【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 25 動詞變化 規則與不規則動詞

潔西真的是被自己打敗,中午煮了酸辣湯飯,因為是一人份,懶得用湯匙舀,想說直接拿鍋子用倒得倒進大湯碗,然後動作太大?速度太快?湯整個甩出來,大概五分之一甩到地上去了,還好沒燙到自己,剛煮好的湯燙到可是不得了。打掃了很久,一邊想為什麼自己會這麼誇張呢?對了,打翻可以用 spill 這個字,Jessie spilled the soup because she was absent-minded. 潔西因為心不在焉所以打翻湯。

前兩天的說到的「短気は損気」, “Haste makes waste.",「欲速則不達」,「甲緊弄破碗」非常好的描述潔西啊。急性子的潔西真的常常打翻東西,走在家裡三不五時也會撞到牆壁,太急了?角度沒算對。唉,慢慢來。

奶油漲價好誇張喔,二十年前潔西第一次做餅乾蛋糕的時候,安佳奶油是45元,當時陽春麵大概二十元吧。剛剛看安佳奶油全聯賣185元,四倍耶,為什麼?昨天半夜突然超想吃自己做的比司吉,但是沒有泡打粉跟小蘇打粉,早上去買回來以為家裡還有奶油,結果不夠,嗚嗚,還是好想吃喔,出門買奶油去。話說,昨天看到家裡的麵粉居然過期半年,早上看小蘇打粉,更誇爭,過期一年,真的太久沒有烘焙了。是個肥滋滋的嗜好,但是香味非常療癒,非常時期,心理衛生也很重要,做比司吉去了。祝大家平安健康,有美好的一天。Have a good day!

動詞像變色龍一樣,在不同時態下,不同情態下,會配合時態或其他動詞作不同的變化。記清楚動詞的四個面貌跟用法對於學好英文有很大的幫助。

1 動詞原型(V1/V0) Base From

a 動詞的第一個形態,在字典中查到的原形:work, play, eat, drink

b 用在現在簡單式,但是現在簡單式的主詞為第三人稱單數名詞時,該動詞要加 s。

I usually take a shower in the morning, but my brother takes a shower before he goes to bed.

I work from 9 to 5.

She works from home.

I eat a sandwich for breakfast.

She eats two eggs for breakfast.

c 用在助動詞 do, did, can, could, will, would, may..等後面的原形 V0。

They didn’t go home until midnight.

I could swim when I was a kid.

I didn’t work this morning.

She can eat five bowls of rice.

d 用在不定詞 to 的後面。to + V0 叫做 infinitive,不定詞動詞。

Sam wanted to go to the party, but his parents didn’t allow him to go.

I want to work four days a week.

She wants to eat a big meal.

2 動詞過去式(V2) Simple Past

a 動詞的第二個形態,規則變化在動詞後面加 ed,不規則變化需要查字典,字典通常只會寫出不規則的變化:worked, played ate, drank

b 只用在過去簡單式。

He worked hard and played hard all his life.

I ate a hamburger and drank some coke for breakfast this morning.

I worked late last night.

She worked for ten hours yesterday.

I ate some cookies earlier.

She ate some fruit for lunch.

3 動詞過去分詞(V3) Past Participle

a 動詞的第三個形態,有時簡稱PP,規則變化在動詞後面加 ed,不規則變化需要查字典,字典通常只會寫出不規則的變化:worked, played, eaten, drunk

b 用在完成式,搭配 have/has/had 用在完成式。可能是現在完成,過去完成,未來完成式。

They have worked for this company since 2000.

I have never eaten Greek food.

c 用在被動,搭配 be 動詞一起表達被動。被動的要素 be+V3

His wallet was stolen.

Romeo and Juliet was written by William Shakespeare.

d 用來當形容詞

The confused students couldn’t answer the questions.

I was shocked by the news.

4 動詞現在分詞(V-ing) Present Participle: 

a 動詞的第四個形態是在動詞原形的後面加ing (V-ing):working, playing, eating, drinking

b 用在進行式,跟不同時態的 be 動詞一起表達各種進行式

I have been working for 12 hours. I need a break.

They were eating dinner when I arrived.

c 用來當形容詞

A wok is a cooking utensil. 

I’m bored because the movie is so boring.

5 動名詞(V-ing) Gerund:

a 動名詞跟現在分詞長得一模一樣,都是在動詞原形後面加ing (V-ing):working, playing, eating, drinking

b 動名詞顧名思義就是拿來當名詞用,所以動名詞就相當於是一個名詞,用法也跟名詞一樣可以當主詞,受詞,跟補語。

Working 12 hours a day is stressful.

My hobbies are cooking and swimming.

c 某些特定的動詞或是動詞片語後面只可以接動名詞

I enjoy cooking.

Keep on working!

翻譯練習

1 安靜。我正試著要放鬆。

2 她最喜歡的音樂是嘻哈。她總是聽它。

3 A: 你今天晚上要出去嗎? B: 沒有。我還沒寫我的作業。

4 A: 你找到你的鑰匙了嗎? B: 沒有,我到處都看過了,但是我還沒找到它。

5 我不懂,所以我問了一個問題。

6 A: 你在哪裡買那件洋裝了。 B: 我媽媽給我的。

7 每個人都在說話,突然間,燈熄了。

8 我哥哥總是笑我。他很煩人。

9 他昨天很無聊因為他沒事做。

10 我有個疲累的一天。

.

.

.

.

.

翻譯練習 答案

1 安靜。我正試著要放鬆。

1 Be quiet. I’m trying to relax.

2 她最喜歡的音樂是嘻哈。她總是聽它。

2 Her favorite music is hip-hop. She listens to it all the time.

3 A: 你今天晚上要出去嗎? B: 沒有。我還沒寫我的作業。

3 A: Are you going out tonight?  B: No. I haven’t done my homework.

4 A: 你找到你的鑰匙了嗎? B: 沒有,我到處都看過了,但是我還沒找到它。

4 A: Have you found your key? B: No, I’ve looked everywhere, but I still haven’t found it.

5 我不懂,所以我問了一個問題。

5 I didn’t understand, so I asked a question.

6 A: 你在哪裡買那件洋裝了。 B: 我媽媽給我的。

6 A: Where did you buy that dress?  B: My mother gave it to me.

7 每個人都在說話,突然間,燈熄了。

7 Everyone was talking and suddenly the lights went out.

8 我哥哥總是笑我。他很煩人。

8 My brother always laughs at me. He’s very annoying.

9 他昨天很無聊因為他沒事做。

9 He was bored yesterday because he had nothing to do.

10 我有個疲累的一天。

10 I’ve had a tiring day.

動詞變化,動詞三態,某些動詞不會有進行式

原型

過去式

過去分詞

現在分詞V-ing

V1

V2

V3

V-ing

1. be 是

was/were

been

being

2. buy 買

bought

bought

buying

3. come 來

came

come

coming

4. do 做

did

done

doing

5. drink 喝

drank

drunk

drinking

6. drive 開車

drove

driven

driving

7. eat 吃

ate

eaten

eating

8. find 找

found

found

finding

9. fly 飛

flew

flown

flying

10. forget忘記

forgot

forgotten

forgetting

11. get 拿

got

gotten

getting

12. give 給

gave

given

giving

13. go 去

went

gone

going

14. have 有

had

had

having

15. know 知道

knew

known

knowing

16. leave 離開

left

left

leaving

17. lose 輸,遺失

lost

lost

losing

18. make 

made

made

making

19. meet 碰面

met

met

meeting

20. quit戒,辭職

quit

quit

quitting

21. read 閱讀

read

read

reading

22. ride 騎

rode

ridden

riding

23. run 跑

ran

run

running

24. see 看

saw

seen

seeing

25. sell 賣

sold

sold

selling

26. sing 唱歌

sang

sung

singing

27. sit 坐

sat

sat

sitting

28. sleep 睡

slept

slept

sleeping

29. speak 說

spoke

spoken

speaking

30. spend 花費

spent

spent

spending

31. swim 游泳

swam

swum

swimming

32. take 拿

took

taken

taking

33. think 想

thought

thought

thinking

34. wear 穿

wore

worn

wearing

35. win 贏

won

won

winning

36. write 寫

wrote

written

writing

37. begin 開始

began

begun

beginning

38. break 打破

broke

broken

breaking

39. build 建造

built

built

building

40. catch 捉

caught

caught

catching

41. choose 選擇

chose

chosen

choosing

42. cut 切

cut

cut

cutting

43. cost 花費

cost

cost

44. fall 掉下來

fell

fallen

falling

45. keep 保持

kept

kept

keeping

46. set 設定

set

set

setting

47. tell 告訴

told

told

telling

48. teach 教

taught

taught

teaching

49. understand 了解

understood

understood

50. wear 穿,戴

wore

worn

wearing

【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 11 過去簡單式 一般動詞 肯定句, 規則與不規則變化

我很糟糕,剛剛在跟朋友討論下下星期吃飯的是,我說我都可以,然後朋友說欣葉,我改提異響食天堂,上次去吃的時候覺得菜色還不錯,可能人多,所以一直都有新鮮的菜上來,不像一般吃到飽的餐廳會有冷冷的菜,或空空的盤子。但是不便宜,中午是 798,所以加一成是 878。有人對於價格會不會太高畢竟不是大家都有預算一餐花這個價錢,朋友再提一次欣葉,我很不好意思,很機車的說其實我不是很喜歡。價格680加一成748,我有去吃過,覺得不值,然後剛剛我突然想到,啊,他主打日式料理,我不吃生魚片,我也不喜歡壽司,我反應好慢,真的,難以置信。

然後今天上課遲到,我真的很少上課遲到,通常會早到,但是最近比較常,真的很丟臉,有一次去捐血,時間沒算對,有一次我也忘記為什麼,時間也沒算好,遲到十分鐘,今天更誇張,遲到十五分鐘左右,或更多。今天在中正紀念堂上課,我一直這樣想,因為上星期也是,我特別提早半個小時過去,想說可以去小七吃點午餐,但是但是,我人到了教室才突然想到,這星期訂不到教室,我們改承德路,太誇張了,馬上趕過去,剩半個小時到中山站再走過去應該綽綽有餘,結果呢,被 Google Maps 害死,上面寫北門站,我到北門的時候走好遠上去,然後出來,天啊,超遠的,Google Maps 寫五分鐘,哪有可能到,騙人。只好又走下去,真的是很遠。然後坐到中山站,走根本也不止五分鐘,總之就遲到很久。然後我反應超慢的剛剛才想到,啊,我是不會坐計程車喔?因為那個時間跟距離我覺得可以,但實際上不想,一開始就該坐捷運的啊。

回來吃午晚餐,因為沒時間吃飯,早上特別早起,十點多開始備課,不餓,然後就沒時間吃,有緊張死了,下午五點才吃第一餐,嗚嗚。回來打包。我這輩子出去玩好像第一次這麼晚才打包,我通常很早拿出行李箱,慢慢丟東西進去。不過才五天,行李箱根本裝不滿,但我有的沒的還是帶很多啊。

今天上小班的課有一個是我的舊生,第一次見到本人,先前前後上應該有一年吧,所以算是熟,但是從沒見過面。見面了真開心,本人比較帥,一看就知道瘦很多,臉型都不太一樣了,去日商公司被操到瘦了六公斤,好幸福喔,誤。後來想想我上課對他太嚴厲了,可能是太熟了,學生答錯了,因為是很基本的錯誤,我居然跟學生說我要打你了喔,這個老師,其他同學不知道有沒有嚇到。後來他說很久沒碰英文了,他日文很好,在日本住過,英文我是從基礎開始教,他會忘也是正常的,沒用到。老師都以為教了學生就記得,哪有那麼容易啊!

好累喔,我現在就想睡,但是我還要洗澡,想熬夜寫講義,最近寫太多,手腕開始痛了,還好要休息了。我明天開始要去日本五天,老人團,購物團。我們一個人四萬元,五天,居然有四個逛街行程,真的很誇張,第一天逛AEON Shopping Mall,第四天去免稅店,第五天在大阪的心齋橋跟忘記是哪裡,也是很有名吃章魚燒的地方。有那個跑跑人看板那裡。逛街。然後到機場前又是逛 Outlet ,到底是有多想買啊?第一天到買上買,最後一天都在逛街買東西。我八月才去,幾乎沒有想買的東西,當然日本很好買,想到我今年賺的錢都拿來出國玩了,心有點痛,玩是很好玩啦,錢也是該省一點的。該去洗澡了,長夜漫漫,喔,所以我至少五天到六天或是應該更長部會發文,但是看網路跑得如何,可能在臉書分享一些照片,也不是不能放上來,看情逛吧,晚安。

過去簡單式

ㄧ 使用時機     

現在簡單式: S + V  I work every day.  

現在進行式:S + be1 +Ving.  I am working now.

1 用來表達過去發生已經結束的事情

I stayed up late last night.

He ate a big breakfast this morning.

past ———X————— now ———————— future

2 用來表達一般的過去,過去規律發生的動作。

Jane visited her grandmother every month.

He went to church every Sunday.

past ——XXX——— now ———————— future

3 用來表達過去持續一段時間,已經結束的動作。

I lived in Sydney for two years.

They stayed in a nice hotel.

past —X—————X——now ———————— future

二 經常搭配的副詞是過去的時間,如 yesterday, last month, two years ago, 1990, in the twentieth century …等。

三 句型

過去簡單式的一般動詞的句型

1 肯定句:主詞+過去式動詞 V2 (不論那個主詞加的都一樣加過去是動詞)

主詞

過去式動詞 V2

其他部分

I

worked

in a music store.

You

played

basketball yesterday.

He

studied

English last year.

She

went

home late last night.

It

rained

a lot yesterday.

We

went

shopping last weekend.

You

wrote

an e-mail.

They

left

the party early.

四 動詞過去式的變化

動詞過去式的變化分規則動詞與不規則動詞,規則動詞變化有規則,發音跟拼字的規則如下:

A. 規則動詞的過去式拼字變化如下:

1. 大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ed。

cook-cooked, push-pushed, watch-watched, help-helped, call-called

2. 動詞字尾已經有e時,只要加d即可。

live-lived, close-closed, dance-danced, smile-smiled

3. 動詞字尾為子音加y時,必須去y加ied。

study-studied, cry-cried, worry-worried, copy-copied.

4. 只有一個音節的動詞字尾發音為短母音加子音時,重複字尾再加ed。

shop-shopped, plan-planned, tap-tapped, hop-hopped

5. 兩個音節以上且重音在最後一個音節的動詞,字尾發音為短母音加子音時,也需重複字尾加ed。

admit-admitted, prefer-preferred, omit-omitted, traveled   (重音在前面只要加ed)

英式與美式的不同 flat, apartment, lift, elevator, colour, color, centre, center

B. 規則動詞的過去式發音的變化如下:

1. 動詞字尾是無聲子音時,加ed後讀/ t /。無聲子音指的是除了/ t /之外的

/ k /, / f /, / s /, / ʃ/, / tʃ/, /θ / 等。

cook-cooked, laugh-laughed, kiss-kissed, wash-washed, watch-watched

2. 動詞字尾是有聲子音或母音時,加ed後讀/d/。有聲子音指的是除了/ d /之外的

/b /, / g /, / r /, / l /, / m /, / n /, / v / 等。

call-called, rain-rained, love-loved, play-played, pull-pulled

3. 動詞字尾的發音是/ t /, / d /的發音時,加ed後讀/ɪd /。

want-wanted, need-needed, visit-visited, wait-waited      

無聲子音(voiceless consonants)/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / /, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants)   /b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/,

                                                      /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/,

          / aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

練習一 Regular Verbs 規則動詞,將下列動詞放入正確的位置

1 clean 打掃  2 cook 做菜  3 exercise 運動 4 invite 邀請 5 listen 聽

6 need 需要  7 relax 放鬆  8 shop 購物   9 study 用功  10 talk 說話

11 visit 拜訪  12 wait  等待 13 walk 走路  14 watch 看  15 work 工作

/t/

/d/

/ɪd /

C 不規則動詞,變化中還是有些規則,但是不用去特別記規則,單字看到一個記一個,下面這些比較常見的單字可以先記

練習二 寫出下面動詞的過去式

1 buy    2 come   3 cost   4 cut   5 do   6 drink  7 eat   8 feel   9 forget  10 get  11 give   

12 have   13 lose   14 make   15 meet   16 read   17 run   18 see   19 sit   20 spend 

21 take     22 think  23 win   24 write   25 know

練習三 翻譯下面句子

1 我昨天在路上遇到 Mike 。

2 Dean 上週末看了一部很棒的電影。

3 我忘了他們的名字。

4 Sarah 有個超讚的假期。

5 Emily 昨天通過考試。

6 雨停後他去逛街。

7 她買了一件美麗的洋裝。

8 我媽媽打給我又寄了三封簡訊給我。

9 我們三個月開始約會。

10 我熬夜完成企劃案。

答案

練習一 Regular Verbs 規則動詞

1 clean 打掃  2 cook 做菜  3 exercise 運動 4 invite 邀請 5 listen 聽

6 need 需要  7 relax 放鬆  8 shop 購物   9 study 用功  10 talk 說話

11 visit 拜訪  12 wait  等待 13 walk 走路  14 watch 看  15 work 工作

/t/: cooked, relaxed, shopped, talked, walked, watched, worked

/d/:cleaned, exercised, listened, studied

/ɪd /:invited, needed, visited, waited

練習二 寫出下面動詞的過去式

1 buy-bought   2 come-came   3 cost-cost   4 cut-cut   5 do-did   6 drink-drank  7 eat-ate   

8 feel-felt   9 forget-forgot  10 get-got  11 give-gave  12 have-had   13 lose-lost  

14 make-made   15 meet-met   16 read-read   17 run-ran   18 see-saw   19 sit-sat  

20 spend-spent  21 take-took     22 think-thought  23 win-won   24 write-wrote  

25 know-knew

練習三 翻譯答案

1 I ran into Mike on the street last night.

1 我昨天在路上遇到 Mike 。

2 Dean saw a great movie last weekend.

2 Dean 上週末看了一部很棒的電影。

3 I forgot their names.

3 我忘了他們的名字。

4 Sarah had a wonderful vacation.

4 Sarah 有個超讚的假期。

5 Emily passed the exam yesterday.

5 Emily 昨天通過考試。

6 He went shopping after it stopped raining.

6 雨停後他去逛街。

7 She bought a beautiful dress.

7 她買了一件美麗的洋裝。

8 My mother called me and sent three text messages.

8 我媽媽打給我又寄了三封簡訊給我。

9 We started dating three weeks ago.

9 我們三個月開始約會。

10 我熬夜完成企劃案。

10 I stayed up all night to finish the project.