【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 102 關係子句 主格 講解講義

今天的照片看得出來是哪裡吧?很有名的水都,威尼斯。當年看的電視介紹說再過幾年可能會被淹沒,所以一定要趕快去看看,所以就選了義大利,因為在威尼斯很驚險,所以呢本來除了羅馬之外還要去翡冷翠,也叫做佛羅倫斯,翡冷翠聽起來美多了吧。總之呢就沒有去了。真的是可惜。那一年本來要去巴黎,但是呢歐洲一個月到最後真的懶了,就沒去了,不過還好去年去了。記得在哪裡聽過,旅遊留點遺憾是下次再去的動力,類似這樣的話。驚險的威尼斯就改天再跟大家說了。要出門去了。

下面是講解影片

下面是練習與翻譯影片

形容詞子句 Adjective Clause 又叫關係子句 Relative Clause 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。

關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有 who, whom, which, that 跟 whose。關係副詞有 when, where, why。

先行詞:形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多緊接在先行詞後面。

I have a friend who works in Japan. 我有一個在日本工作的朋友。

主要子句:I have a friend

形容詞子句:who works in Japan

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:friend

形容詞子句常常是兩個句子的合併。

I have a friend who works in Japan.

(I have a friend. My friend works in Japan.)

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that 緊跟著在先行詞後,在句首帶領形容詞子句,用來當形容詞子句的主詞,提供更多有先前提到某人或某事的資訊。

who 用來代表人

Hank is the man who has a big dog. 漢克是那個有一隻大狗的男人。

The guy who sits next to me in class is from Canada. 在課堂上坐我隔壁的人是來自加拿大。

that 也可以用來代表人,但是比較少用

Yo-yo Ma is the musician that plays the cello. 馬友友是那個彈大提琴的音樂家。

The woman that lived here before us is a writer. 那個在我們之前住在這裡的女人是作家。

which 跟 that 都可以用來代表事物

that 比較口語

The computer that cost $50,000 is broken. 花了五萬元的電腦壞掉了。

I like to read books that have good endings. 我喜歡看有好結局的書。

which 比較正式

There are some restaurants which do Sunday brunches. 有些餐廳賣星期天早午餐。

Twitter is the company which was taken over last year. 推特是那個去年被接收的公司。

關係代名詞主格為人 who 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 The police have found the man. The man robbed the bank. 

1 The police have found the man who robbed the bank. 

2 I talked to the boy. The boy won the race. 

2 ______________________________________________.

3 I thanked the doctor. The doctor saved my mother’s life. 

3 ______________________________________________.

4 I’d like to have a boss. The boss has a good sense of humor. 

4 ______________________________________________.

5 I’d prefer a roommate. The roommate is quiet and neat. 

5 ______________________________________________.

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was very rude. The man stepped on my foot. 

1 The man who stepped on my foot was very rude. 

2 The man wanted my advice. The man wrote to me.

2 ______________________________________________. 

3 A man is called a journalist. A man writes newspaper articles. 

3 ______________________________________________.

4 The woman is funny. The woman lives next to us. 

4 ______________________________________________.

5 The girl told me a heartwarming story. The girl sat in front of me. 

5 ______________________________________________.

關係代名詞主格為物 which 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 I like the car. The car won the race.

1 I like the car which won the race. 

2 This is the dog. The dog attacked me.

2 ______________________________________________.

3 Tokyo is a city. The city never sleeps.

3 ______________________________________________.

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The bus was fifteen years old. The bus crashed. 

1 The bus which crashed was fifteen years old. 

2 The dog belonged to Mr. Lin. The dog bit me. 

2 ______________________________________________.

3 The article won a prize. The article discussed puppy love. 

3 ______________________________________________.

翻譯練習

1 我喜歡有幽默感的男生。

2 一個幫人剪頭髮的女生叫做美髮師。

3 這就是贏得獎項的電影。

4 我知道一家賣好吃的義大麵的餐廳。

5 我不喜歡太嚴肅的老師。

答案:

關係代名詞主格為人 who 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 The police have found the man. The man robbed the bank. 

1 The police have found the man who robbed the bank. 

2 I talked to the boy. The boy won the race. 

2 I talked to the boy who won the race. 

3 I thanked the doctor. The doctor saved my mother’s life. 

3 I thanked the doctor who saved my mother’s life. 

4 I’d like to have a boss. The boss has a good sense of humor. 

4 I’d like to have a boss who has a good sense of humor. 

5 I’d prefer a roommate. The roommate is quiet and neat. 

5 I’d prefer a roommate who is quiet and neat. 

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was very rude. The man stepped on my foot. 

1 The man who stepped on my foot was very rude.

2 The man wanted my advice. The man wrote to me.

2 The man who wrote to me wanted my advice. 

3 A man is called a journalist. A man writes newspaper articles. 

3 A man who writes newspaper articles is called a journalist. 

4 The woman is funny. The woman lives next to us. 

4 The woman who lives next to us is funny. 

5 The girl told me a heartwarming story. The girl sat in front of me. 

5 The girl who sat in front of me told me a heartwarming story. 

關係代名詞主格為物 which 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 I like the car. The car won the race.

1 I like the car which won the race. 

2 This is the dog. The dog attacked me.

2 This is the dog which attacked me. 

3 Tokyo is a city. The city never sleeps.

3 Tokyo is a city which never sleeps. 

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The bus was fifteen years old. The bus crashed. 

1 The bus which crashed was fifteen years old. 

2 The dog belonged to Mr. Lin. The dog bit me. 

2 The dog which bit me belonged to Mr. Lin. 

3 The article won a prize. The article discussed puppy love. 

3 The article which discussed puppy love won a prize .

翻譯練習

1 我喜歡有幽默感的男生。

1 I like guys who have a good sense of humor.  

2 一個幫人剪頭髮的女生叫做美髮師。

2 A woman who cuts hair is called a hairdresser. 

3 這就是贏得獎項的電影。

3 This is the movie which won the prize. 

4 我知道一家賣好吃的義大麵的餐廳。

4 I know a restaurant which sells good pasta.  

5 我不喜歡太嚴肅的老師。

5 I don’t like teachers who are too serious. 

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 90, 91 關係子句/形容詞子句 關係代名詞 what 的用法

因為書裡面有提到關係代名詞 what 的用法,有點小複雜,不過其實也不難,可能大家都會說,只是不知道他是關係代名詞而已。比方說。What you did is annoying. 你做的事很惹人厭。What I don’t udnerstand is his motive. 我不懂的是他的動機。諸如此類。懂的話比較不會說錯。不懂的話其實分開兩個句子說出來都是沒問題的啦。

肚子好餓,又睡到中午才起床,吃了點早午餐,吃不下太多,想說來繼續寫形容詞子句的受格,不過看到 what ,覺得還是要交代一下,所以就從兩點交代到現在快五點了。又要趕著出門去上課了,時間過得真快。其實潔西也不是不辛苦啊,發一下牢騷。朋友覺得潔西似乎工作很輕鬆的樣子,1/1元旦要上班發給潔西看他當天上班的工作證,說給你看一下我們上班族的辛苦,聽起來就有點你一點都不辛苦。其實是很好的朋友,知道他開玩笑的,但是脆弱的心靈還是小小受傷,所以只能在部落格上反平一下,潔西其實元旦晚上也有上課喔,明天星期六跟後天星期天也都要上課喔。是個要上課才有錢賺的工作,沒有年終,學生請假的話收入就變零喔。所以沒有不辛苦的行業啦,大家都很辛苦的,想要做好的話。

牢騷發完了,準備出門上課去了。冬天是對潔西來說很辛苦的季節,憂鬱症會特別嚴重,今天怎麼樣都不想起床,在床上賴了快兩個小時吧,不過是比較有進步的冬天呢,雖然我在去年年底停了藥,現在是隨時眼淚可以流下來的狀態,這是個跟誰也說不清的狀況吧,自己用自己的方法不打擾別人,好好的把日子過去下,先前整理的時候看到有些年的十二月一月有時候一個月只有幾篇,因為完完全全寫不出來,現在能寫得出來是值得開心的。希望能夠最少一個星期有五篇,加油中!大家新的一年也多多加油,別人說什麼不重要,做好自己想做的事,跟自己比較,今天的我比昨天的我進步,或許那就可以了!

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

主格

I don’t like people. People like to cut in line.

I don’t like people (who like to cut in line). 我不喜歡喜歡插隊的人。

 

受格

I don’t like the girl. You talked to the girl last night.

I don’t like the girl (who/whom/that you talked to last night). 我不喜歡你昨天晚上跟她說話的女生。

 

關係代名詞 what 前面可以不需要名詞,它可以當作一個代名詞,用來表示 the thing(s) that 或者是 the stuff that ,相當於一個名詞跟關係代名詞一起

你做的事讓我很傷心。

You did the thing. The thing made me sad.

The thing that you did made me sad.

What you did made me sad.

 

我需要的就是一杯飲料。

I need the thing. The thing is a drink.

The thing that I need is a drink.

What I need is a drink.

 

他們不懂的是有多困難。

They don’t understand the thing. The thing is how difficult it is.

The thing that they don’t understand is how difficult it is.

(The thing that they don’t understand)   is     (how difficult it is)

        主詞 (形容詞子句去修飾名詞)                        主詞補語(名詞子句)

What they don’t understand is how difficult it is.

 

What he wants to know is where has his money gone. 他想要的是知道他的錢去哪了。

The thing that he wants to know is where has his money gone.

 

What you have to think about is your profit. 你需要考慮的是你的利益。

The thing that you have to think about is your profit.

 

What you need to do is (to) plan ahead. 你需要做的是事先計畫。

The thing that you need to do is (to) plan ahead.

 

Did you read about what happened to Sue? 你讀到 Sue 發生什麼事了嗎?

Did you read about the thing that happened to Sue.

 

The teacher just teaches us what we already know. 那個老師只教我們已經知道的。

The teacher just teaches us the thing that we already know.

 

He didn’t get what he asked for. 他沒有得到他所要求的。

He didn’t get the thing that he asked for.

 

He gave me what I wanted. 他給我我想要的。

He gave me the thing that I wanted.

 

what 不會用在有 all, everything, nothing, the only, 最高級等的句子。只會用 that

I’ve told you everything that I know.

I’ve told you everything what I know. (X)

The only thing that matters to him is money.

The only thing what matters to him is money. (X)

 

翻譯練習

1 給我看你買的東西。

2 那間商店沒有她想要的。

3 我會付我吃的。

4 你可以擁有所有你想要的東西。

5 你說的讓我非常開心。

6 我首先想要了解的是要花多少錢。

7 我已經跟你說所有發生的一切了。

8 我不確定接下來要做什麼。

9 我們做的事就是一起打麻將。

10 我不懂你在說什麼。

 

.

.

.

.

.

 

翻譯練習 答案

1 給我看你買的東西。

1 Show me what you bought.

 

2 那間商店沒有她想要的東西。

2 The shop didn’t have what she wanted.

 

3 我會付我吃的東西。

3 I’ll pay for what I ate.

 

4 你可以擁有所有你想要的東西。

4 You can have everything that you want.

 

5 你說的讓我非常開心。

5 What you said made me very happy.

 

6 我首先想要了解的事是將要花多少錢。

6 What I want to know first is how much it is going to cost.

 

7 我已經跟你說所有發生的一切了。

7 I’ve told you all that happened.

 

8 我不確定接下來要做什麼。

8 I’m not sure what I am going to do next.

8 I’m not sure what to do next.

 

9 我們做的事就是一起打麻將。

9 What we did was (to) play mahjong together.

 

10 我不懂你在說什麼。

10 I don’t understand what you are talking about.

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 90 關係子句/形容詞子句 主格

繼續新年快樂!先前有人問到會不會講劍橋活用英語文法的中級,會,潔西今年的新年新希望除了健康外就是想把劍橋活用英語文法的初級跟中級的部分的講義全部寫出來。那幹嘛不自己寫書?因為要找很多例子要想很久,工程太浩大了,等我把所有部分寫完之後說不定就自己編排一下,找影印店印也不是不行,但是可能會太厚。總之再說吧。初級跟中級重複的部分我就不會重複做講義。講義的話也大部分會從我自己原本有的講義部分來改寫。

形容詞子句是有點小難,拆成很多部分的話或許就簡單一點了?今天說的主格真的是不難的,很基礎的,用心看一下,自己多造一些類似的句子,平成看影片的時候多留意,慢慢就能說得出來了也不一定喔。不會說其實也沒關係,拆成兩個句子也是可以理解的,不過人家講的時候要聽得懂就是了。可以自己做做翻譯練習,寫出來的話會很有成就感的喔!

話說剛剛在飲料店看到有人居然穿著睡衣在買飲料,真的是成套那種睡衣。從前穿整套運動服出門有點怪,現在是流行了,不過睡衣整套穿出門是流行嗎?跟流行很不熟的潔西有點嚇到。

等等又要出門上課了,但是我覺得已經有點累了啊,老人一枚今年真的希望能夠把身體照顧好。預約下星期一去看疼痛門診,每個醫生都滿,只有那個醫生沒滿,其實是有一點擔心的,但是呢先去看再說吧。下午去看牙醫弄了一個小時,打麻藥,剛剛做影片還有一點,現在好像退的差不多了,該吃個飯出門上課去了。

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

ㄧ 概論

中文在形容一個名詞的時候多半把形容詞放在名詞前面,比方說他是個很高的人,他是個很帥的人,他是個不說謊的人。在英文像高的,帥的這種形容詞可以放在修飾的名詞的前面。但是不說謊的人這種有包含了動詞在內時,英文多半會用形容詞子句來修飾該名詞。

He is a tall man.

He is a handsome man.

He is a man who doesn’t lie.

中式英文 He is a not lie man.(X) 這樣直譯是不行的,英文的基本句型是一個主詞,一個動詞,當要有另外一個動詞時,要用適當的方式來連結。這種狀況下用的是形容詞子句。

形容詞子句 adjective clause ,或者我們有時候叫做關係子句 relative clause ,是一個有主詞,有動詞,但是語意不完整的子句,用來修飾,定義,或給予額外資訊。形容詞子句可想做是用來形容子句前面的名詞,也就是先行詞,或者可以想做關係子句就是用來表達子句跟前面先行詞之間的關係。每個形容詞子句/關係子句都會有一個關係代名詞用來帶領形容詞子句,比方說 who, which, whom, that, whose 等,這些關係代名詞在特定狀況下會被省略掉。

1 He is the teacher who has changed my life.

   他就是那個改變我的人生的老師。

   teacher 是先行詞

   who has changed my life 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

 

2 Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

   台北是個不夜城。

    city 是先行詞

   which never sleeps 是形容詞子句,其中 which 是關係代名詞

 

3 My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   我爸爸是個牙醫,他不准我們吃糖果。

   father 是先行詞

   who is a dentist 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

包含形容詞子句的句子通常可以拆成兩個句子。也可以看成當兩個句子,有共同的名詞的時候,有時候可以改成形容詞子句。

 

1 He is the teacher. The teacher has changed my life.

   — He is the teacher who has changed my life.

2 Taipei is a city. The city never sleeps.

   — Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

3 My father is a dentist. He doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   — My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時

形容詞子句中的關係代名詞,可以是在子句的句首的主格,可以是放在受詞位置的受格,也可以是修飾子句主句的所有格。而子句修飾的名詞,也就是先行詞,會因人或物而使用不同的關係的代名詞。

先從主格開始看起。先行詞是人的話,主格關係代名詞用 who。先行詞是事物的話,主格關係代名詞用 which。主格的 who 跟 which 都可以用 that 取代。口語的時候主格是人習慣用 who ,主格是事物習慣用 that 。主格的 which 有比較正式的感覺。

1 先行詞是人

I like people who smile a lot.   我喜歡常笑的人。   

I don’t like people who get angry easily.  我不喜歡容易生氣的人。

I have a friend who lives in Switzerland. 我有個住瑞士的朋友。    

I have a friend who works for Facebook. 我有個幫臉書工作的朋友。

形容詞子句可以放在句尾,也可以放在句中

People who have moved a lot have fewer friends. 經常搬家的人有比較少的朋友。

A person who has a lot of friends is lucky.  一個有很多朋友的人很幸運。

 

2 先行詞是事或物

Do you know a shop which sells good coffee? 你知道一間買好咖啡的店嗎?

This is the computer which isn’t working. 這就是壞掉的那台電腦。

The postcard which came this morning was from Italy. 今天早上收到的明信片是從義大利來的。

 

上面的 who 或 which 都可以用 that 取代,在非正式,口語的場合下。

I like people that smile a lot.

Do you know a shop that sells good coffee?

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時 

翻譯練習

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

.

.

.

.

.

翻譯解答

還是覺得有點難度的人可以先分成兩個句子在合併再一起。

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

1 I saw the man. The man stole the wallet.

1 I saw the man/that who stole the wallet.

 

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

2 The driver was polite. The driver took me to the airport.

2 The driver who/that took me to the airport was polite.

 

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

3 I found a shop. The shop sells good chocolate.

3 I found a shop that/which sells good chocolate.

 

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

4 The woman is a lawyer. The woman lives next door.

4 The woman who/that lives next door is a lawyer.

 

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

5 Tom is an engineer. Tom works at Google.

5 Tom, who works at Google, is an engineer.

 

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

6 I found the key. The key was missing.

6 I found the key that/which is missing.

 

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

7 The man was disappointed. The man lost the game.

7 The man who/that lost the game was disappointed.

 

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

8 He has a cat. The cat is blind.

8 He has a cat that/which is blind.    He has a blind cat.

 

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

9 My coworker comes from Canada. My coworker sits next to me.

9 My coworker who/that sits next to me comes from Canada.

 

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

10 I don’t like people who likes to take advantage other people.

子句與句子的簡單說明

這裡的子句跟句子簡單地講了一下,總之寫出來的句子一定都是要在四種句子裡面,獨立子句跟非獨立子句的結合也就只有三種形式:名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。寫句子跟講句子的留意一下。才十點,又超不多要睡了,大家晚安:)

 

噢,差點忘了,有錄影片:

 

D 子句的種類  types of clauses 

子句有三種,分名詞子句、形容詞子句跟副詞子句。

1. 名詞子句 noun clause:整個子句當名詞用,不是當句子的主詞就是受詞,主詞補語。

2. 形容詞子句 adjective clause:整個子句當形容詞用,一定是用來修飾名詞。

  1. 副詞子句 adverb clause:整個子句當副詞用,像時間子句,條件子句等都是副詞子句,整個子句當副詞用,用來修飾動詞或整個句子。

1. 名詞子句 noun clause

I   think  that Jessie  is  a crazy teacher.

(        S       V                      )    —noun clause

S    V                    O

That the earth  is  round  is   true.   It’s true that the earth is round.

(         S          V          )                        —noun clause

S                  V   SC

I don’t know where she lives.     Where does she live?     I don’t if it will rain tomorrow?

(          S   V   )                     —noun clause

S     V                O

名詞子句放在最前面帶領子句的有that,whether,if,疑問詞what、when、where、who等。that除了在句首外一般可以省略,其他的疑問詞等則不可省。

2. 形容詞子句 adjective clause

The book  which  I  read  last night  was  great.   The book was great. I read the book last night.

(        S   V                 )                  —adjective clause

S                                          V    SC

I  like  movies   that  make  me laugh.       I like movies. The movies make me laugh.

(  S     V               )                 —adjective clause

S  V    O

I’ll never forget the day when I  got married.

(      S   V             )      —adjective clause

S            V        O

形容詞子句又叫關係子句。而放在最前面帶領形容詞子句的字就叫做關係代名詞,如that、what、who、when、where、whose等。通常做為受詞的關係代名詞如which、whom、that,可以省略,可是在限定子句時又不能省。名詞與副詞子句都有who、what、where這些疑問詞,所以容易混淆。其實只要注意子句本身的功能與修飾的對象,應該就可以分得很清楚了。

3. 副詞子句 adverb clause

He ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

(            S   V                  )     –adverb clause

S   V        O

If you don’t have enough money, you can give it to me next time.

(    S       V                          )                                     –adverb clause

S     V

He was driving  while he was talking on the phone.

(        S       V                         )              –adverb clause

S          V

副詞子句一般是大家最熟悉的,種類也最多。副詞子句可以用來表達時間、因果、對比、條件、讓步等等。副詞子句最前面帶領子句的字叫做從屬連接詞subordinating conjunctions,是用來連接主要子句跟副詞子句的橋樑。

當主要子句在前面時,因為很清楚的可以知道副詞子句是由從屬連接詞開始,所以不需要逗號,如第一與第三句。而當副詞子句在句首時,要有一個逗號清楚地把副詞子句跟主要子句隔開來,如第二個句子。當然這些從屬連接詞是都不能省略的囉。

例外:

當while表示對比,或者是though, 或although在中間時,也會有逗號,但是其他連接詞在中間時,則不需要逗號。

Schools in the north tend to be better equipped, while those in the south are relatively poor.

I thought he’d been drinking, though I wasn’t completely sure.

You can copy down my answers, although I’m not sure if they’re right.

E 句子的種類 types of sentences     

四個句子的種類

1. simple sentences 簡單句

I love beef.

2. compound sentences 並合句

I love beef, but I hate pork.

3. complex sentences 複合句

Although I love beef, I hate pork.

4.compound-complex sentences 混合句

My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a day.

  1. 簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,但整體視為

一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

  1. 並合句是由對等連接詞(and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet,可以用fanboys記)將兩個獨立

子句連接而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.    I love beef, but I don’t like beef noodles.

  1. 複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(如because, although, when, before等)所帶

領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。可能包

含了一個名詞子句,或形容詞子句,或副詞子句。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

I can’t believe she is only 17.

4. 混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句形成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did nothing.

F 並合句 Compound Sentence:用對等連接詞連接句子

要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。對等連接詞可以用來合併句子,形成並合句。

對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個:常用的是 and, but, so, or 其他還有 nor, for 跟yet。可用fanboys來記:for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

For 用來表原因:I am very tired, for I worked very hard today.

And 用來表達同等的概念:I am very tired, and I want to rest for a few minutes.

Nor 用來表達否定的選擇:I am not tired, nor am I hungry right now.

But 用來表達對比:I am tired, but I have no time to rest now.

Or 用來表達選擇:I will take a nap, or I will go out jogging.

Yet 用來表達對比:I will take a nap, yet I am unable to relax.

So 用來表達結果:I am tired, so I will take a nap.

【潔西家】形容詞子句解說 如何選擇正確的關係代名詞

史上最長影片,為什麼是潔西八百多年前的泳裝照做封面XD ,發文後又不是,還好,呼!

 

今天剛好下午跟晚上的同學都請假,所以原本應該很忙的潔西就悠哉悠哉混了一天,順便放放在 FB 上的文,超累的,講了兩個小時,上課都沒有這麼累,講得很細,希望很清楚,但是實在太長了,建議可能做家事的時候放著聽,或睡前,睡不著的人應該馬上睡著了,哈哈哈。餓呆了,不知要吃什麼啊,小寶今天沒來陪潔西吃飯,隨便吃吃好了。先這樣,有相關問題可以留言,接下來這幾天應該都會很忙,什麼時候有空回就不知道了,啊,這個星期超忙的,聖誕節快到了,一早帶聖誕帽的潔西,恩,不是,是皮卡丘提醒了潔西。潔西今天收老弟的包裹被郵差問說您是他的?潔西剛睡醒,居然回答弟弟,然後看到偷笑的郵差趕快改口,他是我弟弟,唉,語無倫次了,不行,上課還是要睡飽飽,好好認真清楚的上課。

 

今天其實真的很感動,恩,是昨天,但是潔西很慢,所以回的很慢,潔西大概三不五時會發作一次,冬天頻率偏高,就一整個斷線壞掉,謝謝大家又修好了,哈哈。

 

潔西與聖誕皮卡丘提前祝大家聖誕佳節快樂!謝謝大家這一年來的照顧,往後也請繼續支持與鼓勵。

蝦米?還在玩寶可夢?很久沒玩了,今天心血來潮打開就看到聖誕皮卡丘,早上五點半能讓潔西走出家門的大概也只有他了。潔西跟皮卡丘很無緣,玩了好幾個月只捉到一隻,不過聽說這次量產,到處都是。

冬天到了,情緒相當地不穩定,想做的事太多,但是呢身體狀況卻又沒那麼好,牙齒痛大概是壓垮駱駝的最後一根稻草 the straw that broke the camel’s back ,每天痛每天睡每天想做的事都只能勉強做幾件事,有時候會突然開始自我懷疑,自己究竟在做什麼?雖然也不是做得不開心,不知道耶,人性吧。

真的非常感謝留言分享鼓勵支持的網友們同學們,其實潔西本來就是一直在做自己想做的事,很難做自己不喜歡的是,至於有沒有意義就像潔西昨天放在自己FB上說的,意義是自己給的。假如很多人跳出來說,不要浪費時間錄影片了,反正又沒人看也賺不到錢,哈哈哈,潔西也是笑笑,就繼續錄,因為是自己喜歡做的事,但是人都有惰性,很多時候要給自己充份的理由去做一些即便是自己喜歡想做的事,這樣解釋不知道能不能被理解。應該可以吧,尤其假如是有關注這個專頁一陣子的人。潔西大概每年冬天都會發作幾次,哈哈哈。

躁鬱症的最大缺點之一潔西自己覺得是你可以看到自己的淺力,可以做到看到自己發揮百分百的時候的良好狀況是什麼,在不知不覺中就會對自己的要求越來越高,但是通常百分百發揮大概只有一年365天中的不到5天吧,什麼都不想做的無力感的日子卻可能有兩百天以上,很容易對自己產生不滿,但是又要一邊跟自己拔河,因為知道自己不是懶散什麼都不做的人,但是就是有那種死賴在床上沒法動的時間很多時會有極端的自我厭惡對自己產生懷疑,對所有的事情,人生都產生懷疑,尤其事情不順遂的時候。

其實沒有什麼大問題但是就弄的一個好像世界要毀滅一樣的自我恐慌的 drama queen ,其實定下心來,真的地球一樣繞著太陽轉,北極冰河完全融化時可能潔西也看不到那天,天塌下來都還有很多比潔西高的人頂著,潔西先前教的電競學生一排站出來,每個都比潔西高,給他們頂著就好了,哈哈。

想睡了,昨天吃飽飯九點就昏迷到半夜一點半醒來,摸到早上現在七點多,下午跟晚上都要上課,先去補眠一下,這作息一直調不過來,真害,就做目前所能做得最好的事,想做有空的時候就會發發廢文翻譯歌詞錄錄影片,不想做不能動的時候就躺在床上發呆放空等著心情不好的那段時間過了再來補做想做的事,工作優先,家人優先,健康優先,其他大概就只能放到有空的時候了。睡覺去。下面是昨天突然很傷心的時候在 FB 發的文,再下面是回留言鼓勵的人,因為有些人可能關了通知,所以再發一次,另外分享一下潔西最近喜歡的歌單,有空會挑幾首來翻,有好幾首都蠻想翻的,但是還生不出時間來,加油中,再次謝謝大家:)

Sadness Attacks
夜深人靜的空虛

生存的價值何在?生命的意義何在?

沒有人可以給你答案

為了什麼努力?為了什麼奮鬥?

做自己想做的事就是正確的嗎?

逃避

給自己太多的藉口

終究,在終點來臨時

回首望去

開心地完成許多自己想做的事

還是懊惱許多想做沒做的事

一直任性地按照著自己的腳步做著自己想做的事錯了嗎?

別人的諒解眼光重要嗎?

朝著自己想要的目標一直前進

會不會有一天突然覺醒

這真的是自己想要的嗎?

迷惑,猶豫,傷心,空虛,寂寞,無奈

善意,鼓勵,支持,關懷,分享,安慰

錯綜複雜

人性的真善美與人性的醜陋骯髒無恥是並存的

接受與不接受,喜歡與不喜歡

似乎沒有選擇的餘地

把自己修到空的境界又如何?

虛無渺茫的東西值得追尋嗎?

上天堂下地獄又如何?

與這現世有何差別?

意義是自己定義的,意義是自己追尋的

沒有人能幫你做出最好決定,沒有人能代替你過你的生活

人與人之間的虛情假意真情流露

發生在身上的時候不一定能接受

黑暗的夜晚,黑暗的心情

太陽照射就會消失嗎?

躲到陰影下去了

在人前的面具是不可少的

是面具?是真實的自我?

有時候自己都弄不清了

大家喜歡的是哪一個呢?

大家分得清楚是哪一個嗎?

無所謂

真的無所謂

這年頭自己的事都應付不完了

誰理你啊?

最大的敵人:自己

最好的朋友:自己

潔西酒後的心聲,其實正常的時候都很看得開,斷線時就很鑽牛角尖,但是自己覺得說得很真啊,這人生….

言語難以形容的感激,謝謝大家:) 每個留言我都有仔細看,看了好幾遍,要牢牢記在心中,不過這幾天課比較多,又睡比較多,所以就沒能一一回,請大家諒解,謝謝。然後一直拖著沒回也是因為知道只要開始打字就會像現在這樣撲通撲通的淚水一直流,是很開心的,所以沒關係,哈哈。謝謝大家包容潔西的任性,人多多少少走到某個地方就會開始疑惑,我自己覺得這也不是件壞事,比一直走走走走最後不知道自己究竟在做什麼好得多。謝謝浮上水面給予鼓勵或繼續潛水沒沒支持的網友們,有了滿滿的鼓勵與支持,當然就要更努力地繼續做自己想做的是,繼續努力加油中!Fighting! (大家有沒有出現小寶所謂日本動漫都會有的比賽前大家把手一起碟再一起,大喊 Fighting! 的畫面呢,哈哈,熱血沸騰中有嗎XD)

 

 

 

選擇正確的關係代名詞:

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.

2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.

3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.

4. Ms. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.

5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.

6. I like the people with _______ I work.

7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.

8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.

9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.

10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.

12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.

13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

 

 

形容詞子句  Adjective Clause  / 關係子句 Relative Clause

 

三種子句

1 名詞子句

2 形容詞子句

3 副詞子句

 

形容詞修飾名詞

副詞修飾形容詞,副詞,動詞,整個句子,不能修飾名詞

 

A. 修飾名詞

1 如何修飾名詞

a 形容詞 adjectives

形容詞可以用來修飾(modify)名詞,就是加以說明,描述,做些許的改變,名詞加了形容詞後意思可能大不相同。形容詞多放在名詞前面或連綴動詞後面。

May is a happy girl.  Linda is an unhappy girl.

He is late.  He became angry.

 

b 介系詞片語 preposition phrases

介系詞片語就是由介系詞跟名詞結合成的片語,可以用來說明修飾名詞。放在修飾的名詞的後面。

My brother is the man in the white suit.

My brother is the man wearing the white suit.

Sandy is the tall woman with red hair.

I have a sister with three children.

 

c 形容詞子句adjective clause

形容詞子句跟形容詞一樣,只可以用來修飾名詞,對於名詞加以描述,用來做辨別用或提供一些額外的訊息。當描述的內容無法用一個形容詞,或者包括了動詞時可以用形容詞子句來說明,修飾名詞。形容詞子句永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。

I don’t like people who cut in line. 我不喜歡插隊的人。

people 先行詞,who 關係代名詞

New York is a city that never sleeps. 紐約市個不睡覺的城市。

city 先行詞,that 關係代名詞

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句,也叫做關係子句,是非獨立子句 independent clause 的一種。整個子句當作形容詞,用來修飾名詞或代名詞。用來提供更多有關先前提到的某人,某事的資訊,用來辨識某人某物用來給予額外的資訊,用來給予評論等。常會是兩個句子的合併。

A: I saw Jason the other day. 我前幾天看到傑森。

B: Jason? The guy who plays the guitar? 傑森?那個彈吉他的人嗎?

Is he the guy who plays the guitar?

A: No, that’s Jackson. Jason is the student who dropped out of college, the one

who never did any studying. He’s working at Davidson’s now, the shop that

sells very expensive clothes.

不是,那是傑克森。傑森是那個從大學休學,那個從來都不唸書的人。他現在

在戴維森上班,那間賣很貴的衣服的店。  cheating 作弊

 

a 辨識 identify: 在這個對話中形容子句用來辨別談話的對象是哪一個人或哪一件

事。子句 who plays the guitar 用來告所我們 B 所要表達的人。而 that sells

very expensive clothes 則是用來告訴我們 A 所要表達的店家。

 

b 描述事情 describe: That’s the house where my parents live in.  那就是我爸媽住的房子。

 

c 給予更多資訊 extra information: My friend Andy, who lives in Switzerland, is a

CEO. 我的朋友安迪,住在瑞士,是個總裁。

 

d 給評論 comment:The team won the championship, which shocked the opponent. 那隊贏了比賽,嚇到他的對手。

 

e 合併句子:I have a friend. 我有個朋友。He lives in New York. 他住紐約。可以結合成 I have a friend who lives in New York. 我有個住紐約的朋友。

用關係代名詞來代替前面說過的名詞,而不重複該名詞。

travel around the world 環遊世界  travel by yourself 自助旅行

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句是後衛修飾,永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。中文多是用前衛修飾,把形容詞放在修飾名詞前面。例如說,我住在美國的姊姊有三個小孩。當修飾內容有動詞時,英文不可以直接把形容堆在名詞前面。所以除了前衛也常用後衛修飾,把形容詞或形容詞子句放到所要形容的名詞或代名詞後面。

The bride must wear something old, something new, something borrowed, and something blue. 新娘子必須穿舊的,新的,借的,藍色的東西。

My sister who lives in the U.S. has three children.

I live in the U.S. sister has three children.  (X)

 

 

that the earth is round (X)  名詞子句

The earth is round. 地球是圓的。(o)

That the earth is round is true. (o) 地球是圓的是真的。 

 

形容詞子句 先行詞 that 

I think that he is handsome.  我覺得他很帥。

 

名詞子句 帶領連接詞 that 

 

before I go to bed (x) 副詞子句

I brush my teeth every day. 我每天刷牙。(o) 

I brush my teeth every day before I go to bed. 

我每天上床睡覺前刷牙(o)

 

2 名詞解釋

a 子句: 是由一組的字所組成,其中包括主詞與動詞,可能為獨立或非獨立子句。

 

b 獨立子句: 是一個完整的句子,其中包括主要的主詞與動詞,語意完整,可以

單獨存在。可以最為主要子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

 

c 非獨立子句: 是一個不完整的句子,如名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。由從

屬連接詞,關係代名詞,疑問詞等為首帶領的子句。雖然其中也包括了主詞與

動詞,但是語意不完整,需要與獨立子句結合,才能為一個完整的句子。

 

d 形容詞子句: 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。形容詞子句也叫做關係子句。

 

e 關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有 who, whom,   which, that 跟 whose。關係副詞有 when, where, why。

 

f 先行詞: 形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多緊接在先行詞後面。

My sister has two children. She lives in the U.S. 可以合併為

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children. 而這個句子中

獨立子句/主要子句:My sister has two children.

非獨立子句/形容詞子句:who lives in the U.S.,用來修飾sister

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:sister

 

g 限定性形容詞子句: 用來辨別,限定前面的先行詞所以是必要的,不可省略,子

句前後都不可以有逗點。

 

h 非限定性形容詞子句: 用來修飾前面的先行詞,給與額外的資訊,所以可以省略,必須用逗號把它跟主要子句分開。先行詞為專有名詞時多為非限定性形容詞子句。

限定子句:My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

(我有幾個姊姊其中一個有兩個小孩)

非限定子句:My sister, who lives in the U.S., has two children.

(我只有一個姊姊,她有兩個小孩)

 

H. 學習形容詞子句的重點

第一,注意形容詞子句的位置。應該盡量緊跟著先行詞。先行詞一定是名詞。

第二,選擇正確的關係代名詞。

第三,不要重複關係代名詞與代替的字。 I like the book that she wrote it. (x)

第四,注意形容詞子句中的動詞與主詞須一致。

第五,注意形容詞子句為限定或非限定。標上需要的逗號。

 

1. 關係代名詞的位置

關係代名詞所帶領的形容詞子句應緊接著先行詞,放在先行詞後面。先行詞一定是名詞,名詞片語或代名詞。

a. 形容詞子句可能在句中也可能在句尾。

I have a friend who speaks five languages.

我有個講五種語言的朋友。

I have a friend Andy, who speaks five languages.

我有個朋友安迪,他會講五種語言。

My friend who lives in Switzerland speaks five languages.

My friend Andy, who lives in Switzerland, speaks five languages.

 

b. 形容詞子句假如沒有緊接著先行詞容易造成誤解。

He left the car on the street that he had just bought.

他把車子放在他剛買的那條街上。

He left the car that he had just bought on the street. (比較清楚)

他把他剛買的車子放在街上。

 

c. 形容詞子句有少數不直接跟在先行詞後面。通常是先行詞後有介系詞片語時,為了語意的完整,會放在介系詞片語的後面,但比較少見。

The first thanksgiving feast in the United States, which took place in 1621,

lasted three days.

在美國的第一個感恩節慶典在1621年舉辦,持續了三天

d. 形容詞子句也可以用來修飾整個句子,這時用 which來帶領形容詞子句,一定放在句尾,一定為非限定。

The team won the championship, which shocked the opponents.

那隊贏得冠軍嚇到對手

 

2. 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

選擇關係代名詞。形容詞子句常為兩個句子的結合。關係代名詞應使用主格、所有格或受格是依形容詞子句中與先行詞重複的部分在形容詞子句的位置來決定。可將主要子句與形容詞子句分為兩個句子來看,找出重複的部分。

a. 主格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister has two children.

My sister who has two children lives in Canada. 我有兩個小孩的姊姊住加拿大。

S + V + O

 

b. 受格

My sister lives in Canada. You talked to my sister last night.

My sister whom you talked to last night lives in Canada.

S + V + O

 

c. 所有格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister’s children are doctors.

My sister whose children are doctors lives in Canada.

我的那個小孩是醫生的姊姊住在加拿大

我住在加拿大的姊姊孩子是醫生。

 

2. 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

關係代名詞種類

關係代名詞 :人   who, whom, whose, that  事,物  which, whose, that

關係副詞:    時間 when       地方 where     原因 why

 

關係代名詞種類

主詞(主格) 受詞(受格) 介係詞+受詞 形容詞(所有格)
 

限定

 

 

 

 

 

who

that

 

whom

who

that

X

whom…to

who…to

that… to

X…  to

to whom

whose
事,物 which

that

which

that

X

which …to

that…  to

X…   to

to which

whose
 

非限定

 

who whom whom … to

to whom

whose
事,物 which which which… to

to which

whose

x 表示省略

逗號後面不可以加 that

Excuse me. 失陪一下。

I have to use the bathroom. I have to go to the bathroom. 我必須去洗手間。

rest room  public rest room 公廁

2 broke girls  破產姐妹花

dirty joke 黃色笑話

I have to powder my nose. 我必須去幫我的鼻子上粉。有禮貌的說要去上廁所。

 

選擇正確的關係代名詞解答部分

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.

S        (                                     ) V

The people who moved into town are Italian.

 

2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown  is beautiful but quite expensive.

S        (  which/that/x                  ) V

The lamp is beautiful but quite expensive.

I bought the lamp downtown.

The lamp which/that/x I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.

我在市區買的那盞燈很漂亮但是很貴。

expensive taste 昂貴的品味

 

3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.

Everyone came to the audition. Everyone got a part in the play.

Everyone who came to the audition got a part in the play.

每個來試鏡的人都有拿到劇本中的一個角色。

 

4. Ms. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.

S          V                (adj clause)

Ms. Rice is the teacher.

I enjoy Ms. Rice’s class most.

Ms. Rice is the teacher whose class I enjoy most.

我最喜歡萊斯小姐的課。

 

5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.

S                                                                 V

The man had collapsed from heat exhaustion.

I found the man in the doorway.

The man who/whom/that/x I found in the doorway had collapsed form heat exhaustion.

那個我在門廊發現的男人因為熱衰竭暈倒了。

 

6. I like the people with _______ I work.

I like the people.   I work with the people.

I like the people who/whom/that/x I work with.

I like the people with whom I work.

我喜歡跟我一起工作的人。

 

7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.

I have a friend. My friend’s father is a famous artist.

I have a friend whose father is a famous artist.

我有個朋友的爸爸是個有名的藝術家。

I have a friend’s father is a famous artist. (X)

 

8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.

The camera takes very sharp pictures. I bought the camera.

The camera which/that/x I bought takes very sharp pictures.

我買的那台相機拍的照片很漂亮。

 

9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.

Students have to budget their time very carefully.

Students have part-time jobs.

Students who/that have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.

有兼差工作的學生必須要很小心的規劃他們的時間。

 

10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

Flying squirrels stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

Flying squirrels live in tropical rain forests.

Flying squirrels which/that live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

住在熱帶雨林的飛鼠會一輩子待在樹上不會碰到地面。

 

11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.

The people were a little upset.

I dented the people’s car.

The people whose car I dented were a little upset.

我撞到他們車子的那些人不太開心。

 

12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.

The person is the Director of Admission.

You should send your application to the person.

The person whom/who/that/x you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.

The person to whom you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.你應該寄你的申請書的那個人是主任委員。

 

13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

Monkeys will eat almost anything. Monkeys can find anything.

Monkeys will eat almost anything which/that/x they can find.

猴子幾乎會吃任何他可以找到的食物。

I wear the jacket, the jacket of my father is old. (x)

I wear my father’s old jacket. 我穿我爸的舊外套。

形容詞子句,關係副詞,限定子句,非限定子句

 

TGIF Thank God It’s Friday 感謝老天星期五了!而且快下班了
 
收拾好東西坐等放假?不是潔西啊,潔西準備上課的東西準備到頭到暈了。又是形容詞子句,寫不完改不完的形容詞子句XD 練習練習再練習。明天要帶的文法課還是形容詞子句,不過學生不同,也不知道會有什麼反應,反正多準備一些,寫清楚一點,就算上課潔西口齒不清希望學生回去自己看也能看得懂,希望如此啦。
 
潔西的外甥大寶今天一早出發騎腳踏車環島,居然快到台中了,原來騎腳踏車一天就可以騎到台中,不過覺得他應該超拼的啊。還好他平常暑假放假每天就打籃球,從早打到晚也不是沒有,所以體能應該沒問題,十八歲了,在桃園遇到善心人士給了他兩大瓶水跟貝果,但是水好重啊,他說。背著兩瓶重重的水的確很辛苦,快快喝掉或用來灑在身上應該也不錯。潔西三不五時就看一下 FB ,看他到哪裡了,從桃園大溪到新竹到苗栗不停繼續往前,西濱。現在看他直播,現在離台中還有14公里,他說有夠遠,沒有什麼人騎車只有他一個人孤單寂寞XD。發現原來沿途都有步道或腳踏車道,還挺方便的。有個藍天橋還蠻美的,不過他說永無止盡的道路。然後超好笑的,他說好熱,想下去玩水,然後接著又說啊,沒有帶泳帽,自己又想到說,對喔,去海邊不用泳帽,還說不知道講話大家能不能聽到,不過沒關係,自言自語也可以,幫自己加油等等,今天一直都在自言自語,果然是念表演藝術科的,自己一個人演得很開心啊!
 
然後他在直播的時候說誰在看,他媽媽寫老母,我本來要寫你老母跟我,但是發現好像在罵人啊,哈哈。他舅舅交代,這剛新買的手機不要一直曬太陽。他停了一下又繼續,說海風很舒服,不錯玩,但是有點累,風聲好大聲,比新竹的風聲還大啊!他說路上很多人幫他加油,各種好心人問他要不要幫忙,台灣人真好。聽了放心多了。因為今天眼皮一直跳,容易擔心的阿姨啊!
 
潔西則是一直坐在電腦前,跟著大寶遊台灣,不過也只有今天,明天後天都要上課。從昨天到今天一直都在備課,明後天的課,上課星期因為小寶帶朋友來家裡做蛋糕跟餅乾,潔西上星期六一早就起來整理家裡,然後他們來了就做餅乾蛋糕,晚上又帶他們去吃熱炒,吃飽回家開始備課的時候大概十點多,想說弄到十二點就好了,結果摸到四點,哪來哪麼多東西好備?其實是太混嗎?最近潔西都一邊備課一邊看日劇或美劇,不過今天真的難得,怕備不完,非常焦慮,所以呢,也沒有看劇,只有聽聽音樂配配大寶的直播。又餓了,又好累,還有一堂寫作還沒備好。
 
這形容詞子句的文法一邊改一邊發現好幾個地方錯,像什麼第三人稱的單數沒加到 s ,拼字拼錯之類的, 啊….好多錯,發現的人再請提醒,這篇,希望沒有太多錯。吃個飯,休息一下,繼續準備去:)
 
關係代名詞 :人   who, whom, whose, that 事,物  which, whose, that
關係副詞:    時間 when 地方 where 原因 why
 
x 表示省略
 
A 關係副詞 when, where, why, how
where, when, why, how 皆為關係副詞,可用來帶領形容詞子句,分別表地點, 時間, 原因,方式可用在限定或非限定子句。
where = the place where, when = the time when,
why = the reason why, how = the way in which
 
1 關係副詞 when
when
當要表示在某個時間(年,日,時間等)時,常會用時間介系詞 at, in, on 等加上時間來表示。
比方說I get up at 8.  He graduate in June.  We met on my birthday.
 
關係副詞when的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達時間時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用when來代替。所以when可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。除了將介系詞放在which前外,其他用法時介系詞都會省略掉。
所以假如要表達這就是我記得我遇到他的那一天,可以用下面的表達方式
可以想做是 I remember the day. 與 I met him on that day. 這兩個句子的合併。
I remember the day. I met him on that day.
I remember the day when I met him. 這裡可以用 when 取代 on which。
I remember the day on which I met him. 正式用法可以把介系詞 on 放到 which 前,不可省。
I remember the day that I met him.  這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同,on需省略
I remember the day I met him.  受詞的 that 跟 which 都可以省略,on也必須省略。
 
上面 when 可以省略掉,因為上列句子中只有當介系詞 on 在前面的時候才會出現介系詞,所以 when 可以直接省略掉。
練習一 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 Sunday is the day. We will come on that day.
2 8:30 is the time. My plane arrives at that time.
3 August is the month. The weather is usually the hottest in that month.
4 1960 is the year. The revolution took place in that year.
 
2 關係副詞 where
當要表示在某個地點(城市,國家,房間)時,常會用方位介系詞 in,on, at 等加上地點來表示。
比方說I am at home. My father is in his office.  The book is on the table.
 
關係副詞where的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達地點時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用where來代替。所以where 可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。
 
所以假如要表達這就是她工作的那間圖書館,可以用下面的表達方式
可以想做是That’s is the library. 與 She works in the library. 這兩個句子的合併。
 
That’s is the library. She works in the library.
 
That’s the library where she works.   在這裡可以用 where 取代 in which。
That’s the library in which she works.  正式用法可以把介系詞in放到which前面。
That’s the library which she works in.  which 可單獨放在句首,介系詞 in 不可省
That’s the library that she works in.  在這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同。
That’s the library she works in.  受詞的that 跟which都可以省,所以這裡只剩下不可省的in。
 
上面的句子 where 不可以直接省略掉,因為省略後的介系詞少掉了,所以只可以用最後一個句子 That’s the library she works in. 不可以用 That’s the library she works. (X)
 
因為where相當於“介系詞 + which ”,所以並不是所有地點都可以用where代替。當形容詞子句的地點是主格時,不會有介系詞,就只能用which,不可以用where。形容詞子句中一定要有介系詞加上受格which時,才可以用where代替。常見錯誤是誤用where來取代主格的which。
 
例如要合併下列兩個句子有兩種方式:
I was born and grew up in Taipei. (1) Taipei is the capital of Taiwan. (2)
第一種合併方式,用第一句當主要子句,因為第二句的形容詞子句的Taipei是主格,所以並沒有介系詞,只有地點,所以不能用where,只能用which來帶領形容詞子句。
I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.  
 
第二種合併方式,用第二個句子當主要子句,因為第一個句子中有in Taipei,所以可以用where來帶領形容詞字句。又有逗點時不可以用in which,只可以用where。
Taipei, which I was born and grew up in, is the capital of Taiwan.
Taipei, where I was born and grew up, is the capital city of Taiwan.
 
練習二 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation in that city.
2 That is the restaurant. I will meet you at that restaurant.
3 The town is small. I grew up in that town.
4 That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry in that drawer.
 
練習三 把兩個句子合併成一個句子
That man was Anna’s brother. He just walked past.
— The man who just walked past was Anna’s brother.
1 The plane was twenty-five years old. It crashed.
The plane ____________________________ twenty-five years old.
2 One day Tessa was ill in bed. Martin rang.
The day ____________________________ ill in bed.
3 Our offices are in Queen Street. They’re new.
Our ____________________________ in Queen Street.
4 Some documents have been found. They were stolen from a car.
The documents ____________________________ found.
5 The map is out of date. You were looking at it.
The map ____________________________ out of date.
6 The King’s Theater is in the center of town. It dates from 1896.
The King’s ____________________________ in the center of town.
7 A woman was terribly upset. Her dog was run over.
The woman ____________________________ terribly upset.
8 Janet solved the puzzle. She did it before everyone else.
Janet was ____________________________ the puzzle.
9 A man was standing outside the building. He was selling newspapers.
A man ____________________________ outside the building.
10 The talk was very interesting. Judy gave it.
The talk ____________________________ was very interesting.
11 The house is empty now. I used to live there.
The house ____________________________ is empty now.
 
3 關係副詞 why
原因 + why = 原因 + for + which
The reason why Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.
= The reason for which Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.
There can only be one champion, and that is the reason why competition is so intense.
= There can only be one champion, and that is the reason for which competition is so intense.
The weather is cold, which is the reason why there are so many people sick.
The weather is cold, which is the reason for which there are so many people sick.
 
4 關係副詞 how
how = the way + (介系詞 + which)
Do a little work every day. This is how you can finish any project, no matter how big.
= Do a little work every day. This is the way in which you can finish any project, no matter how big.
We showed him how we make rice pudding.
= We showed him the way in which we make rice pudding.
 
 
B 複合關係詞
whoever = any person(s) who/that 任何人
whomever = anyone whom
whatever = anything that/which 任何事
whichever = anythings that/which 有選擇當中的選項
wherever = in or at any place that
whenever = in or at any time that
however = in or at any way that
whatever, whoever, whichever 可以用來當作關係子句的主詞或受詞,也可以用 whatever, whoever, whichever 來表示不管什麼,不管誰,不管哪一個。而 wherever, whenever, however 可以用來表示不管在什麼地方,何時或如何
 
Whoever said those things is mistaken.
We will work for whomever they send.
Whatever she did made them happy.
Write in a pen or pencil, whichever you prefer.
I’ll always love you, whatever you do.
He’ll be in trouble, whichever he chooses.
He always keeps in touch wherever he is.
Whenever I see Penny, she asks me about you.
Please sit wherever you like.
Call whenever you can.
Just buy it, however much it costs.
 
 
 
練習四 Choose an ending for each beginning and addd these words
however, whatever, whenever, whichever, whoever
1 You can dress … a … they want to on Sunday morning.
2 We lived on potatoes … b … we think would enjoy the party.
3 The girls can get up … c and … else was available.
4 We’ll go there … d … you like because it’s really casual.
5 They said we could invite … e on Monday or Tuesday, … day you’re free.
 
C 限定與非限定形容詞子句
a. 限定子句 Restrictive / Identifying / Defining Clause
限定子句或辨別子句或定義子句,名稱可能不同,但是都是用來把人事物分類,定義或辨別先行詞。缺少這個限定子句時,語義會不清楚,所以會加上形容詞子句來讓。限定子句不可省略,不可使用逗號。that 只可以用在限定子句。
I have three phones. The phone which is in the kitchen is broken.
The woman who does my hair has just had a baby.
Do you have a good book that’s really easy to read?
What do you think of the wine we drank last night?
 
b. 非限定子句 Nonrestrictive (Non-identifying) Clause
非限定子句用來給予先行詞補充額外資訊。非限定子句可以省略,沒有非限定子句,語意一樣清楚。非限定形容詞子句只是補充說明,這時一定要用逗號將主要子句分隔開來。人名或專有名詞為先行詞時,後面幾乎都用非限定子句。不可以用 that 在非限定子句中。
 
I have only one phone. The phone, which is in the kitchen, is broken.
Sally, who does my hair, has just had a baby.
I lent him The Old Man and the Sea, which is really easy to read.
I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank at once.
 
限定子句用在當我們要表達重要的資訊的時候,當只是要加上額外資訊的時候用非限定子句
The first caller who can give the correct answer will win the prize.
The first caller, who was from the London area, didn’t give the correct answer.
 
在寫作的時候用逗號 comma , 或括號 backets () 或 破折號 dash – – 來把形容詞子句跟主要子句分開,在口說的時候會停一下 pause 來表示句子是非限定的。
The switch, which is on the back, is off. (The machine has only one switch. It’s one the back.)
The switch (pause) which is one the back (pause) is off. (The machine has only one switch. It’s one the back.)
The switch which is on the back is off. (The machine has more than one switch. This one is off.)
 
c which 的特殊用法:在非限定子句中,可以用 which 來給予前面整個句子評論看法,也可以用在 in which case 之類的用法。
David helped me clean up, which was very kind of him.
Sarah had to work late again, which annoyed Mike.
There may be a strike, in which case the office will remained closes.
 
另外也可以在 of which 跟 of whom 前面加上數量詞,比方說 some 或最高級,來提供前面所提過人,事物,或團體中的個人的額外資訊。
The last lecture, some of which I just didn’t understand, was about chemistry.
At the conference, there were several writers, the most famous of whom was Jason Bourne.
 
d 關係副詞的限定與非限定用法
這裡的用法類似用連接詞加上副詞的意思。
On my trip to Paris. I went to the Louvre Museum, where I saw the Mona Lisa on display
= On my trip to Paris, I went to the Louvre Museum, and there I saw the Mona Lisa on display.
Little Red Riding Hood approached the bed, where the wolf was waiting to eat her.
= Little Red Riding Hood approached the bed, and there the wolf was waiting to eat her
Please come back at three o’clock, when I will have time to talk to you.
= Please come back at three o’clock, because then I will have time to talk to you.
 
練習五:
依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號
1(that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.
2 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often needs a babysitter.
3 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
4 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
5 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
6 (who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.
7 (which is on the tenth floor) My new flat ______________________ has a terrific view.
8 (she bought the sofa from) Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop _______________.
 
練習六 翻譯練習 (可以先把句子分成兩個句子,再合併)
1. 那個贏的賽跑比賽的女孩子很開心。
2. 我在哪裡可以搭到開往市中心的公車。
3. 我們昨天拜訪的人非常的好。
4. 我投票給她的那個候選人沒有贏得選舉。
5. 我喜歡你寫的那篇作文。
6. 我們昨晚聽的音樂很好聽。
7. 那個皮包被偷的男人打電話報警。
8. 我住的宿舍裡面的學生來自不同的國家。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
答案在這裡:潔西的答案都有含題目,所以不用再回去對題目,原因是這樣子地…
練習一
1 Sunday is the day. We will come on that day.
Sunday is the day when we will come.
2 8:30 is the time. My plane arrives at that time.
8:30 is the time when my plane arrives.
3 August is the month. The weather is usually the hottest in that month.
August is the month when the weather is usually the hottest.
4 1960 is the year. The revolution took place in that year.
1960 is the year when the revolution took place.
 
 
練習二 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation in that city.
The city where we spent our vacation is beautiful.
2 That is the restaurant. I will meet you at that restaurant.
That is the restaurant where I will meet you.
3 The town is small. I grew up in that town.
The town where I grew up is small.
4 That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry in that drawer.
That is the drawer where I keep my jewelry.
 
 
練習三 把兩個句子合併成一個句子
That man was Anna’s brother. He just walked past.
— The man who just walked past was Anna’s brother.
1 The plane was twenty-five years old. It crashed.
The plane that/which crashed was twenty-five years old.
2 One day Tessa was ill in bed. Martin rang.
The day (when/that) Martin rang, Tessa was ill in bed.
3 Our offices are in Queen Street. They’re new.
Our offices, which are new, are in Queen Street.
4 Some documents have been found. They were stolen from a car.
The documents that/which were stolen from a car have been found.
5 The map is out of date. You were looking at it.
The map that/which/ x you were looking at is out of date.
6 The King’s Theater is in the center of town. It dates from 1896.
The king’s Theater, which dates from 1896, is in the center of town.
7 A woman was terribly upset. Her dog was run over.
The woman whose dog was run over was terribly upset.
8 Janet solved the puzzle. She did it before everyone else.
Janet was the first person who/that solved the puzzle.
9 A man was standing outside the building. He was selling newspapers.
A man who/that was selling newspapers was standing outside of the building.
10 The talk was very interesting. Judy gave it.
The talk that/which/x Judy gave was very interesting.
11 The house is empty now. I used to live there.
The house where I used to live is empty now.
 
練習四 Choose an ending for each beginning and addd these words
however, whatever, whenever, whichever, whoever
1 You can dress …
2 We lived on potatoes …
3 The girls can get up …
4 We’ll go there …
5 They said we could invite …
 
a … they want to on Sunday morning.
b … we think would enjoy the party.
c and … else was available.
d … you like because it’s really casual.
e on Monday or Tuesday, … day you’re free.
 
1 You can dress however you like because it’s really casual.
2 We lived on potatoes and whatever else was available.
3 The girls can get up whenever they want to on Sunday morning.
4 We’ll go there on Monday or Tuesday, whichever day you’re free.
5 They said we could invite whoever we think would enjoy the party.
 
 
練習五:
依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號
1(that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.
1 This car is a lot cheaper than the one that Claire drives.
2 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often needs a babysitter.
2 Olivia, who has twins, often needs a babysitter.
3 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
3 The person who took Rita to the party was Tom.
4 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
4 Henry, who has a bad temper, shouted at the waiter.
5 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
5 The team which Tom supports is United.
6 (who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.
6 We climbed up expect Vicky, who is afraid of heights.
7 (which is on the tenth floor) My new flat ______________________ has a terrific view.
7 My new flat, which is on the tenth floor, has a terrific view.
8 (she bought the sofa from) Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop _______________.
8 Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop she bought the sofa from.
 
練習六 翻譯
1.
The girl won the race.
She is happy.
The girl who won the race is happy.
The girl that won the race is happy.
 
2.
Where can I catch the bus?
The bus goes downtown?
Where can I catch the bus that goes downtown?
Where can I catch the bus which goes downtown?
 
3.
The people were very nice.
We visited them yesterday.
The people whom we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people who we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people that we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people we visited yesterday were very nice.
 
4.
The candidate didn’t win the election.
I voted for her.
The candidate whom I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate who I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate that I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate for whom I voted didn’t win the election.
 
5.
I liked the composition.
You wrote it.
I liked the composition which you wrote.
I liked the composition that you wrote.
I liked the composition you wrote.
6.
The music was good.
We listened to it last night.
The music which we listened to last night was good.
The music that we listened to last night was good.
The music we listened to last night was good.
The music to which we listened to last night was good.
7.
The man called police.
His wallet was stolen.
The man whose wallet was stolen called the police.
8.
I live in a dormitory.
Its residents come from many countries.
I live in a dormitory whose residents come from many countries

形容詞子句 Adjective Clause

形容詞子句 Adjective Clause 又叫做關係子句 Relative Clause 是令很多人頭大的部分,因為主格,受格,所有格的關係代名詞不同,有時候可以省略,而且還有很愛到處即興演出的that出沒,所以很容易令人混淆。潔西盡量寫得簡潔清楚,大家參考一下,希望有幫助。

另外今天又花了一下午改講義,這篇前後改過好幾次,起碼十個小時以上,潔西綜合了好幾本書,找出自己覺得比較常用,然後用最近不太好用的大腦想一想整理了一下,今天一改就發現大錯誤,真的是超心虛啊。裡面難免可能會有些錯誤,因為用腦過度,呵呵,請大家見諒跟幫忙校對。感激不盡:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用,  潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血, 並且標明出處。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的練習題來自下面的書,所有版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

刑容詞子句Adjective Clauses 

 

 

開始前先做一下翻譯練習看看自己的觀念對不對

a. 台北是個方便的城市。

b. 羅馬是個吸引很多遊客的城市。

c. 我的好朋友很健談。

d. 我住在美國的好朋友很喜歡談政治。

e. 那個長髮美女是我老婆。

 

A 修飾名詞

如何修飾名詞的方式有下面幾種

a. 形容詞adjective

形容詞可以用來修飾(modify)名詞,修飾的意思就是加以說明,描述,做些許的改變,名詞加了形容詞後意思可能大不相同。形容詞可以放在名詞前面或連綴動詞後面。

May is a happy girl. May is an unhappy girl.

He is late. He became angry.

 

b. 形容詞子句adjective clause

形容詞子句跟形容詞一樣,只可以用來修飾名詞,對於名詞加以描述,或提供一些額外的訊息。當描述的內容無法用一個形容詞,或者包括了動詞時,則可以用形容詞子句來說明,修飾名詞。形容詞子句永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。形容詞子句前面也幾乎一定都是名詞,形容詞子句只可以用來修飾名詞

New York is a city that never sleeps.

Someone who has a lot of friend is lucky.

Rome is a city that attracts a lot of tourists.

 

c. 介系詞片語preposition phrase

介系詞片語就是由介系詞跟名詞結合成的片語,可以用來說明修飾名詞。放在修飾的名詞的後面。

My brother is the man in the white suit.

Sandy is the tall woman with red hair.

Profess Wu is the tall man with a beard.

 

 

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句,也叫做關係子句,是非獨立子句的一種。整個子句當作形容詞,用來修飾名詞或代名詞。形容詞子句是後衛修飾,永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。

一般中文是用前衛修飾,把形容詞放在修飾名詞前面。例如說,我住在美國的姊姊有三個小孩。當修飾內容有動詞時,英文不可以直接把形容堆在名詞前面。所以除了前衛也常用後衛修飾,把形容詞或形容詞子句放到所要形容的名詞或代名詞後面。

The bride must wear something old, something new, something borrowed, and something blue.

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

 

2. 名詞解釋

a. 子句: 是由一組的字所組成,其中包括主詞與動詞,可能為獨立或非獨立子句。

 

b. 獨立子句: 是一個完整的句子,其中包括主要的主詞與動詞,語意完整,可以單獨

存在。可以最為主要子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

 

c. 非獨立子句: 是一個不完整的句子,如名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。由從屬

連接詞,關係代名詞,疑問詞等為首帶領的子句。雖然其中也包括了主詞與動詞,但是語意不完整,需要與獨立子句結合,才能為一個完整的句子。

 

d. 形容詞子句: 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾

一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。形容詞子句也叫做關係子句。

 

e. 關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有who, whom, which, that,跟whose。關係副詞有when與where。

 

f. 先行詞: 形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多

緊接在先行詞後面。

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children. 這個句子中

獨立子句/主要子句:My sister has two children.

非獨立子句/形容詞子句:who lives in the U.S.,用來修飾sister

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:sister

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.3

B. 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

g. 限定性形容詞子句: 用來辨別,限定前面的先行詞所以是必要的,不可省略,子句前後都不可以有逗點。

h. 非限定性形容詞子句: 用來修飾前面的先行詞,給與額外的資訊,所以可以省略,

必須用逗號把它跟主要子句分開。先行詞為專有名詞時多為非限定性形容詞子句。

限定子句:My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.   (我有幾個姊姊其中一個有兩個小孩)

非限定子句:My sister, who lives in the U.S., has two children.  (我只有一個姊姊,她有兩個小孩)

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

第一,注意形容詞子句的位置。應該盡量緊跟著先行詞。先行詞一定是名詞。

第二,選擇正確的關係代名詞。

第三,不要重複關係代名詞與代替的字。

第四,注意形容詞子句中的動詞與主詞須一致。

第五,注意形容詞子句為限定或非限定。標上需要的逗號。

1. 關係代名詞的位置

關係代名詞所帶領的形容詞子句應緊接著先行詞,放在先行詞後面。先行詞一定是名詞,名詞片語或代名詞。

a. 形容詞子句可能在句中也可能在句尾。

I have a friend who speaks five languages.

My friend who lives in Switzerland speaks five languages.

b. 形容詞子句假如沒有緊接著先行詞容易造成誤解。

He left the car on the street that he had just bought.

He left the car that he had just bought on the street. (比較清楚)

c. 形容詞子句有少數不直接跟在先行詞後面。通常是先行詞後有介系詞片語時,為了

語意的完整,會放在介系詞片語的後面,但比較少見。

The first thanksgiving feast in the United States, which took place in 1621

lasted three days.

d. 形容詞子句也可以用來修飾整個句子,這時用which來帶領形容詞子句,一定放在句尾,一定為非限定。

The team won the championship, which shocked the opponents.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.4

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

2. 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

選擇關係代名詞。形容詞子句常為兩個句子的結合。關係代名詞應使用主格、所有格或受格是依形容詞子句中與先行詞重複的部分在形容詞子句的位置來決定。可將主要子句與形容詞子句分為兩個句子來看,找出重複的部分。

a. 主格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister has two children.

My sister who has two children lives in Canada.

b. 受格

My sister lives in Canada. You talked to my sister last night.

My sister whom you talked to last night lives in Canada.

c. 所有格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister’s children are doctors.

My sister whose children are doctors lives in Canada.

關係代名詞種類

關係代名詞 :人    who, whom, whose, that 事,物  which, whose, that

關係副詞:    時間  when                   地方       where

主詞(主格) 受詞(受格) 介係詞+受詞 形容詞

(所有格)

限定 who

that

whom

who

that

X

whom…to

who…to

that… to

X…  to

to whom

whose
事,物 which

that

which

that

X

which …to

that…  to

X…   to

to which

whose
非限定 , who , whom , whom …to , whose
事,物  , which , which , which… to , whose

上面粗體字為正式用法,寫作時多用正式用法, X 表示省略

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.5

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

2. 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

  1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.
  2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.
  3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.
  4. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.
  5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.
  6. I like the people with _______ I work.
  7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.
  8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.
  9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.
  10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.
  11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.
  12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.
  13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

3. 不要重複關係代名詞與代表的主詞,受詞或所有格

關係代名詞帶領的形容詞子句中因為關係代名詞就代表了原句子中的主詞,受詞,或所有格,所以切記不要再重複這些字。

Scott is someone who he loves sports.

Scott is someone who loves sports.

Scott is the man whose his dog barks all day.

Scott is the man whose dog barks all day.

Scott is the writer whom I saw him on TV.

Scott is the writer whom I saw on TV.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.6

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

4. 形容詞子句中的動詞與主詞一致

形容詞子句中的動詞必須跟形容詞子句中的主詞一致,按主動詞一致原則,所以必須依主詞不同來作動詞的變化。

a. 當關係代名詞是主格時,依先行詞做變化

Ben is my friend who lives in Boston.

Al and Ed are my friends who live in Boston.

b. 當關係代名詞是所有格時,依所有格+名詞,就是形容詞子句中的主詞做變化。

He’s the man whose dog barks all day.

He’s the man whose dogs bark all day.

c. 當關係代名詞是受格時,依形容詞子句中的主詞而變化。

I like the columns which he writes.

I like the column which they write.

填入正確的關係代名詞跟動詞

  1. People _________ __________ (have) moved a lot have few friends.
  2. People _________ __________ (have) lived in the same place have more friends.
  3. The qualities ________ ________ (be) most important in a friend are loyalty, warmth, and the ability to keep secrets.
  4. Someone _________ ________ (face) a crisis turns to friends before family.
  5. Betrayal is the cause ___________ ____________ (be) most often response for ending a friendship.
  6. Many people have friends __________ social or religious backgrounds _________ (be) different from theirs.
  7. Most people __________ friends __________ (include) members of the opposite sex say that these relationships are different from relationships with people of the same sex.
  8. A survey _______ ____________ (appear) in a magazine may not represent everyone.
  9. Someone ________ ___________ (not read) the magazine might have other ideas.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin P.7

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

5. 限定與非限定形容詞子句

a. 限定子句 Restrictive(Identifying) Clause

用來定義或辨認(identify)先行詞,缺少這個限定子句時語義會不清楚,所以限定子句不可省略,不可使用逗號。that 只可以用在限定子句。

Every culture in the world has special days that people observe with traditional food, customs, and events.

b. 非限定子句 Nonrestrictive (Non-identifying) Clause

用來給予先行詞額外的補充資訊,非限定子句可以省略,所以非限定形容詞子句一定要用逗號將主要子句分隔開來。人名或專有名詞為先形詞時,後面幾乎都用非限定子句。

My favorite holiday is Moon Festival, which is on August 15 of the lunar calendar.

結合下面的句子,注意在非限定子句時要用逗號。關係代名詞可以省略的情況下就省略

  1. I bought a cell phone. I can use it to send and receive e-mail.

_______________________________________________________

  1. My new cell phone has become a necessary part of life. I only bought it a month ago.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Now, there are psychologists. They help technophobes use technology.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Michelle Weil wrote a book about “technostress.” She is a psychologist.

_______________________________________________________

  1. A lot of people suffer from technostress. Those people work in my office.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Some people dream of a job. They can do the job without technology.

_______________________________________________________

依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號

  1. (that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.

8.(who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often need a babysitter.

  1. (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
  2. (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
  3. (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
  4. ( who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.

 

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.8

D. 關係代名詞的受格的位置

關係代名詞的受格可作為介係詞的受詞。最正式的用法將介係詞放在關係代名詞前 (此時只可用whom代表人,which代表事物,不可以用who、that也不可以省略),非正式時將介係詞放在句尾,關係代名詞可省略。

The candidate for whom I voted lost the election.          Formal

The candidate whom I voted for lost the election.

The candidate who I voted for lost the election.

The candidate that I voted for lost the election.

The candidate I voted for lost the election.              Informal

F. 關係代名詞的省略

在口語中常常會省可省略某些關係代名詞。

  1. 可以省略的:限定子句中的受格與when。

That’s the man (whom) I love.

I remember the day (when) I met him.

  1. 不可省略的:非限定子句中的所有關係代名詞,限定子句中的主格、所有格與where。

I remember Max, who I visited often.

He is my friend who lives in New York.

That’s the writer whose books I like very much.

That’s the school where I work.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.9

G. 關係副詞where

where跟when皆為關係副詞,可用來帶領形容詞子句,分別表地點與時間。兩者皆可用在限定或非限定子句。

where

當要表示在某個地點(城市,國家,房間)時,常會用方位介系詞 in,on, at 等加上地點來表示。比方說I am at home. My father is in his office.  The book is on the table.

關係副詞where的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達地點時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用where來代替。所以where 可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。

所以假如要表達這就是她工作的那間圖書館,可以用下面的表達方式

可以想做是That’s is the library. 與 She works in the library. 這兩個句子的合併。

That’s the library which she works in.  重複的是受詞的library,可以用which代替。

That’s the library in which she works.  正式用法可以把介系詞in放到which前面。

That’s the library where she works.   在這裡可以用 where 取代 in which。

That’s the library that she works in.  在這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同。

That’s the library she works in.  受詞的that 跟which都可以省,所以這裡只剩下in。

因為where相當於“介系詞 + which ”,所以並不是所有地點都可以用where代替。當形容詞子句的地點是主格時,不會有介系詞,就只能用which,不可以用where。形容詞子句中一定要有介系詞加上受格which時,才可以用where代替。常見錯誤是誤用where來取代主格的which。

例如要合併下列兩個句子有兩種方式:

I was born and grew up in Taipei. (1)        Taipei is the capital of Taiwan. (2)

第一種合併方式,用第一句當主要子句,因為第二句的形容詞子句的Taipei是主格,所以並沒有介系詞,只有地點,所以不能用where,只能用which來帶領形容詞子句。

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

第二種合併方式,用第二個句子當主要子句,因為第一個句子中有in Taipei,所以可以用where來帶領形容詞字句。又有逗點時不可以用in which,只可以用where。

Taipei, which I was born and grew up in, is the capital of Taiwan.

Taipei, where I was born and grew up, is the capital city of Taiwan.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses Jessie Lin   P.10

H. 關係副詞when

when

當要表示在某個時間(年,日,時間等)時,常會用時間介系詞 at, in, on 等加上時間來表示。

比方說I get up at 8.  He graduate in June.  We met on my birthday.

關係副詞when的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達時間時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用when來代替。所以when可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。除了將介系詞放在which前外,其他用法時介系詞都會省略掉。

所以假如要表達這就是我記得我遇到他的那一天,可以用下面的表達方式

可以想做是 I remember the day. 與 I met him on that day. 這兩個句子的合併。

I remember the day. I met him on that day.

I remember the day which I met him (on). 重複的是受詞day,可用which代替,on可以省略

I remember the day on which I met him. 正式用法可以把介系詞on放到which前,不可省。

I remember the day when I met him. 這裡可以用 when 取代 on which。

I remember the day that I met him (on).  這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同,on可省

I remember the day I met him (on).  受詞的that 跟which都可以省略,on也可以省略。

因為when相當於“介系詞 + which ”,所以並不是所有時間都可以用when代替。當形容詞子句的地點是主格時,不會有介系詞,就只能用which,不可以用when。形容詞子句中一定要有介系詞加上受格which時,才可以用when代替。

例如要合併下列兩個句子有兩種方式:

People go back to work on Monday. (1)   The most stressful day of the week is Monday. (2)

第一種合併方式,用第一句當主要子句,因為第二句的形容詞子句的Monday是補語,並沒有介系詞,只有時間,所以不能用when,只能用which來帶領形容詞子句。

People go back to work on Monday, which is the most stressful day of the week.

第二種合併方式,用第二個句子當主要子句,因為第一個句子中有on Monday,所以可以用when來帶領形容詞字句。又有逗點時不可以用on which,只可以用when。

The most stressful day of the week is Monday, which people go back to work (on).

The most stressful day of the week is Monday, when people go back to work.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses Jessie Lin   P.11

練習題答案Answer key

A. 形容詞與形容詞子句

1. 翻譯練習

a. Taipei is a convenient city.

b. Rome is a city that attracts a lot of tourists.

c. My best friend is talkative.

d. My best friends who lives in the U.S. likes to talk politics.

e. The beautiful woman with long hair is my wife.

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

2.

1. who/that 2. that/which/x 3. who/that 4. whose 5. whom/who/that/x

6. whom 7. whose 8. that/which/x 9. who/that 10. that/which

11. whose 12. whom 13. that/which/x

4. 形容詞子句中的動詞

1. who(that), have   2. who(that), have 3. that(which), are 4. who(that), faces

5. that(which), is 6. whose, are 7. whose, include 8. that(which), appears/appeared/has appeared 9. who(that), doesn’t read/hasn’t read

5. 限定與非限定形容詞子句

1. I bought a cell phone I can use to send and receive e-mail.

2. My new cell phone, which I bought a month ago, has become a necessary part of

life.

3. Now, there are psychologists who(that) help technophobes use technology.

4. Dr. Michelle Weil, who is a psychologist, wrote a book about “technostress.”

5. A lot of people who work in my office suffer from technostress.

6. Some people dream of a job they can do without technology.

7. This car is a lot cheaper than the one that Claire drives.

8. Olivia, who has twins, often needs a babysitter.

9. The person who took Rita to the party was Tom.

10. Henry, who has a bad temper, shouted at the waiter.

11. The team which Tom supported is United.

12. We all climbed up except Vicky, who is afraid of heights.