food.

c 用在被動,搭配 be 動詞一起表達被動。被動的要素 be+V3

His wallet was stolen.

Romeo and Juliet was written by William Shakespeare.

d 用來當形容詞

The confused students couldn’t answer the questions.

I was shocked by the news.

4 動詞現在分詞(V-ing) Present Participle: 

a 動詞的第四個形態是在動詞原形的後面加ing (V-ing):working, playing, eating, drinking

b 用在進行式,跟不同時態的 be 動詞一起表達各種進行式

I have been working for 12 hours. I need a break.

They were eating dinner when I arrived.

c 用來當形容詞

A wok is a cooking utensil. 

I’m bored because the movie is so boring.

5 動名詞(V-ing) Gerund:

a 動名詞跟現在分詞長得一模一樣,都是在動詞原形後面加ing (V-ing):working, playing, eating, drinking

b 動名詞顧名思義就是拿來當名詞用,所以動名詞就相當於是一個名詞,用法也跟名詞一樣可以當主詞,受詞,跟補語。

Working 12 hours a day is stressful.

My hobbies are cooking and swimming.

c 某些特定的動詞或是動詞片語後面只可以接動名詞

I enjoy cooking.

Keep on working!

翻譯練習

1 安靜。我正試著要放鬆。

2 她最喜歡的音樂是嘻哈。她總是聽它。

3 A: 你今天晚上要出去嗎? B: 沒有。我還沒寫我的作業。

4 A: 你找到你的鑰匙了嗎? B: 沒有,我到處都看過了,但是我還沒找到它。

5 我不懂,所以我問了一個問題。

6 A: 你在哪裡買那件洋裝了。 B: 我媽媽給我的。

7 每個人都在說話,突然間,燈熄了。

8 我哥哥總是笑我。他很煩人。

9 他昨天很無聊因為他沒事做。

10 我有個疲累的一天。

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翻譯練習 答案

1 安靜。我正試著要放鬆。

1 Be quiet. I’m trying to relax.

2 她最喜歡的音樂是嘻哈。她總是聽它。

2 Her favorite music is hip-hop. She listens to it all the time.

3 A: 你今天晚上要出去嗎? B: 沒有。我還沒寫我的作業。

3 A: Are you going out tonight?  B: No. I haven’t done my homework.

4 A: 你找到你的鑰匙了嗎? B: 沒有,我到處都看過了,但是我還沒找到它。

4 A: Have you found your key? B: No, I’ve looked everywhere, but I still haven’t found it.

5 我不懂,所以我問了一個問題。

5 I didn’t understand, so I asked a question.

6 A: 你在哪裡買那件洋裝了。 B: 我媽媽給我的。

6 A: Where did you buy that dress?  B: My mother gave it to me.

7 每個人都在說話,突然間,燈熄了。

7 Everyone was talking and suddenly the lights went out.

8 我哥哥總是笑我。他很煩人。

8 My brother always laughs at me. He’s very annoying.

9 他昨天很無聊因為他沒事做。

9 He was bored yesterday because he had nothing to do.

10 我有個疲累的一天。

10 I’ve had a tiring day.

動詞變化,動詞三態,某些動詞不會有進行式

原型

過去式

過去分詞

現在分詞V-ing

V1

V2

V3

V-ing

1. be 是

was/were

been

being

2. buy 買

bought

bought

buying

3. come 來

came

come

coming

4. do 做

did

done

doing

5. drink 喝

drank

drunk

drinking

6. drive 開車

drove

driven

driving

7. eat 吃

ate

eaten

eating

8. find 找

found

found

finding

9. fly 飛

flew

flown

flying

10. forget忘記

forgot

forgotten

forgetting

11. get 拿

got

gotten

getting

12. give 給

gave

given

giving

13. go 去

went

gone

going

14. have 有

had

had

having

15. know 知道

knew

known

knowing

16. leave 離開

left

left

leaving

17. lose 輸,遺失

lost

lost

losing

18. make 

made

made

making

19. meet 碰面

met

met

meeting

20. quit戒,辭職

quit

quit

quitting

21. read 閱讀

read

read

reading

22. ride 騎

rode

ridden

riding

23. run 跑

ran

run

running

24. see 看

saw

seen

seeing

25. sell 賣

sold

sold

selling

26. sing 唱歌

sang

sung

singing

27. sit 坐

sat

sat

sitting

28. sleep 睡

slept

slept

sleeping

29. speak 說

spoke

spoken

speaking

30. spend 花費

spent

spent

spending

31. swim 游泳

swam

swum

swimming

32. take 拿

took

taken

taking

33. think 想

thought

thought

thinking

34. wear 穿

wore

worn

wearing

35. win 贏

won

won

winning

36. write 寫

wrote

written

writing

37. begin 開始

began

begun

beginning

38. break 打破

broke

broken

breaking

39. build 建造

built

built

building

40. catch 捉

caught

caught

catching

41. choose 選擇

chose

chosen

choosing

42. cut 切

cut

cut

cutting

43. cost 花費

cost

cost

44. fall 掉下來

fell

fallen

falling

45. keep 保持

kept

kept

keeping

46. set 設定

set

set

setting

47. tell 告訴

told

told

telling

48. teach 教

taught

taught

teaching

49. understand 了解

understood

understood

50. wear 穿,戴

wore

worn

wearing

不定詞,動名詞,現在分詞,動詞三態+中秋節快樂!

Happy Moon Festival! 祝大家中秋節快樂!

突然覺得自己很掃興,中秋節大家團圓 family reunion,吃月餅 mooncake,蛋黃酥 yolk pastry,鳳梨酥 pineapple cake ,然後當然少不了的烤肉 barbecue,還有潔西很愛的柚子 pomelo 應應景,今年台北人沒法賞月 moon viewing ,到底有誰要管英文啦,恩,就當下面的文都不存在就好XD

不過這篇是講動詞變化,自己覺得不錯用,都可以理解的話,可以存一下有空再看,今天悠哉放假吧!

看文法請直接跳到下面動詞的部分。

潔西今天又去醫院混了一天,因為早上有檢查,下午也有檢查,所以雖然一整天什麼事都沒做,還是覺得累。累就睡覺還錄影片,恩,要找點事做不然會覺得又荒廢了一天。

去醫院超巧的,剛去的時候看到要幫潔西開刀的醫生。然後本來在檢查中心打算混很久,對喔,已經發一篇了,今天,自己都忘了。總之呢,後來改變主意要去小七吃午餐,但是沒位置,猶豫好久,最後想說去看大學同學的貓咪攝影展。走到一半,ㄟ,就是那個潔西說不知道還會不會看到的醫生出現了,好吧,他說對了,果然看到了。醫院說大不大,但其實要遇到人也不容易,時間,地點都要剛好對。然後更巧的是,潔西在看展覽的時候,同學出現了,天啊,大學畢業到現在一點都沒變,還好更巧到令人難以相信的是,同學居然是要幫潔西開刀醫生的研究助理,醫生還傳訊息問同學的展在哪裡,本來還想說醫生會不會出現,結果沒有。

應該有空到吃樂途達那篇下面補一下,吃了一個星期,覺得效果很糟,還是沒出來?上星期真的還蠻糟的,今天算好一點,昨天也不好,出去逛街,刷卡刷了四千六,要是拿現金可能買不下手,潔西實在不太適合用信用卡。開過刀的同學說,他開刀前什麼都不想買,潔西相反,鞋就買了三雙,平常不會買路邊攤的衣服,因為會怕不能穿,沒試穿穿起來不好看,那天也衝動買了兩件,潔西根本想說反正不買到時候有三長兩短,錢也花不到,不如趁現在花啊,哈哈,難怪學生叫潔西錢要留著環遊世界。

但是今天早上吃藥的時候,拿的是裝有半顆安立復的藥盒,因為就在旁邊順手拿來裝藥。結果吃藥的時候偷懶,一起吃進去了。然後今天覺得心情超好,當然也是遇到同學,喝了茶又喝了咖啡,究竟是哪一個在作用呢?有點不想吃樂途達,但是剛剛算了一下,只剩十二天份的藥,離下次看醫生還有二十天啊!先繼續吃樂途達看看,真的不行再來想辦法,不然先吃,到時候沒要開天窗就不太好玩,在撐個一星期,真的不行就夠本錢把藥換回來了。

最近部落格點閱率節節下滑,是太久沒發文嗎?恩,最後好像都錄影片跟發FB。不過其實有注意到,發文不發文跟點閱率的關係好像不大,應該是越來越多各式各樣的機構提供英語教學,所以分散了吧,大家有學到就好,還好,不靠點閱率吃飯,不然會餓死啊,哈哈。點閱率比較算是一種成就感吧。另外還是覺得自己的部落格真的好亂。要找東西根本找不到,自己都找不到喔,太好笑了吧!

這篇其實有發過,只是用講的或許會比較清楚。影片上傳好久準備睡覺囉,晚安:)

 

 

動詞的面貌

動詞像變色龍一樣,在不同時態下,不同情態下,會配合時態或其他動詞作不同的變化。記清楚動詞的四個面貌跟用法對於學好英文有很大的幫助。

1. 動詞原型(V1) Present

a. 動詞的第一個形態,在字典中查到的原形:work, play, eat, drink

b. 用在現在簡單式,但是現在簡單式的主詞為第三人稱單數名詞時,該動詞要加s。

I usually take a shower in the morning, but my brother takes a shower before he goes to bed.

c. 用在助動詞do, did, can, could, will, would, may..等後面的原形。

They didn’t go home until midnight.

I could swim when I was a kid.

d. 用在不定詞動詞中的to的後。to+V1叫做infinitive,不定詞動詞。

Sam wanted to go to the party, but his parents didn’t allow him to go.

 

2. 動詞過去式(V2) Past Tense: 

a. 動詞的第二個形態,規則變化在動詞後面加ed,不規則變化需要查字典,字典通常只會寫出不規則的變化:worked, played ate, drank,

b. 只用在過去簡單式。

He worked hard and played hard all his life.

I ate a hamburger and drank some coke for breakfast this morning.

 

3. 動詞過去分詞(V3) Past Participle: 

a. 動詞的第三個形態,有時簡稱PP,規則變化在動詞後面加ed,不規則變化需要查字典,字典通常只會寫出不規則的變化:worked, played, eaten, drunk

b. 用在完成式,搭配have/has/had用在完成式。可能是現在完成,過去完成,未來完成式。

They have worked for this company since 2000.

I have never eaten Greek food.

c. 用在被動,搭配be動詞一起表達被動。

His wallet was stolen.  be+V3

d. 用在語態助動詞搭配,加上have與V3,表示對於過去的推斷或表達與過去事實相反的假設等。

She must have been sick yesterday.

I would have passed the exam if I had studied harder.

e. 用來當形容詞,

The cooked noodles needed some more salt.

The confused students couldn’t answer the questions.

I was shocked by the news.

 

4. 動詞現在分詞(V-ing) Present Participle:  

a. 動詞的第四個形態是在動詞原形的後面加ing (V-ing):working, playing, eating, drinking

b. 用在進行式,跟不同時態的be動詞一起表達各種進行式

I have been working for 12 hours. I need a break.

They were eating dinner when I arrived.

c. 用來當形容詞

A wok is a cooking utensil.  I’m bored. The movie is boring.

 

5. 動名詞(V-ing) Gerund

a. 動名詞跟現在分詞長得一模一樣,都是在動詞原形後面加ing (V-ing):working, playing, eating, drinking

b. 動名詞顧名思義就是拿來當名詞用,所以動名詞就相當於是一個名詞,用法也跟名詞一樣可以當主詞,受詞,跟補語。

Working 12 hours a day is stressful.

Seeing is believing.

c. 某些特定的動詞或是動詞片語後面只可以接動名詞

I enjoy cooking.

Keep on working!

 

6. 不定詞(to+V1) Infinitive

a. 不定詞infinitive指的是to加上原形動詞(to + V1):to work, to play, to eat, to drink

b. 某些特定的動詞後面只可以接不定詞

He decided to work for Google.

My little sister asked me to play with her.

c. 用來表目的

I need an organizer to help me remember my schedule.

I’m looking forward to seeing you.   這裡的 to 是當介系詞,所以接動名詞。