【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 103 關係子句 受格 講解講義

2020/09/21

當年的九二一地震大家是醒著的嗎?還是被搖醒的?潔西的媽媽當時在家裡附近夜市開了筒仔米糕跟排骨湯的店,半夜潔西跟媽媽正在收店的時候突然天搖地動起來,真的很可怕,對面的電線桿整隻都在晃動,潔西跟媽媽抱在一起在店門外,但是也不知道要往哪去。半夜的夜市人不多,站在馬路中央的我們嚇得半死,真是太恐怖了。還好我們當時都沒事,家裡那時候好像也沒有什麼災害。看電視才知道其他地方那麼嚴重。希望這輩子都不要再遇到這麼嚴重的地震了。

忙碌的週末結束了,昨天真的是誇張的累,回到家四點多睡到六點多,起來八點多吃了個晚餐,去操場走了十圈,回到家洗完澡不到十點,又馬上躺到床上起不來,一直睡到今天早上十一點半,真的像是去做賊似的累啊。今天很認真的備課,剛剛做了瑜伽,影片也做了快兩個小時,等等要來洗澡上床睡覺了。

這星期想找個地方去走走,覺得繼續工作下去會變笨蛋啊。All work and no play makes Jessie a dumb woman. 潔西濫用成語也可以濫用到英文,哈哈。還是好好跟大家介紹一下,英文原本是 all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy ,意思是說不要用功不玩耍,聰明孩子也會變笨,類似這樣的意思,就是要平衡,大考大玩,小考小玩,潔西唸書的時候的名言。

今天講得是還算蠻難的形容詞子句關係代名詞受格的用法。比較長一點,但是已經儘量把內容整理成簡單易懂,沒有什麼單字,簡要的說明,影片後面還跟大家說可以再多去看看其他 YouTuber 做的影片,或者有其他文法課本,甚至其他部落格寫的,多多接觸,多練習,句型比較能夠在大家腦海裡面留下印象,慢慢地內化。

最近有人問潔西的自然發音影片的講義有賣嗎?贊助就送,不過因為剛好都是要給小朋友看的,潔西都還跟家長說小朋友可以去 YouTube 上搜尋 Phonics 會有不少是適合比較小的小朋友的影片,潔西的學生對象其實多半是大人,可能比較沒有那麼有趣。不過想認真學的話,練習是還算不少啦,老王自賣自誇一下。

睡覺時間到了,今天放的照片是攝影記者 Jerome Favre 拍得美麗的法國安西的風景,也被潔西拿來當作部落格的照片。這個法國攝影記者朋友常常在臉書上放自己的作品被報社刊出的時候都會寫 shameless promotion 無恥的推廣,潔西下次要來推自己的講義的時候也要這樣寫,哈哈哈。晚安晚安!

關係代名詞 受格 講解影片

關係代名詞 受格 合併句子練習與翻譯練習影片

受格關係代名詞 who, that, which

用關係代名詞來代替受詞名詞或代名詞的時候,會把受格關係代名詞 whom, which, that 放在關係子句的句首,而後面不會重複該受詞名詞或代名詞。受格關係代名詞可以省略。口語的時候多半省略。

That’s the man. I saw the man on TV. 那就是那個人。我在電視上看到那個人。

That’s the man who I saw on TV. 那就是那個我在電視上看到的那個人。

That’s the man that I saw on TV.

That’s the man I saw on TV.

who 用來代表人,都用在口語

I like the people who I work with. 我喜歡跟我一起工作的人。

My father, who I admire, is a lawyer. 我景仰的父親是個律師。

that 也可以用來代表人,比 who 更非正式/口語

She’s the writer that I met. 她就是我遇到的那個作家。

The people that we visited yesterday were very nice. 我們昨天拜訪的那些人很好。

which 用來代表事物

I can’t remember the name of the hotel which we stayed at. 我不記得我們住的飯店的名字。

The movie which I saw last night was very interesting. 我昨天晚上看的那部電影很有趣。

that 也可以用來代表事物,比 which 更非正式/口語

I read the book that she wrote. 我看了她寫的那本書。

The restaurant that we often go to is closed today. 我們經常去的餐廳今天沒開。

動詞後面的介系詞要保留,不可以省略

The bus is late. I’m waiting for the bus. 公車遲到了。我在等公車。

The bus that I’m waiting for is late. 我在等的公車遲到了。

That’s the man. I was talking about the man. 那就是那個人。我講有關那個人的事。

That’s the man who I was talking about. 那就是那個我在講的那個人。

地點的介系詞 in, on, at 可以放到 which 前面合在一起變成 where 

Do you know a place? We can get good sushi in the place. 你知道一個地方嗎?我們能在那裡吃到好吃的壽司。

Do you know a place which we can get good sushi in? 你知道一個我們可以吃到好吃的壽司的地方嗎?

Do you know a place in which we can get good sushi?

Do you know a place where we can get good sushi?

關係代名詞受格為人 who, that 或省略時的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在字尾。

1 The old lady is one hundred years old. I met the old lady last night. 

1 ____________________________________________________________

2 Do you know the man? My teacher is talking to the man.

2 ____________________________________________________________

3 Mr. Brown is the teacher. I like the teacher best.

3 ____________________________________________________________

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was polite. I talked to the man.

1 ____________________________________________________________ 

2 The old lady was selling newspapers. I saw the old lady.

2 ____________________________________________________________ 

3 The woman is my boss. You met the woman last night. 

3 ____________________________________________________________

關係代名詞受格為物 which, that 或省略時的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在字尾。

1 I bought the phone. I saw the phone on TV.

1 ____________________________________________________________

2 I like the coffee. They sell the coffee in that shop. 

2 ____________________________________________________________ 

3 Do you know the name of the hotel? We stayed at the hotel last year.

3 ____________________________________________________________

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The gift is nice. You gave me the gift.

1 ____________________________________________________________

2 The dress is beautiful. Your mother made the dress.

2 ____________________________________________________________

3 The message was very funny. He sent me the message.

3 ____________________________________________________________ 

翻譯練習

1 Peter 是那個跟我一起打網球的人。

2 Mary 喜歡談論她正在做的事。

3 Anita 是個我上週末在派對遇到的有趣的女生。

4 你寄的包裹今天早上到了。

5 我找不到我昨天買的雨傘。

6 我們昨天看的電影是喜劇。

7 服務生給我們的帳單是不正確的。

8 我爸爸跟他說話的那個男生是我妹妹的男朋友。

答案

.

.

.

關係代名詞受格為人 who, that 或省略時的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在字尾。

1 That’s the man. I wanted to see the man.

1 That’s the man who I wanted to see.  

2 Do you know the man? My teacher is talking to the man.

2 Do you know the man who my teacher is talking to?

3 Mr. Brown is the teacher. I like the teacher best.

3 Mr. Brown is the teacher who I like best. 

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was polite. I talked to the man.

1 The man who I talked to was polite. 

2 The old lady was selling newspapers. I saw the old lady.

2 The old lady who I saw was selling newspapers. 

3 The woman is my boss. You met the woman last night. 

3 The woman who you met last night is my boss. 

關係代名詞受格為物 which, that 或省略時的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在字尾。

1 I bought the phone. I saw the phone on TV.

1 I bought the phone which I saw on TV. 

2 I like the coffee. They sell the coffee in that shop. 

2 I like the coffee which they sell in that shop. 

3 Do you know the name of the hotel? We stayed at the hotel last year.

3 Do you know the name of the hotel which we stayed at last year?

3 Do you know the name of the hotel at which we stayed last year?

3 Do you know the name of the hotel where we stayed last year?

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The gift is nice. You gave me the gift.

1 The gift which you gave me is nice. 

2 The dress is beautiful. Your mother made the dress.

2 The dress which your mother made is beautiful.

3 The message was very funny. He sent me the message.

3 The message which he sent me was very funny. 

翻譯練習

1 Peter 是那個跟我一起打網球的人。

1 Peter is the man who I play tennis with. 

2 Mary 喜歡談論她正在做的事。

2 Mary likes to talk about the things which she is doing. 

3 Anita 是個我上週末在派對遇到的有趣的女生。

3 Anita is an interesting woman who I met at the party last weekend. 

4 你寄的包裹今天早上到了。

4 The package which you sent arrived this morning. 

5 我找不到我昨天買的雨傘。

5 I can’t find the umbrella which I bought yesterday. 

6 我們昨天看的電影是喜劇。

6 The movie which we saw yesterday was a comedy. 

7 服務生給我們的帳單是不正確的。

7 The bill which the server gave us was incorrect. 

8 我爸爸跟他說話的那個男生是我妹妹的男朋友。

8 The man who my father is talking to is my sister’s boyfriend.

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 91 關係子句/形容詞子句 受格

不知道為什麼這支影片錄了前後起碼三十次吧?上星期五就開始錄,到上課前錄了二十幾分鐘,刪掉,昨天還是前天也試了好幾次,今天也是錄了快二十分又刪掉,不知道為什麼這麼難,真是暈倒。結果剛剛錄完更暈倒,居然快三十分,這誰要看呢?真的想學好形容詞子句的人吧?花了很多時間,盡量一步步給大家看怎麼樣合併句子,然後省略是從哪裡省,希望覺得這部分很難的人可以比較容易地理解。看到居然錄了三十分的時候真的很想重錄個短一點的,不過還是放棄了,因為又快要去上課了。

昨天去看疼痛科門診,醫生意外的年輕,不過解說很詳細,我的肌肉很緊,所以的醫生都這麼說,但是她也舉出了潔西不良的姿勢,不自覺聳肩跟脖子會往前,需要自己注意改進。另外先前頸椎的手術的部分的確有可能造成痠痛,先吃肌肉鬆弛劑跟止痛劑,沒有效的話可以在脖子注射止痛劑,聽起來很恐怖,不過聽說效果會不錯,當然是一個治標不治本。有建議潔西去做一個叫做多面項脊椎運動,訓練上背的核心肌群,可以考慮找物理治療師一對一教適合潔西的運動,因為潔西畢竟是頸椎開過刀,不是什麼運動都可以做,要找專業的治療師比較安心。

為什麼潔西要去看疼痛門診?因為真的痛得很厲害,每天早上起來就痛,大概是三四分的痛,越晚越痛,尤其工作上課後,晚上回到家大概是可以到達七分的痛,回到家真的就只想躺在床上。當然運動是很好,但是痛得不得了的時候是沒有心情跟體力去運動的。最近真的痛得太厲害了。另外很妙的是,醫生叫潔西吃抗憂鬱藥。潔西去年十一月左右停了,醫生有解釋說因為抗憂鬱藥可以緩解大腦中對疼痛的感受,所以其實他們在治療的時候也會開抗憂鬱藥給病人。所以潔西就開始又吃了,先把痛的問題解決比較重要。

要上課去了,想想潔西身體真的是差得不得了。昨天看醫生,十一點多到,兩點多才離開,等醫生跟等拿藥都超久,看完時就全身痠痛的不得了,回到家吃個東西真的累到不行就躺到床上睡了。整個週末也是上課之外,幾乎都在睡。身體跟不上心想做的事。目前就是工作第一,身體第二,所以即使有想做影片的東西也是都要放棄,先把身體養好再說吧!吃了抗憂鬱藥跟止痛藥好像今天真的比較沒有那麼痛。準備出門去上課,順便去四號公園走個一兩圈,順便去喝個E41?加油加油加油!

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

91 關係子句 2: 有與沒有 who / that / which 之關係子句

 

他就是那個偷了我錢包的人。

He is the man. The man stole my wallet.

(He is the man the man stole my wallet)(X)

He is the man who stole my wallet.

先行詞:the man

形容詞子句:who stole my wallet

關係代名詞:who 放在主詞的位置,是主格

 

三 關係代名詞為受格時

關係代名詞在形容詞子句中為主詞時用主格,當受詞時用時用受格,這時候受格為人的時候關係代名詞可以為 whom, who, that, 或省略。主格的關係代名詞一定不可以省略。受格關係代名詞最正式為 whom, 口語時多半省略。受格為事物時關係代名詞用 which, that, 或省略。注意介系詞不要忘了,不可以省略,放在形容詞子句最前面的時候,人要用介系詞+whom,事物要用介系詞+which

1 先行詞是人的時候,關係代名詞受格可以用 whom, who, that, 或省略。

a 他是我欽佩的男人。

He is the man. I admire the man.    

(He is the man the man I admire )(X)

He is the man whom I admire. (最正式)

He is the man who I admire.

He is the man that I admire.

He is the man I admire. (最口語)

 

 b 麗莎在演唱會看到的那個女人是她老闆的女朋友。

Lisa saw the woman at the concert. The woman was Lisa’s boss’s girlfriend.

(The woman Lisa saw the woman at the concert was her boss’ girlfriend.) (X)

The woman whom/who/that Lisa saw at the concert was her boss’s girlfriend.

The woman Lisa saw at the concert was her boss’s girlfriend.

 

c 我喜歡我昨天晚上在派對見到的那個男人。

I like the man. I saw the man at the party last night.

I like the man whom/who/that I saw at the party last night.

I like the man I saw at the party last night.

 

d 那就是那個我在談論的醫生。

That’s the doctor. I was talking about the doctor.

That’s the doctor whom/who/that I was talking about.

That’s the doctor I was talking about.

 

 

2 先行詞是事物的時候,關係代名詞受格可以用 which, that, 或省略。

a 凱特烤的那些餅乾很好吃。

The cookies were delicious. Kate baked the cookies.

(The cookies Kate baked the cookies were delicious) (X)

(The cookies the cookies Kate baked were delicious) (X)

The cookies which Kate baked were delicious. (最正式)

The cookies that Kate baked were delicious.

The cookies Kate baked were delicious. (最口語)

 

b 你有找到你想找的那本書嗎?

Did you find the book? You were looking for the book.

Did you find the book which/that you were looking for?

Did you find the book you were looking for?

 

c 我等的公車遲到了。

The bus is late. I’m waiting for the bus.

The bus which/that I’m waiting for is late.

The bus I’m waiting for is late.

 

d 我不喜歡我們上週末住的那家飯店。

I don’t like the hotel. We stayed in the hotel last weekend.

I don’t like the hotel which/that we stayed in last weekend.

I don’t like the hotel we stayed in last weekend.

 

e 我們昨天晚上聽的音樂很棒。

The music was great. We listened to the music last night.

The music which/that we listened to last night was great.

The music we listened to last night was great.

 

三 關係代名詞受格的練習翻譯

1 你現在穿的這件洋裝很適合你。

2 我們昨天晚上看的那部電影不好看。

3 你剛剛跟他講話的男人是我的老闆。

4 Judy 認識的那個男生是個有名的演員。

5 你現在坐的椅子舒不舒服?

6 John 弄壞了他女朋友買給他的相機。

7 我昨天買的水果在哪裡?

8 我看完你借給我的那本書了。

9 你現在用的杯子是我的。

10 他送給他女朋友的項鍊花了一百萬。

 

翻譯練習答案

三 關係代名詞受格的練習翻譯

1 你現在穿的這件洋裝很適合你。

1 You are wearing a dress. It suits you well.

1 The dress which/that you were wearing now suits you well.

1 The dress you were wearing now suits you well.

 

2 我們昨天晚上看的那部電影不好看。

2 We saw a movie last night. The movie was terrible.

2 The movie which/that we saw last night was terrible.

2 The movie we saw last night was terrible.

 

3 你剛剛跟他講話的男人是我的老闆。

3 You just talked to the man. The man is my boss.

3 The man you whom/who/that just talked to is my boss.

3 The man you just talked to is my boss.

 

4 Judy 認識的那個男生是個有名的演員。

4 Judy knows the man. The man is a famous actor.

4 The man whom/who/that Judy knows is a famous actor.

4 The man Judy knows is a famous actor.

 

5 你現在坐的椅子舒不舒服?

5 Is the chair comfortable? You are sitting on the chair.

5 Is the chair which/that you are sitting on comfortable?

5 Is the chair you are sitting on comfortable?

 

6 John 弄壞了他女朋友買給他的相機。

6 John broke the camera. His girlfriend bought him the camera.

6 John broke the camera which/that his girlfriend bought him.

6 John broke the camera his girlfriend bought him.

 

7 我昨天買的水果在哪裡?

7 I bought the fruit yesterday. Where is the fruit?

7 Where is the fruit which/that I bought yesterday?

7 Where is the fruit I bought yesterday?

 

8 我看完你借給我的那本書了。

8 I’ve finished the book. You lent me the book.

8 I’ve finished the book which/that you lent me.

8 I’ve finished the book you lent me.

 

9 你現在用的杯子是我的。

9 You are using the cup. The cup is mine.

9 The cup which/that you are using is mine.

9 The cup you are using is mine.

 

10 他送給他女朋友的項鍊花了一百萬。

10 He gave his girlfriend a necklace. The necklace cost one million dollars.

10 The necklace which/that he gave his girlfriend cost one million dollars.

10 The necklace he gave his girlfriend cost one million dollars.