【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 50 名詞子句 講解講義

每天都在翻照片,今天翻出這張是大小寶跟潔西在餵奈良的鹿,而且不知為什麼所以的鹿都往潔西這邊來,潔西跟鹿兒們說了什麼好聽的話吧?

好聽的話大家都愛聽,潔西也是啊,謝謝大家三不五時的留言。潔西收到 YouTube 影片覺得最讓潔西開心的留言是有在美國念語言學校的中國學生,說在學校上課不懂的文法,回家看了潔西的影片秒懂。超感動的。因為外國人用英文教文法難懂是正常的吧,看了潔西的影片就可以懂,表示潔西有講清楚文法的用法,哈哈哈,得意的笑了。當然要加強的部分還是很多。

昨天學生說他的主管問他是不是有學英文,感覺寫郵件有進步了,謝謝學生跟潔西說,好開心喔。說真的,有在練習方法對,真的就會進步。看到學生進步,通過考試真的是最開心的事。

其實當老師家長的不要太過分誇張,但是適時地讚美小孩學生會讓他們對自己更有信心,對於學習更有興趣。我發現我上日文課的老師有些,特別是女老師,就比較會讚美學生,而且不是每個人隨便地讚美,是特別你回答對,或說得流暢的時候,讚美一下,真的會讓學習的人更有信心更有興趣,也更願意花努力去加強吧!

今天講得是有點難的名詞子句。所以分了三隻影片講,還有一隻翻譯練習的影片。另外還有一課講轉述,他說了什麼,會是在下一課。有時間的時候再一隻一隻慢慢看吧。

 

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下面是名詞子句的影片跟講義

 

a that 帶領的名詞子句

 

b WH 疑問詞帶領的名詞子句

 

c if/whether 帶領的名詞子句

 

翻譯練習講解

 

 

名詞子句

名詞子句顧名思義是一個用來當名詞的子句。這個子句本身有主詞,有動詞,但是語意不完整,所以稱作非獨立子句,需要加上一個獨立子句,也就是主要子句才能結合成完整的一個句子。

名詞子句:where he lives

主要子句:I don’t know something.

1 完整的句子: I don’t know where he lives. 我不知道他住在哪裡。

名詞子句的功用是把整個句子當名詞用,所以當主詞,受詞,主詞補語等。

 

2 當主詞:That the earth is getting warmer is true. 地球變得更溫暖了是真的。

 

3 當受詞:I wonder why he didn’t show up. 我在想他為什麼沒有出現。

 

4 當主詞補語:Tom’s problem is that he works too hard. 湯姆的問題是他工作太努力了。

名詞子句的主要三種型態

a 用 that 帶領的名詞子句

5 I’m sorry that I skipped class yesterday. 我很抱歉我昨天翹課。

 

b 用 WH 疑問詞帶領的名詞子句

6 I remember what he said. 我記得他說了什麼。

c 用 if 或 whether 帶領的名詞子句

7 He wants to know if she will join us. 他想要知道她是否會加入我們。

 

a 用 that 帶領的名詞子句

that 子句的位置可以在不同的地方

(a) 在獨立子句的最前面當主詞,這時候 that 不可以省略

8 That he said nothing didn’t surprise me. 他什麼都沒說嚇到我了。

9 That the earth is round is true. 地球是圓的是真的。

 

(b) 在獨立子句的動詞後面當受詞

10 Do you ever feel that you might be in danger? 你曾經覺得你可能有危險嗎?

11 She said that she would be late.  她說她會遲到。

 

(c) 在特定形容詞後面。如:happy, glad, pleased, upset, worried, surprised, sure等。

12 I’m surprised that he passed the test. 我很訝異他通過考試。

13 I’m worried that COVID-19 is getting worse. 我擔心新冠肺炎變得更糟。

 

(d) 在特定名詞後面。如:idea, thought, statement, belief, opinion, problem 等。

14 I was faced with the problem that I had no money. 我面對了我沒有錢的這個問題ㄡ

15 It is my belief that nuclear weapons are immoral. 我相信核能武器是不道德的。

 

 

嵌入問句 embedded questions

英文當要表達對於某些事情不了解或要客氣地問一些問題時,常會用嵌入問句。也就是把一個原本的問句改成直述句,放入句子當中。嵌入問句可分成由 WH 疑問詞帶領的名詞子句跟 if/whether 帶領原本為 Yes/No 問句改過來的名詞子句。

(a) 嵌入問句本身為直述句,所以要先把原本的問句改為直述句才是一個嵌入問句。

WH 疑問句:Which way is the MRT station?

直述句:      which way the MRT station is

主要子句:   He wants to know something

16 完整的句子:He wants to know which way the MRT station is. 他想要知道捷運站在哪邊。

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Is there an MRT station nearby?

直述句:      there is an MRT station nearby

主要子句:   He wants to know something

17 完整的句子:He wants to know if there is an MRT station nearby. 他想知道附近有捷運站嗎?

 

(b) 嵌入問句不影響原本主要子句的標點符號。原主要子句是直述句時,句尾用句號,原主要子句是疑問句時,句尾用問號。

WH 疑問句: Whose bag is this?

直述句:      whose bag this is

主要子句直述句: I don’t know something.

主要子句問句   : Do you know something?

18 完整的直述句: I don’t know whose bag this is. 我不知道這是誰的袋子。

19 完整的問句   : Do you know whose bag this is? 你知道這是誰的袋子嗎?

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Is he married?

直述句:           He is married.

主要子句直述句: I don’t know something.

主要子句問句  : Do you know something?

20 完整的直述句: I don’t know if he is married. 我不知道他是不是結婚了。

21 完整的問句   : Do you know if he is married? 你知道他結婚了嗎?

 

 

B 用 WH 疑問詞帶領的名詞子句

WH 疑問詞也就是 what, where, when, why, who, how, which, whose 等疑問詞所帶領的名詞子句。

WH 的疑問句要由原本的疑問句型(助動詞放在主詞前面),改回直述句(主詞加動詞的形式)。

(a) WH 疑問句的疑問詞本身是主詞時,不需要做任何改變。因為疑問詞本身是問句的時候就不會把助動詞放到主詞前面造問句,所以跟直述句的排列方式是一樣的。

名詞子句:   What happened?

主要子句:   Tell me something.

22 完整的句子:Tell me what happened. 告訴我發生什麼事了?

 

名詞子句:   Who took my umbrella?

主要子句:   Tell me something.

23 完整的句子:Tell me who took my umbrella. 告訴我誰拿了我的雨傘。

 

名詞子句:   Whose phone is ringing?

主要子句:   Tell me something.

24 完整的句子:Tell me whose phone is ringing. 告訴我誰的電話在響。

 

(b) 當 WH 疑問詞帶領的子句中的原問句 WH 疑問詞本身不是主詞時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述

句。當助動詞為do/does/did時必須省略。也就是當時態為現在簡單式或過去簡單式的時候,因為

改問句需要 do/does/did 來幫忙,所以改回直述句的時候需要把 do/does/did 去掉,假如是第三

人稱單數要把 s 加回來,過去式要把動詞還原為過去式,是把主要動詞作變化改為正確的時態。

WH 疑問句:  Why do they like online games?

名詞子句:    why they like online games

主要子句:    I wonder something.

25 完整的句子: I wonder why they like online games. 我在想為什麼他們喜歡線上遊戲。

 

WH 疑問句:  How long does the movie last?

名詞子句:    how long the movie lasts

主要子句:    I wonder something.

26 完整的句子: I wonder how long the movie lasts. 我在想那部電影演多久。

 

WH 疑問句:  Where did he go last night?

名詞子句:    where he went last night

主要子句:    I wonder something.

27 完整的句子: I wonder where he went last night. 我在想他昨天晚上去了哪裡。

 

(c) 當 WH 疑問詞帶領的子句中的原問句 WH 疑問詞本身不是主詞時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述

句。當助動詞是 be 動詞(am/is/are/was/were),has/have/had 或 will 等助動詞時,則把該助動

詞放回主詞的後面即可。因為這些助動詞都是把它們放到主詞前面造問句,所以只要還原就可以。

WH 疑問句:  Who is that tall woman?

名詞子句:    Who that tall woman is?

主要子句:    I’m not sure something.

28 完整的句子: I’m not sure who that tall woman is. 我不確定那個高高的女人是誰。

 

WH 疑問句:  How long has he lived in Taipei?

名詞子句:    how long he has lived in Taipei

主要子句:    I’m not sure something.

29 完整的句子: I’m not sure how long he has lived in Taipei. 我不確定他住台北多久了。

 

WH 疑問句:  When will they come back?

名詞子句:    when they will come back

主要子句:    I’m not sure something.

30 完整的句子: I’m not sure when they will come back. 我不確定他們會回來。

 

 

C 用if/whether帶領的名詞子句

嵌入問句的原問句為 Yes/No 問句時,也就是由be動詞(am/is/are/was/were),

do/does/did, have/has/has, will, 或其它助動詞等所帶領的問句時,嵌入問句為由 if 或 whether 帶領的名詞子句。

(a) 當 if/whether 帶領的名詞子句中的原 Yes/No 問句的助動詞為 do/does/did 時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述句。助動詞為do/does/did必須省略。把主要動詞作變化改為正確的時態。

Yes/No 疑問句:Do teenagers shop online?

名詞子句:        if teenagers shop online

主要子句:        I wonder something.

31 完整的句子:I wonder if teenagers shop online. 我在想青少年有沒有在網路上購物。

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Does he love me?

名詞子句:        if he loves me

主要子句:        I wonder something.

32 完整的句子:I wonder if he loves me. 我在想他是不是愛我。

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Did she go to the concert?

名詞子句:        if she went to the concert

主要子句:        I wonder something.

33 完整的句子:I wonder if she went to the concert. 我在想她有沒有去演唱會。

 

(b) 當 if/whether 帶領的名詞子句中的原 Yes/No 問句的助動詞為 be 動詞(am/is/are/was/were),has/have/had 或 will 等助動詞時,則把該助動詞放回主詞的後面即可由疑問句改為直述句。

Yes/No 疑問句:Is he leaving?

名詞子句:        if he is leaving

主要子句:        I’m not sure something.

34 完整的句子:I’m not sure if he is leaving. 我不確定他是不是正要離開。

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Has he been abroad?

名詞子句:        if he has been abroad

主要子句:        I’m not sure something.

35 完整的句子:I’m not sure if he has been abroad. 我不確定他是不是出國過。

 

Yes/No 疑問句:Will it rain tomorrow?

名詞子句:        if it will rain tomorrow

主要子句:        I’m not sure something.

36 完整的句子:I’m not sure if it will rain tomorrow. 我不確定明天會不會下雨。

 

翻譯練習

1 我不知道他去了哪裡。

2 我不懂你在說什麼。

3 我忘記我有沒有鎖門。

4 瑪麗不知道他結婚了。

5 他問我們我們是不是學生。

6 不好意思我遲到了。

7 我不確定我有足夠的錢。

8 事實是他從來不念書。

9 我很訝異他通過了考試。

10 湯姆說他感冒了。

翻譯練習 答案

.

.

.

 

Where did he go? — where he went

I don’t know something.

1 我不知道他去了哪裡。

1 I don’t know where he went.

 

What are you saying/talking about?

what you are saying

I don’t understand something.

2 我不懂你在說什麼。

2 I don’t understand what you are saying.

 

Did I lock the door? if/whether I locked the door

I forgot something

3 我忘記我有沒有鎖門。

3 I forgot if I locked the door.

 

4 瑪麗不知道他結婚了。

4 Mary doesn’t know that he is married.

 

Are we students? — if we are students

5 他問我們我們是不是學生。

5 He asked us if we were students.

 

6 不好意思我遲到了。

6 I’m sorry that I’m late.

 

I’m not sure something

Do I have enough money? — if I have enough money

7 我不確定我有足夠的錢。

7 I’m not sure if I have enough money.

 

8 事實是他從來不念書。

8 The fact is that he never studies.

 

9 我很訝異他通過了考試。

9 I’m surprised that he passed the exam.

 

I have a cold.

10 湯姆說他感冒了。

10 Tom said that he had a cold.

子句與句子的簡單說明

這裡的子句跟句子簡單地講了一下,總之寫出來的句子一定都是要在四種句子裡面,獨立子句跟非獨立子句的結合也就只有三種形式:名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。寫句子跟講句子的留意一下。才十點,又超不多要睡了,大家晚安:)

 

噢,差點忘了,有錄影片:

 

D 子句的種類  types of clauses 

子句有三種,分名詞子句、形容詞子句跟副詞子句。

1. 名詞子句 noun clause:整個子句當名詞用,不是當句子的主詞就是受詞,主詞補語。

2. 形容詞子句 adjective clause:整個子句當形容詞用,一定是用來修飾名詞。

  1. 副詞子句 adverb clause:整個子句當副詞用,像時間子句,條件子句等都是副詞子句,整個子句當副詞用,用來修飾動詞或整個句子。

1. 名詞子句 noun clause

I   think  that Jessie  is  a crazy teacher.

(        S       V                      )    —noun clause

S    V                    O

That the earth  is  round  is   true.   It’s true that the earth is round.

(         S          V          )                        —noun clause

S                  V   SC

I don’t know where she lives.     Where does she live?     I don’t if it will rain tomorrow?

(          S   V   )                     —noun clause

S     V                O

名詞子句放在最前面帶領子句的有that,whether,if,疑問詞what、when、where、who等。that除了在句首外一般可以省略,其他的疑問詞等則不可省。

2. 形容詞子句 adjective clause

The book  which  I  read  last night  was  great.   The book was great. I read the book last night.

(        S   V                 )                  —adjective clause

S                                          V    SC

I  like  movies   that  make  me laugh.       I like movies. The movies make me laugh.

(  S     V               )                 —adjective clause

S  V    O

I’ll never forget the day when I  got married.

(      S   V             )      —adjective clause

S            V        O

形容詞子句又叫關係子句。而放在最前面帶領形容詞子句的字就叫做關係代名詞,如that、what、who、when、where、whose等。通常做為受詞的關係代名詞如which、whom、that,可以省略,可是在限定子句時又不能省。名詞與副詞子句都有who、what、where這些疑問詞,所以容易混淆。其實只要注意子句本身的功能與修飾的對象,應該就可以分得很清楚了。

3. 副詞子句 adverb clause

He ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

(            S   V                  )     –adverb clause

S   V        O

If you don’t have enough money, you can give it to me next time.

(    S       V                          )                                     –adverb clause

S     V

He was driving  while he was talking on the phone.

(        S       V                         )              –adverb clause

S          V

副詞子句一般是大家最熟悉的,種類也最多。副詞子句可以用來表達時間、因果、對比、條件、讓步等等。副詞子句最前面帶領子句的字叫做從屬連接詞subordinating conjunctions,是用來連接主要子句跟副詞子句的橋樑。

當主要子句在前面時,因為很清楚的可以知道副詞子句是由從屬連接詞開始,所以不需要逗號,如第一與第三句。而當副詞子句在句首時,要有一個逗號清楚地把副詞子句跟主要子句隔開來,如第二個句子。當然這些從屬連接詞是都不能省略的囉。

例外:

當while表示對比,或者是though, 或although在中間時,也會有逗號,但是其他連接詞在中間時,則不需要逗號。

Schools in the north tend to be better equipped, while those in the south are relatively poor.

I thought he’d been drinking, though I wasn’t completely sure.

You can copy down my answers, although I’m not sure if they’re right.

E 句子的種類 types of sentences     

四個句子的種類

1. simple sentences 簡單句

I love beef.

2. compound sentences 並合句

I love beef, but I hate pork.

3. complex sentences 複合句

Although I love beef, I hate pork.

4.compound-complex sentences 混合句

My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a day.

  1. 簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,但整體視為

一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

  1. 並合句是由對等連接詞(and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet,可以用fanboys記)將兩個獨立

子句連接而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.    I love beef, but I don’t like beef noodles.

  1. 複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(如because, although, when, before等)所帶

領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。可能包

含了一個名詞子句,或形容詞子句,或副詞子句。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

I can’t believe she is only 17.

4. 混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句形成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did nothing.

F 並合句 Compound Sentence:用對等連接詞連接句子

要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。對等連接詞可以用來合併句子,形成並合句。

對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個:常用的是 and, but, so, or 其他還有 nor, for 跟yet。可用fanboys來記:for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

For 用來表原因:I am very tired, for I worked very hard today.

And 用來表達同等的概念:I am very tired, and I want to rest for a few minutes.

Nor 用來表達否定的選擇:I am not tired, nor am I hungry right now.

But 用來表達對比:I am tired, but I have no time to rest now.

Or 用來表達選擇:I will take a nap, or I will go out jogging.

Yet 用來表達對比:I will take a nap, yet I am unable to relax.

So 用來表達結果:I am tired, so I will take a nap.

基礎文法L12 第十四章 名詞子句Noun Clauses

耶!基礎第十二課,上完一本課本了,萬歲!然後暑假也過了,不知該笑還該哭,對於這淒慘的暑假,還沒跟我的陽光,我的沙灘,我的比基尼約會,暑假就這樣溜走了。算了,反正並沒有穿比基尼的身材,還是不要嚇人,呵呵。

超忙的暑假,而且發生很多事,潔西的心情大致上除了上課外,還挺常處在一個不好的狀態,主因之一也是頭痛不斷,身體大小突發狀況一堆,一天到晚中暑到一個不行,然後呢忙到頭痛?還是常頭痛到什麼都不能做,所以壓縮時間變得更忙呢?就一整個英文的vicious circle惡性循環啊!覺得非常對不起星期五這個文法班的同學,因為這12堂課,頭痛比沒頭痛的天數還多。翻了一下記事本,天啊,12天中有記錄吃強力英明格的日子就有五天,沒寫到的,沒有痛到吃藥的天數可能更多,然後因為不舒服,也因為忙,所以每次上課都是當天才開始寫講義,常常是跟頭痛作戰還要一邊寫講義,潔西是個講義狂,有多少時間就花多少時間寫,有沒有時間概念,幾乎每次都寫到最後一分鐘,欲罷不能,所以三不五十騎老爸的車子去上課,也趕了幾次計程車,然後當然常常趕到沒時間吃晚餐,像今天這樣還有悠哉的一邊吃一邊看影集的時候真的是難得。

雖然希望可以上的更好,說得更清楚,但是常常心有餘力不足,也覺得課上得不夠有趣啊,但是,唉,一言難盡。其實這個文法課潔西是幫別的老師代課,而且是自己閒閒很悠哉的時候問主管有沒有文法課可以上,剛好有老師請假,潔西就來代課了。結果一不小心開始超忙碌,外加暑假,人狂多,天氣狂熱,潔西狂生病,就是一個字,慘。真的非常謝謝這個班的同學的體諒,老師有時說話都口齒非常得不清,因為吃了英明格,這強力止痛藥,對大腦影響不下,另外潔西幾乎都睡不著,所以三不五十的安眠藥也讓大腦變得遲鈍,口條非常差,這真的不是藉口,是不想要的親身體驗。

其實已經有放掉一個班了,可是上個星期上課前頭又痛到快捉狂的時候,想說,要不要跟主管說把這個文法班下一期也放掉,會不會對學生比較好?但是呢,想說有潔西的學生已經說要去上潔西的班了,又不想讓同學失望,掙扎了很久,決定還是繼續上,不過下一期就不寫講義了。藍色的課本編的比較好,整理也比較齊全,不寫講義也有比較多時間思考上課的方式,講解的方式,或許還可以做一兩個活動。今天的講義只有9張,其中三張是文法書上的題目跟答案。所以呢,總共潔西寫的是6張,從一起床11點到下午5點,寫6個小時加打字。潔西自己都覺得很誇張,再說這名詞子句沒有很難。當然當中有吃點早餐跟午餐,跟同學聊一下天,不過還是大部分時間有專心寫。寫足五個小時絕對有,寫很久是因為潔西在想說怎麼樣說,怎麼樣寫,舉怎麼樣的例子才會讓同學比較容易懂。

因為其實市面上的文法書包括這本Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar很多都是英文翻中文,翻過來其實有時候是中文,但還是很難看得懂,還有說明的方式,或很少的說明,潔西自己都不愛,有時候還要看很久,看英文還比較容易理解。潔西真的覺得文法這東西其實沒有那麼難,恩,好啦,老實說,文法其實有難,但是一般人日常生活需要用的其實不難,不用所有都記起來所有都懂,但是呢要能夠理解,會應用才算學到。但是文法書寫得很難懂,所以大家就只能打退堂鼓。很可惜啊!潔西一直有個心願,希望可以寫一本簡單易懂的文法書讓同學,讓想學習的人可以比較容易懂。不過呢有了部落格這種東西,其實也不一定要寫書,效果一樣啊,呵呵。

潔西有時候覺得自己跟個傻瓜一樣啊,2個小時的課,花6個小時寫講義,怎麼算都不合成本原則,呵呵,還好,潔西的人生不是以賺錢為目的,是以讓自己開心為目的。潔西也不知道為什麼,很喜歡文法,因為是喜歡的東西,所以會花時間,看不同的文法書,整理一些用法,好東西想要跟別人分享,呵呵。還有,真的一路教書十多年來覺得台灣人的文法真的有夠需要加強,即便說得很流利的人有時候還是亂七八糟令人頭痛的文法啊。真的很可惜。

潔西很喜歡學生,這個暑假常常頭痛到一個想哭的地步,還是不得不一邊上課,然後呢看到可愛的學生,自己都覺得不可思議怎麼笑得出來,但上課的時候還是很開心地笑了,跟同學有說有笑,下課後繼續痛,哇哈哈。這個暑假最大的安慰就是上課的時候大部分都是很開心的,有很多很棒的學生超開心。不過呢有時候也是為了學生的事很傷心啊,呵呵。有時候想說能不能不要那麼在乎,但是就是很難,所以呢就多找一些開心的事做來分散注意力。寫講義就挺開心的,呵呵,印出來的時候,覺得很有成就感,但是常常有錯誤@_@大家幫忙校對吧,大大感恩。

最近好少照顧部落格,因為一二要準備一二三四的課,星期五一整天備課。今天天氣好好,好想出去走走,但是就寫不完啊,還好在五點多寫完,所以還可以騎個車,吃個飯再去上課。明天一早要上課,下午通常放空。然後星期天要打掃洗衣,覺得好久沒休息了喔。身體狀況問題有點嚴重,希望可以趕快找到解決方案,然後好好的休息一下。

廢話說很多,呵呵,這一課主要在說名詞子句 noun clause,direct speech/quoted speech 引用句,也就是某人說什麼,還有當改成 indirect speech/reported speech報導句時,時態該怎麼改,不會很難,可是假如時態沒學好,這裡就會很難理解。

再次聲明歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:)  又今天摘要使用的練習題來自下面的書,所有版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.1

A.  名詞子句概述

1. 名詞子句是一個非獨立子句,本身有主詞,有動詞,但是語意不完整,整個子句當做名詞用,必須跟一個主要子句結合才能成一個完整的句子。

名詞子句 :  where he lives

主要子句:I don’t know something.

完整的句子:I don’t know where he lives.

2. 名詞子句的功用是把整個子句當名詞用,所以可以當主詞,受詞,主詞補語等。

a. 當主詞:That the earth is getting warmer is true.

b. 當受詞:I wonder why he didn’t show up.

c. 當主詞補語:Tom’s problem is that he works too hard.

3. 名詞子句的主要三種句型

a. 用WH疑問詞帶領的名詞子句

I remember what he said.

b. 用if/whether帶領的名詞子句

He wants to know if she will join us.

c. 用that帶領的名詞子句

I’m sorry that I skipped class yesterday.

B. 嵌入問句embedded questions:英文當要表達對於某些事情不了解或要客氣地問一些問題時,常會用嵌入問句。也就是把一個原本的問句改成直述句,放入句子當中。嵌入問句可分成由WH疑問詞帶領的名詞子句跟if/whether帶領的名詞子句。

1. 嵌入問句本身為直述句,所以要先把原本的問句改為直述句才是一個嵌入問句。

Which way is the MRT station? —- which way the MRT station is

He wants to know which way the MRT station is.

Is there an MRT station nearby? — there is an MRT station nearby

He wants to know if/whether there is an MRT station nearby.

2. 嵌入問句不影響原本主要子句的標點符號。原主要子句是直述句時,句尾用句號,原主要子句是疑問句時,句尾用問號。

I don’t know whose bag this is.

Do you know whose bag this is?

I don’t know if he is married.

Do you know if he is married?

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.2

C.   WH疑問詞帶領的名詞子句

嵌入問句的原問句為WH問句,也就是由疑問詞what, where, when, why, who,

how, which, whose等帶領的問句時,嵌入問句為WH疑問詞帶領的名詞子句。

1. 當WH疑問詞帶領的子句中的原問句WH疑問詞本身不是主詞時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述句。當助動詞為do/does/did時必須省略。把主要動詞作變化改為正確的時態。

Why do they like online games? — why they like online games

I wonder why they like online games.

How long does the movie last? —  how long the movie lasts

I wonder how long the movie lasts.

Where did he go last night? —- where he went last night

I wonder where he went last night.

2. 當WH疑問詞帶領的子句中的原問句WH疑問詞本身不是主詞時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述句。當助動詞是be動詞(am/is/are/was/were),has/have/had或will等助動詞時,則把該助動詞放回主詞的後面即可。

Who is that tall woman? — who that tall woman is

I’m not sure who that tall woman is.

How long has he lived in Taipei? — how long he has lived in Taipei

I’m not sure how long he has lived in Taipei.

When will they come back? — when they will come back

I’m not sure when the will come back.

3. 當WH疑問詞帶領的子句中的原問句WH疑問詞本身是主詞時,則不需改變。

What happened?

Tell me what happened.

Who took my umbrella?

Tell me who took my umbrella.

Whose phone is ringing?

Tell me whose phone is ringing.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.3

D.  if/whether帶領的名詞子句

嵌入問句的原問句為Yes/No問句時,也就是由be動詞(am/is/are/was/were),do/does/did, have/has/has, will, 或其它助動詞等所帶領的問句時,嵌入問句為if/whether帶領的名詞子句。

1. 當if/whether帶領的名詞子句中的原Yes/No問句的助動詞為do/does/did時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述句。助動詞為do/does/did必須省略。把主要動詞作變化改為正確的時態。

Do teenagers shop online? —teenagers shop online

I wonder if teenagers shop online.

Does he love me? — he loves me

I wonder if he loves me.

Did she go to the concert?  — she went to the concert

I wonder if she went to the concert.

2. 當if/whether帶領的名詞子句中的原Yes/No問句的助動詞為be動詞(am/is/are/was/were),has/have/had或will等助動詞時,則把該助動詞放回主詞的後面即可由疑問句改為直述句。

Is he leaving? — he is leaving

I’m not sure if he is leaving.

Has he been abroad? — he has been abroad

I’m not sure if he has been abroad.

Will it rain tomorrow? — it will rain tomorrow

I’m not sure if it will rain tomorrow.

3. whether比if正式,口語多用if。在whether跟if的名詞子句最後面都可以加or not,但是只有在whether子句中才可以把or not拉到前面跟whether放在一起。

I wonder if he will pass the exam.

I wonder if he will pass the exam or not.

I wonder whether he will pass the exam.

I wonder whether or not he will pass the exam.

I wonder whether he will pass the exam or not.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.4

E.   Exercise                     from P.333 Grammar Express (Longman)

1. Can you tell me whether _______________________________________

(Should I tip in Canada?)

2. I’m going to France. Please explain ________________________________

(How can I tell if the tip is included in the bill?)

3. Can you tell me ______________________________________________

(Why did service people in Iceland refuse my tips?)

4. I’m moving to Japan. I’d like to know ______________________________

(How much should I tip airport porters?)

5. We’re visiting Australia. Please tell us _____________________________

(Who expects a tip and who doesn’t?)

6. I’m vacationing in Norway. I’d like to know if ________________________

(Should I tip my ski instructor?)

7. I took a job in China. I need to know whether ________________________

(Is tipping still illegal there?)

8. In Germany the tip is included. I don’t know whether __________________

(Should I tip anyway?)

 

10. 閱讀下面文章,找出七個錯誤改正,錯誤可能為標點符號

When you live in a foreign country even a small occasion can be an adventure! Before my date with Janek tonight, I didn’t even know what should I wear! A dress? John’s Grill isn’t a fancy restaurant, but it was Janek’s birthday and I wanted to make it a big occasion. Miuki was very helpful, as always. I knew how to get to John’s Grill, but I didn’t know how long it was going to take to get there? I left at 6:00, which should have given me plenty of me, but when I got off the bus, I wasn’t sure if should I turn left or right. I asked a police officer where was John’s Grill, and I was only a few minutes late. I had planned to take Janke out for a special dessert afterward, but I couldn’t remember how can I find the place Miuki had suggested, and Janek has been here even less time than me. (Anyway, the desserts at John’s turned out to be very good.) Then, when we got the bill, I was wondering whether I should tip or no. I had to ask Janek did he know. Fortunately, he had read an article called Tips on Tipping, so he told me to leave about 15%.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.5

F.   that帶領的名詞子句

that帶領的名詞子句,語意清楚時可以省略that,但that在句首時一定不能省略。

1. that帶領的名詞子句在獨立子句的最前面當主詞

That the world is round is true.

然而將名詞子句放在句首對英語系人士來說不是很自然,所以常會把that子句在句首的改為一個由it帶領的句子,而常會是被動語態,尤其在學術寫作時。

That carbon dioxide is responsible for global warming is believed.

It is believed that carbon dioxide is responsible for global warming.

That the world’s deserts are expanding has been proven.

It has been proven that the world’s deserts are expanding.

2. that帶領的名詞子句在獨立子句的動詞後面當受詞。這些動詞多是表達心裡活動的動詞如:agree, assume, believe, decide, discover, doubt, dream, feel, forget, guess, hear, hope, know, learn, notice, predict, prove, read, realize, remember, say, suppose, think, understand等。

I agree that you are right.

She realized that it’s time to let go.

3. that帶領的名詞子句在特定名詞後面。如:fact, idea, theory, thought, claim, assertion, statement, belief, notion, opinion等。

It’s a fact that the world is round.

No one believed Galileo’s theory that Earth revolves around the sun.

4. that帶領的名詞子句在特定形容詞後面。如:afraid, angry, aware, certain, convinced, disappointed, glad, happy, lucky, pleased, sad, shocked, sorry, sure, surprised, upset, worried, true等。

The class was surprised that the instructor canceled the final exam.

I’m sorry that I couldn’t make it last night.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.6

G.   引用句Quoted Speech/Direct Speech與報導句Reported Speech/Indirect Speech                      

1. 引用句直接重述說話者所說的切確內容,在書寫時用引號quotations表示。

The kid said, “I’m hungry.”

2. 報導句重述說話者說的內容,但不是用完全一樣的字,人稱代名詞跟動詞都可能

會有所改變,不用引號。that常常可以省略掉。

The kid told his mom that he was hungry.

H.  引用句Quoted Speech/Direct Speech

1. 當引用句在動詞後面時 S + V, “S + V.”

  1. 在動詞後面加上逗號 He said,
  2. 加上引號的第一個部分 He said, “
  3. 引號內的第一個字大寫 He said, “It
  4. 在引號內的句子用原本的標點符號 He said, “It’s too late.
  5. 在標點符號之後加上引號的第二個部分 He said, “It’s too late.”
  6. 引用句的標點可能為句號,問號,驚歎號都不變,放在第二個引號前。

She said, “ I had a good time.”

She asked, “Where’s the party?”

They shouted, “Look out!”

2. 當引用句在動詞前面時 “S + V,” S +V.

a. 句子從引號的第一個部份開始 “

b. 加上引用句,字首大寫 “It’s too late

c. 假如引用句為肯定句時句尾使用逗號 “It’s too late,

d. 在標點符號後加上引號的第二個部分 “It’s too late,”

e. 接下來的句子從小寫開始 “It’s too late,” he said

f. 句尾用句點 “It’s too late,” he said.

g. 引用句在前面時,注意肯定句時句尾必須改變用逗號,但是假如為疑問句則用

問號,假如為感嘆句則用驚嘆號,不需要改變

“I have a good time,” she said.

“Where’s the party?” she asked.

“Look out!” they shouted.

3. 當引用句有好幾個句子時,在動詞後面時,按照原說話者內容加上適當的標點

符號。在第一個句子的前面跟最後一個句子的標點符號後加引號即可。

He said, “I forgot my wallet. Can you lend me some money?”

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.7

I.   報導句Reported Speech/Indirect Speech

1. 在報導句中,需要做一些改變來維持原本說話者的意思

a. 改變代名詞與所有格代名詞

He said to Ann, “Tell me your problem.”

He told Ann to tell him her problem.

b. 改變時間片語

“Call me tomorrow.”

She said to call her the next day.

c. 改變this跟here

“Sign this form here.”

She told him to sigh that form there.

2. 當主要子句的動詞是過去簡單式時said, told, asked等,報導句中的動詞會跟

引用句也就是原本說話者說出的句子的時態會有所不同。

a. 現在簡單式變為過去簡單式

He said, “It’s great.”    He said it was great.

b. 現在進行式變為過去進行式

“I’m leaving.”           She said she was leaving.

c. 過去簡單式變為過去完成式

“I made it.”            He said he had made it.

d. 現在完成式變為過去完成式

He said to her, “I’ve never lied.”   He told her that he had never lied.

e. 某些助動詞變成過去式助動詞

He said, “I can work hard.”    He said he could work hard.

3.  在某些情況下,報導句中的子句可以改,也可以不改變時態。

a. 某人剛剛說的話

What did you just say?    I said I’m tired. / I said I was tired.

b. 仍舊還是真實的事情

Rick said the bank wants a check. / Rick said the bank wanted a check.

c. 一般的事實或科學定律

She said that everyone lies sometime.

She said that everyone lied sometime.

4. 當主要子句的動詞是現在簡單式時,不要改變報導句的時態。

“I run a mile every day.”  She says that she runs a mile every day.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.8

J. Exercise                  from P.321 Grammar Express (Longman)

Lisa and Ben are talking about Ben’s job search. Use the verbs in parentheses to report their conversation. Make necessary changes in verbs and pronouns.

1. Ben: I’m still looking for a job.

(tell) __________________________________________________

2. Lisa: I just heard about a job at a scientific research company.

(say) __________________________________________________

3. Ben: I majored in science at Florida State.

(say) __________________________________________________

4. Lisa: They want someone with some experience as a programmer.

(tell) __________________________________________________

5. Ben: I work as a programmer for Data systems.

(tell) __________________________________________________

6. Lisa: They don’t want a recent college graduate.

(say) __________________________________________________

7. Ben: I got my degree four years ago.

(tell) __________________________________________________

8. Lisa: It sounds like the right job for you.

(say) __________________________________________________

答案

Answer Key

E. Exercise                     from P.333 Grammar Express (Longman)

1.  Can you tell me whether I should tip in Canada.

2. I’m going to France. Please explain how I can tell if the tip is included in the bill.

3. Can you tell me why service people in Iceland refused my tips?

4. I’m moving to Japan. I’d like to know how much I should tip airport porters.

5. We’re visiting Australia. Please tell us who expects a tip and who doesn’t.

6. I’m vacationing in Norway. I’d like to know if I should tip my ski instructor.

7. I took a job in China. I need to know whether tipping is still illegal there.

8. In Germany the tip is included. I don’t know whether I should tip anyway.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.9

E. Exercise

10. 閱讀下面文章,找出七個錯誤改正,錯誤可能為標點符號

When you live in a foreign country even a small occasion can be an adventure! Before my date with Janek tonight, I didn’t even know what I should(1) wear! A dress? John’s Grill isn’t a fancy restaurant, but it was Janek’s birthday and I wanted to make it a big occasion. Miuki was very helpful, as always. I knew how to get to John’s Grill, but I didn’t know how long it was going to take to get there.(2) I left at 6:00, which should have given me plenty of me, but when I got off the bus, I wasn’t sure if I should(3) turn left or right. I asked a police officer where  John’s Grill was(4), and I was only a few minutes late. I had planned to take Janke out for a special dessert afterward, but I couldn’t remember how I can(5) find the place Miuki had suggested, and Janek has been here even less time than me. (Anyway, the desserts at John’s turned out to be very good.) Then, when we got the bill, I was wondering whether I should tip or not(6). I had to ask Janek if he knew. Fortunately, he had read an article called Tips on Tipping, so he told me to leave about 15%.

 J.  Exercise

  1. Ben told her he was still looking for a job.
  2. Lisa said she had just heard about a job at a scientific research company.
  3. Ben said he had majored in science at Florida State.
  4. Lisa told him they wanted someone with some experience as a programmer.
  5. Ben told her he worked as a programmer for Data systems.
  6. Lisa said they didn’t want a recent college graduate.
  7. Ben told her he had gotten his degree four years ago.
  8. Lisa said it sounded like the right job for him.