【潔西家英文】現在完成式 現在完成進行式 翻譯練習

今天是 April 1st, April Fools’ Day 愚人節,大家應該都希望這場疫情只是一場愚人節的玩笑,一覺醒來疫情就消失了。在2020年一開始設新年新希望時絕對沒想到規劃好的生活,計畫,一轉眼,整個社會,整個國家,甚至全世界都因為這個新冠病毒 COVID-19,人仰馬翻,天翻地覆。

這場疫情造成太多人的太多的不便,太多計劃被打斷,太多行程被取消,很多人已經失去工作了,很多人被規定要待在家裡不能出門,但是呢最慘的是很多人已經失去他們最愛的人。非常不幸地,各國感染死亡人數還在不斷地增加,疫情還可能更嚴重。

假如要抱怨每個人大概都說不完,但是呢也不能不抱怨,抱怨其實有益身心健康,不開心的事說出來比悶在心中好,有人聽你訴苦,多少能夠撫慰一點怒氣跟怨氣?但是抱怨也是ㄧ句起,三句多,也就是適量,抱怨多了人緣會變差,誰想一天到晚聽不開心的事?

每個人都希望自己生活一帆風順,但是天底下聽過多少人的人生真的是如此?人生不如意十之八九,隨便路上捉住一兩個路人,或問問周遭朋友,最近有沒有不順心的事?你有時間聽的話,不少人大概都有一籮筐的苦水等著訴說。

人生不如意十之八九,那活著有什麼意思?對潔西來說,人生很多時候真的就是靠那一兩分美好幸福而活的。人生真的是要靠希望這種東西,就好像掛在馬前面的胡蘿蔔,讓馬繼續往前走的動力。這疫情終究會過去的,最難熬的應該是就像潔西在經歷憂鬱症的時候,有時候你真的看不到光芒,因為你看不到出口,你不知道終點在哪裡,疫情究竟何時會結束?現在全世界的專家沒有人能夠告訴你一個確切的答案,但是能肯定的是,這跟潔西的憂鬱症一樣,會過去的,雨過天晴總有等到的那一天。

雖然現在我們有很多的不方便,很多的不順遂,但是事情遇到也只能去處理去面對,對於自己能掌握之外的事情就只能接受,再怎麼不喜歡再怎麼討厭,因為沒有什麼事是你可以做的。那自己可以做什麼?自己的心情,自己的生活,自己面對事情的態度,自己處理事情的方法,這些是自己可以決定的。去想辦法讓自己開心還是要放著讓自己不開心?說來容易做來難 Easier said than done.

潔西昨天起床突然發現,啊,這星期因為連假很多人請假,課程也停,所以這星期只有上兩堂課,四個小時,啊,好慘,假如要付房租的話可能付不出來,只能喝水吃空氣了。心情有點沮喪,然後偏頭痛又剛好來敲門,吃了藥還是很不舒服,全身關節都在痛。平常一兩個星期痛一次,這次隔比較久,所以呢就痛得特別嚴重。

但是呢心情不好也無濟於事,就是想開點,這樣有比較多時間做一些平常想做沒時間做的事,頭痛就只能讓它痛,就躺在床上,看看影片,睡睡覺,雖然覺得很浪費時間,但是人很多時後就是需要休息,不好好休息身體就會跟你抗議。所以昨天就睡了一天,還好今天起來就好多了,沒有像先前有時候會連痛兩天。

潔西其實是很悲觀的人,因為憂鬱症,躁鬱症,慢慢學到啊,要正面樂觀積極才是王道,因為生活就是這樣,很多時候真的有太多的人事物是你沒辦法改變只能接受的,最容易也最難做到的就是去改變你的心情,你對於事物的觀點跟想法,假如要說適者生存的話,越是樂觀正面的人越容易在任何處境下活下來吧?開心也是過一天,難過也是一天,為什麼要不開心?很多時候這個不開心不是一種選擇,我的心情就是這麼糟,我也不想這麼糟,憂鬱很久的潔西很有心得的。

人都有心情的起伏,假如怎麼樣讓沒辦法讓自己開心,真的要考慮去看醫生,用藥物的方式先把大腦的神經傳導素做適當調整,但是大部分正常的人或許應該是能夠自己去多做一些讓自己開心的事把自己的心情提振起來。做什麼事會開心?潔西不知道別人,但是我知道自己做什麼事會開心,因為我花了很多時間去想,去嘗試,很久以前我寫了一百零一件做了會開心的事,最近應該可以寫新版的,因為隨時間不同,人會改變,什麼事會讓自己開心也會改變,自己才會真正的知道究竟什麼事會讓自己開心,多去嘗試不同的事情,只有自己才最了解自己才知道什麼事會真的讓自己開心。

寫太多了,提醒大家,最近真的要多保重自己,多洗手,口罩沒事還是多戴著。潔西先前看到 Fortune Magazine 財星雜誌的網路上的新聞報導在遙遠的小國冰島的檢測,冰島只有三十多萬人,政府反應很快,找了專門檢驗機構來對健康跟生病的人做隨機抽樣檢測,當時(3/24)有百分之三點二的國民,也就是七百三十七人測出陽性反應,也就是帶有病毒。這當中十五個人在醫院,兩個人在加護病房,其他人多是輕微徵狀或沒有徵狀 asymptomatic ,這些人被要求自我隔離 self-quarantine。根據資料他們在冰島的檢測結果,他們推斷高危險人口的五分之一確診,約百分之一的人口是沒有症狀但是帶有病毒,會感染給別人的。

昨天有看到新聞說對於建議從國外回台灣的人全面檢測的提議但是被否定掉了,理由還是潔西覺得很奇怪的偽陰性,也就是有些人可能初期感染了病毒,但是徵狀還沒出來。看到新聞的說法是說假如檢測出來是偽陰性的話,會變得放任這些人到處跑,造成防疫的更大困難。潔西覺得這個邏輯很奇怪,就規定所有回台的人都檢測,不管檢驗出來的結果是什麼都還是要隔離兩週,這樣子即便是偽陰性也不會放任他們到處跑啊?

已經有國外回台灣居家隔離傳染給家人的例子了,昨天也看到有一個病例是國外回來沒有徵狀但是帶有病毒的,因為有接觸者有發病所以才檢測出來。昨天好像看到目前台北市跟新北市都各有一萬多人正在居家隔離,這些居家隔離的人萬一有人是帶有病毒但是沒有徵狀的,很容易家人就會忽略了應該有的防疫措施,這些家人萬一被居家隔離的人感染了但也是無徵狀的是不是又會出門感染給其他人呢?

但是呢關於這種檢測的東西也不是我們小老百姓可以決定的,怎麼辦?好好保護自己啊!那天上課前被學生問到說老師你都不會怕啊?我們都是上班下班,同一間辦公室,老師要到處跑。恩,老實說,現在其實有些課已經請假取消了,也有些課就乾脆到學生家上課了,那天想想,現在上課的地方只有星巴克。潔西最近都找最邊邊的角落上課,上課儘可能都戴著口罩,桌子會先消毒一下,下課回到家第一件事先洗澡。另外潔西比大家好的就是可以挑非交通顛峰時刻出門,本來就討厭上下班的捷運,所以都會提早出門上課,可以走路上課的地方就走路上課。潔西家中有八十多歲的老爸,潔西的學生家中也有小朋友,要把自己保護好,才是對自己跟對別人負責的。現在已經沒有所謂的太小心了 You can’t be too careful. 接下來的發展會是如何,這個疫情還會持續多久,沒有一個專家目前可以給出一個正確答案,同學先前說她老公說亂世要先自保,說得一點都沒錯,大家好好保護自己,多洗手,手不要碰臉,口罩雖然戴了不舒服還是戴吧!

影片有點長,建議先做題目,分個幾次對答案

 

 

現在完成式    

1 經驗

past ——x——now————— future        x: event/activity/action

             ?

1 肯定句:主詞(S)+have/has+過去分詞(V3)

I have eaten Swiss food.

They have tried kayaking.

He has gone whale watching.

She has been to India.

 

2 否定句:主詞(S)+have/has+not +過去分詞(V3)

I have not eaten Swiss food.  haven’t

They have not tried kayaking.

He has not gone whale watching.  hasn’t

She has not been to India.

 

3 Yes/No 問句:Have/Has +主詞 (S) +過去分詞(V3)

Have you eaten Swiss food?

Have they tried kayaking?

Has he gone whale watching?

Has she been to India?

 

二 表達在過去發生的事情,這個事情或狀態從過去開始一直延續到現在,在未來也可能繼續持續下去

現在完成式    past —x———————now ————— future    x: action

                          —x———————x- – – – – – – – –

I have taught English for twenty years.

I have taught English since 2000.

 

三 現在完成可用來當表示剛剛最近不久前發生的事情時,常與 just, recently, lately 連用

We’ve just gotten back from Tokyo.

 

四 現在完成式強調已發生的事或發生的比預期早的時,常與 already 連用

Do you want something to eat? No, thanks. I’ve already eaten.

 

五 現在完成式常用 not yet 來表達還沒有發生的事,但我們認為未來會發生

I haven’t finished this work yet. (but I will finish it.)

 

六 現在完成式用 yet 在問句中表達我們預期會發生的事情是否已經發生

Have you paid the bill yet?

 

七 現在完成式也用來表達過去到現在一段時間內重複的活動,實際發生的時間並不重要,強調的是次數。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。

I have seen five movies this month.    

 

八 現在完成式常跟第一次,第二次,最高級等連用。

This is the first time I’ve been to Canada, so it’s all new to me.

Paris is the most beautiful place I’ve ever been.

 

九 現在完成式常用來表達在過去某個不特定時間發生的事情,發生的時間不確定或不重要,重要的是結果,而且結果是跟現在有關的。

I have seen this movie before. I don’t want to see it again now.

 

現在完成進行式

現在完成進行式用來表達過去開始一直持續到現在的行為動作狀態。這個狀況通常還可能會持續到未來。特別是用來說明動作持續多久。

1 肯定句句型:主詞 S + have/has + been + V-ing

It has been raining.

 

2 否定句句型:主詞 S + have/has + not + been + V-ing

It hasn’t been raining.

 

3 Yes/No 問句句型: Have/Has +主詞 S  + been + V-ing ?

Has it been raining?

 

4 WH 問句句型: WH疑問詞+ have/has +主詞 S  + been + V-ing ?

How long has it been raining?

 

題目 第四堂 翻譯練習

1 我去過加拿大,但是我沒去過美國。

2 巴西(Brazil)贏過幾次世界杯(the World Cup)?

3 她看過那部電影五次,但是我從來沒看過。

4 你曾經丟過護照嗎?

5 瑪麗(Mary)有過很多不同的工作而且住過不同的地方。

6 你結婚了嗎?你結婚多久了?

7 我認識麗莎(Lisa)。我認識她很久了。

8 艾倫(Alan)頭痛。他從今天早上起床就一直頭痛。

9 露絲(Ruth)正在看報紙。她已經看報紙看了兩個小時了。

10 不好意思我遲到了。你等多久了?

11 珍妮佛(Jennifer)在她的辦公室裡。她從七點就在那裡了。

12 一個小時前開始下雨的。已經下雨下一個小時了。

13 這些鞋子我幾天前買的。

14 沒人住在那些房子裡。他們已經空著很多年了。

15 大衛(David)從他七歲就開始彈鋼琴了。

16 我們還沒付電費。

17 你見過我弟弟了嗎,還是我應該幫你們介紹?

18 我在大學時是個打字很慢的人,但是我已經變快了。

19 我弟弟跟他老婆不再住這裡了。他們已經搬到西雅圖(Seattle)了。

20 明天是瑞秋(Rachel)的生日,我還沒買禮物給她。

21 A: 保羅(Paul)幾點到達? B: 他已經到了。

22 你已經開始你的新工作了嗎?

23 你不能上床睡覺 — 你還沒有刷牙。

24 A: 湯姆在這裡嗎?  B: 不好意思,他剛離開。

25 才九點,安娜(Anna)已經上床睡覺了。

26 我們在芝加哥(Chicago)住了六年,但是我們現在住在波斯頓(Boston)。

27 我們去年沒有去度假。

28 我看過她幾次,但是我從來沒有跟她說過話。

29 你幾點完成你的工作的?

30 凱西(Kathy)常旅遊。她去過很多國家。

翻譯練習答案

.

.

.

.

 

1 我去過加拿大,但是我沒去過美國。

I have been to Canada, but I haven’t been to the U.S.

She has gone to Canada.

 

2 巴西(Brazil)贏過幾次世界杯(the World Cup)?

2 How many time has Brazil won the World Cup?

 

3 她看過那部電影五次,但是我從來沒看過。

3 She has seen the movie five times, but I haven’t seen it. 

 

4 你曾經丟過護照嗎?

4 Have you (ever) lost your passport?

 

5 瑪麗(Mary)有過很多不同的工作而且住過不同的地方。

5 Mary has had many different jobs and has lived in many places.

 

6 你結婚了嗎?你結婚多久了?

6 Are you married? How long have you been married?

 

7 我認識麗莎(Lisa)。我認識她很久了。

7 I know Lisa. I have known her for a long time.

 

8 艾倫(Alan)頭痛。他從今天早上起床就一直頭痛。

8 Alan has a headache.

He has had a headache since he got up this morning. 

 

9 露絲(Ruth)正在看報紙。

她已經看報紙看了兩個小時了。

Ruth is reading the newspaper.

She has been reading it for two hours.

 

10 不好意思我遲到了。

你等多久了?

Sorry I’m late.

How long have you been waiting?

 

11 珍妮佛(Jennifer)在她的辦公室裡。

她從七點就在那裡了。

11 Jennifer is in her office.

She has been there since 7:00.

 

12 一個小時前開始下雨的。

已經下雨下一個小時了。

12 It started raining an hour ago.

It has been raining for an hour.

 

13 這些鞋子我幾天前買的。

13 I bought these shoes a few days ago.

 

14 沒人住在那些房子裡。

他們已經空著很多年了。

14 Nobody lives in those houses.

They have been empty for many years.

 

15 大衛(David)從他七歲就開始彈鋼琴了。

15 David has played the piano since he was seven years old.

 

16 我們還沒付電費。

16 We haven’t paid the electric bill yet.

16 We didn’t pay the electric bill yet.

 

17 你見過我弟弟了嗎,還是我應該幫你們介紹?

17 Have you met my brother, or should I introduce you?

 

18 我在大學時是個打字很慢的人,但是我已經變快了。

18 I was a very slow typist in college, but I’ve gotten faster.

 

19 我弟弟跟他老婆不再住這裡了。

他們已經搬到西雅圖(Seattle)了。

19 My brother and his wife don’t live here anymore.

They have moved to Seattle.

 

20 明天是瑞秋(Rachel)的生日,我還沒買禮物給她。

20 It’s Rachel’s birthday tomorrow, and I haven’t bought her a present.

 

21 A: 保羅(Paul)幾點到達?

B: 他已經到了。

21 A: What time is Paul arriving?

     B: He’s already arrived.

 

22 你已經開始你的新工作了嗎?

22 Have you started your new job?

 

23 你不能上床睡覺 — 你還沒有刷牙。

23 You can’t go to bed — you haven’t brushed your teeth yet.

 

24 A: 湯姆在這裡嗎? 

B: 不好意思,他剛離開。

24 A: Is Tom here?

     B: No, sorry, he’s just left.

 

25 才九點,安娜(Anna)已經上床睡覺了。

25 It’s only 9:00, and Anna has already gone to bed.

 

26 我們在芝加哥(Chicago)住了六年,但是我們現在住在波斯頓(Boston)。

26 We lived in Chicago for six years, but now we live in Boston.

 

27 我們去年沒有去度假。

27 We didn’t take a vacation last year.

 

28 我看過她幾次,但是我從來沒有跟她說過話。

28 I’ve seen her a few times, but I have never spoken to her.

 

29 你幾點完成你的工作的?

29 What time did you finish your work?

 

30 凱西(Kathy)常旅遊。她去過很多國家。

30 Kathy travels a lot. She has visited many countries.

潔西整理講解 現在完成式 Present Perfect

早上四點半起床的潔西的一天就是把現在完成式的影片生出來了,耶!現在完成式真的是很多學生都弄不懂的時態,句型記住了,但是卻用錯地方,或者用錯句型。上課因為時間非常有限,所以不能給很多例子,這邊儘量給多一點例子,並且按照用法,也就是使用的時機來分不同影片講解,希望有解釋的清楚一點,讓同學更容易懂。不過今天睡眠不足,有點太 high 的部分大家就不要太在意,哈哈。

潔西自己當年學現在完成式也學好久才終於知道原來這樣用,但是後面也還是摸索很久,大概真的就是多做一些題目,多觀察看用在什麼地方,然後練習用出來,假如有上課的話可以問老師是否用得正確。這邊沒有很多的題目,網路上打 Present Perfect 應該也可以找到很多練習題喔。

然後這篇很長,也不用一次看完,可以分次看,潔西自己做影片都從早做到晚了,哈哈。然後也可以多參考幾個不同的網站,越看越多重複的印象會越深刻喔!加油!

英文有十二個時態。在學每一個時態時要記住四點:

1 使用時機

2 句型

3 動詞變化

4 搭配的副詞

最重要是理解跟多做練習,才能靈活運用、得心應手。

A 現在完成式的使用時機

1. 英文用現在完成式用來表達過去曾經發生(或未發生)在不確定時間的事件。重要的是經驗或該事件與現在的關係,時間並不重要。多與ever, never, already, yet, still, just 等副詞連用。

I have moved to a new apartment

She has never seen snow.  She hasn’t seen snow.

2. 現在完成式也用來表達過去重複的活動,實際發生的時間並不重要。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。

I have seen five movies this month.    —x—x—x—x—now ————

He has been to Japan three times.

3. 現在完成式也用來表達一件在過去開始一直持續到現在的事件。常與since與for連用。

I have taught English for twenty years.

They have lived in Taipei since 2001.

動詞的四個面貌

V1= base form  原型                       work,    eat

V2 = past tense  過去式                  worked, ate

V3 = past participle 過去分詞          worked, eaten

V-ing = present participle 現在分詞  working, eating

例句:

I work every day.       S+V1             I eat an apple every morning.

I worked yesterday.    S+V2             I ate an apple this morning.

I have worked all day. S+have+V3     I have eaten five apples today.

Did you eat dinner?

Have you eaten breakfast yet? 

Yes, I have already eaten breakfast.

No, I haven’t eaten breakfast yet.

B 現在完成式的句型

現在完成式的句型為主詞+have/has+過去分詞(V3)

1 肯定句句型為S + have/has + V3 (V3指的是動詞的第三態,過去分詞)

S   +    have/has + V3  past participle

I         have           been to Australia.

They      have          eaten dinner.

She       has            earned millions of dollars since 1995.

2 否定句在助動詞 have/has後面加not

S  +   haven’t/hasn’t + V3

We     haven’t             seen the movie.

You    haven’t             finished your homework.

He     hasn’t               made much money in his life.

3 Yes/No 問句把助動詞 have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has +  S  +  V3

Have          you   cooked Thai food?

Have          they  arrived?

Has           she   finished the report?

4 WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH       have/has    +   S    +   V3

Where      have            you       been?

What       have            they      done?

How long    has            May       studied English?

How        have           you        been?             x————now—————

How are you?

How was work?   How was school?

How was your weekend?  How was your vacation?

What have you been up to?

What are you up to?

How long have you waited?

How long have you been waiting? 現在完成進行式?

C 現在完成式經常搭配的副詞如:never, ever, already, yet, lately, recently, just, this week, today, 也常跟介系詞 for 與 since 連用…等。

現在完成式的用法:

現在完成式的使用時機    past ——x——now————— future     event/activity/action

1 表示經驗

現在完成式常用來表達經驗。常與 ever(in your life time)曾經,表示從你這

輩子出生到現在與 never(=at no time) 從不(從來沒有)連用。注意 ever 在

這個句型多放在疑問句,不用在肯定句。never用在否定句就不能再有not。

發生的時間不重要或不確定。 現在完成式用來表示經驗的時候一定沒有過去的

時間點。

I have eaten French food.

I have had champagne.

I have jumped into a lake at night.

I have lost my wallet.

I have found money on the street.

He has seen snow.

I have never been on TV.

Have you ever been to Japan?

Yes, I have been to Japan.   I have=I’ve

Yes, I have ever been to Japan. (X)

Have you ever had red wine?

No, I haven’t had red wine.  have not =haven’t

No, I have never had red wine.

No, I haven’t never had red wine. (X)

Have you ever met a famous person?  你曾經遇過名人嗎?

Yes, I have met a famous person. /Yes, I have ever met a famous person. (X)

No, I haven’t met a famous person. / No, I have never met a famous person.

No, I have not never met a famous person. (X)

She is the most beautiful person I have ever seen.

I have been to New York in 2005. (X)

I have been to New York. (O)

I went to New York in 2005. (O)

2 不特定時間發生,跟現在相關的結果

現在完成式常用來表達在過去某個不特定時間發生的事情,發生的時間不確

定或不重要,重要的是結果,而且結果是跟現在有關的。

I have seen this movie before. I don’t want to see it again now.

He has left the company. He doesn’t work here now.

He didn’t lend me the book. He hasn’t finished the book.

He lent me the book because he has finished it.

 3 最近發生的事

現在完成可以用來當表示剛剛最近不久前發生的事情時,常與 just, recently, 

   lately 連用。

We’ve just gotten back from Tokyo.    get, got, gotten

I’ve recently signed a contract to write a book.

He hasn’t had time lately.    S + have/has + V3

(美式英語常用過去簡單式來表示: We just got back from Tokyo.)

(在這個用法中不會有過去時間: We’ve just got back from Tokyo yesterday.)

4 already 與 yet 用法

現在完成式強調已發生的事或發生的比預期早的時,常與 already 連用。

already 的位置多放在 have/has與V3間,多用在肯定句。

Do you want something to eat? No, thanks. I’ve already eaten.

Are you going to see that movie? No. I’ve already seen it.

現在完成式常用 not yet 來表達還沒有發生的事,但我們認為未來會發生。

yet 的位置多放在句尾,也可以放在haven’t跟V3間,多用在否定句。

I haven’t finished this work yet. (but I will finish it.)

They haven’t replied to my letter yet. (but they will reply.)

現在完成式用 yet 在問句中表達我們預期會發生的事情是否已經發生。

Have you paid the bill yet?

Have you found a job yet?

Have you eaten dinner (yet)?

Yes, I have (already) eaten dinner.

No, I have not eaten dinner (yet).  (影片裡面漏掉 not 了)

Have you ever eaten dinner? (X)

Have you ever been to Taipei Zoo?

due 到期日 forgetful 健忘的

Exercise 練習題

Make sentences using the Present Perfect with already or yet.

根據提示,用already或yet造句

(I/not/read/today’s newspaper) yet.

I haven’t read today’s newspaper yet.

1. (you/decide/which one to buy) yet?

_________________________________________________

2. (I/explain/this to you three times) already.

_________________________________________________

3. (Their baby son/start/talking) already.

_________________________________________________

4. (you/phone/Jane) yet?

_________________________________________________

5. (The game/not/finish) yet.

_________________________________________________

6. (I/have/lunch) already.

_________________________________________________

7. (He/spend/all his money) already.

_________________________________________________

練習題的答案

1. (you/decide/which one to buy) yet?

Have you decided which one to buy yet?

2. (I/explain/this to you three times) already.

I have already explained this to you three times.

3. (Their baby son/start/talking) already.

Their baby son has already started talking.

4. (you/phone/Jane) yet?

Have you phoned Jane yet?

5. (The game/not/finish) yet.

The game hasn’t finished yet.

6. (I/have/lunch) already.

I have already had lunch.

7. (He/spend/all his money) already.

He has already spent all his money.

5   for與 since        past x———————now —————— future

2014                  2017

現在完成式可以用來表達在過去發生的事情,這個事情或狀態從過去開始一直延續到現在,在未來也可能繼續持續下去。表達這種情形時,多跟sincefor連用。

He has been a pro-gamer for three years.

He has been a pro-gamer since 2014.

She has worked at HTC since 2010.

I have lived in Taipei since I was born.

They have become successful since they have been in Taiwan.

1 How long have you been married?

I have been married for five years.

I’m married. 我結婚了。(我現在是結婚的)

I was married. 我之前結過婚。

2 How long have you worked at your company?

I have worked there since last year.

3 How long have you known your best friend?

I have known my best friend since high school.

4 I have lived in Taipei for 17 years.

I have lived in Taipei since 17 years ago.

  for + 一段時間:表示這個事件持續了多久

(for twenty minutes, for three hours, for two weeks, for three months,

for years, for a long time)

 

   since + 一個過去時間點 :表示這個事件開始的時間

(since 7:00, since Monday, since 1998, since two days ago,

since this morning)

since + S + V2: 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中的活動已經在過去結束

   (since I was a child)

since + S + have + V3:表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中在過去開始持續到現在。

   (since I have worked at IBM)

a. Fill in the blanks with for or since 空格中填入for或since

1. She has been married _______ ten years.

2. They have worked at the factory ________ they were 18 years old.

3. We have lived in Japan _______ 2010.

4. He hasn’t played basketball _______ over two years.

5. I have known Tom _________ high school.

6. They have won every game _______ they have played.

練習題答案

a. Fill in the blanks with for or since 空格中填入for或since

1. She has been married __for_____ ten years.

2. They have worked at the factory __since______ they were 18 years old.

3. We have lived in Japan _since____ 2010.

4. He hasn’t played basketball __for____ over two years.

5. I have known Tom __since_____ high school.

6. They have won every game __since_____ they have played.

b. Answer the questions 回答下列問題

1. How long have you studied at this school?

I have studied at this school for three months.  since last May

2. How long have you known your best friend?

I have known my best friend since I was a child.

3. How long have your parents been married? I don’t know.

4. How long have you had your current hairstyle? (現在的髮型維持多久了?)

I have had my current hairstyle since last month.

5. How long have you had your cell phone?

I have had my cell phone for two years.

6. How long have you been up today? (今天醒來多久了?)

I have been up since 4.30 a.m.

時態比較

1 現在簡單式

Present Simple:

past —x—x—x—x—x— now x—x—x—x—x—x— future

S + V1 : 

I    have a cup of coffee every morning.

2 過去簡單式

Simple Past / Past Simple

past ———x————— now ————————— future

S + V2 : 

I    had a cup of coffee this morning.

3 現在完成式

Present Perfect

past —x—x—x—x—x— now ————————— future

S + have + V3: 

I     have   had five cups of coffee today.

6 持續的狀態或活動

現在完成式也用來表達過去到現在一段時間內重複的活動,實際發生的時間

並不重要,強調的是次數。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。後面可以加時間,但是時間一定要是到目前為止today, this morning,

this month, this year,不能是過去時間。

I have had three cups of coffee this morning. 現在是早上

I had three cups of coffee yesterday.

I had three cups of coffee this morning. 現在不是早上

I have seen five movies this month.

We have had three tests so far this semester.

We have done quite a lot of work today.

He hasn’t had a holiday this year.

I have had five cups of coffee today.

I have had five cups of coffee yesterday. (X)

a. Answer the questions

How many times have you shopped this week?

I’ve shopped twice this week.  / I haven’t shopped at all this week.

1. How many times have you been to a KTV this year?

I have been to a KTV three times this year.    once, twice, three times

2. How many cups of coffee have you had today?

3. How many phone calls have you made today?

4. How many times have you eaten Japanese food this month?

I haven’t eaten Japanese food this month?

5. How many times have you done laundry this week?

I have done laundry once this week.

6. How many times have you cleaned the house this month?

I have cleaned the house once this month.

7 現在完成式常跟第一次,第二次,最高級等連用。

This is the first time I’ve been to Canada, so it’s all new to me.

He loves this movie. This is the fifth time he’s seen it.   he’s = he has

Paris is the most beautiful place I’ve ever been.

Tokyo Skytree is the most interesting place I’ve ever been.

Hacksaw Ridge is the best movie I’ve ever seen.

This is the best book I’ve ever read.

(ever在這樣的句型可以放在肯定句,表這輩子到目前為止)

Complete the sentences using the Preset Perfect form of the verbs words in brackets ( ). 根據括號裡的動詞提示,用現在完成式完成句子

Don’t take my plate away. I haven’t finished (not/finish) my meal.

1. A: What’s that book about? B: I don’t know. I _________ (not/read) it.

2. I __________ (lose) my pen. Can I borrow yours, please?

3. A: I __________ (book) a room here for tonight. B: Yes, madam, what’s your name, please?

4. I’m not sure what the problem with the car is. It _______(not/happen) before.

5. A: ____________ (you/reply) to that letter from the bank? B: No, I haven’t, but I’ll do it soon.

6. A: What’s happening in this program? B: I don’t know. _____________. (It/just/start)

7. A: How’s Lucy?  B: She’s very happy. ________________ (She/just/finish) her exams.

8. Could I have a copy of Next Magazine, please?  B: Sorry. __________________ (I/just/sell) the last copy.

練習題答案

Complete the sentences using the Preset Perfect form of the verbs words in brackets ( ). 根據括號裡的動詞提示,用現在完成式完成句子

Don’t take my plate away. I haven’t finished (not/finish) my meal.

1. A: What’s that book about? B: I don’t know. I _________ (not/read) it.

I haven’t read it.

2. I __________ (lose) my pen. Can I borrow yours, please?

I have lost my pen.

3. A: I __________ (book) a room here for tonight.

B: Yes, madam, what’s your name, please?

I have booked a room here for tonight.

4. I’m not sure what the problem with the car is. It _______(not/happen) before.

I hasn’t happened before.

5. A: ____________ (you/reply) to that letter from the bank?

B: No, I haven’t, but I’ll do it soon.

Have you replied to that letter from the bank?

6. A: What’s happening in this program?

B: I don’t know. _____________. (It/just/start)

It has just started.

7. A: How’s Lucy?

B: She’s very happy. ________________ (She/just/finish) her exams.

She has just finished her exams.

8. Could I have a copy of Next Magazine, please?  B: Sorry. __________________ (I/just/sell) the last copy.

把上一篇的 been to, gone to, went to 一起放進來,因為也是在現在完成式的範圍

8  現在完成式  Present Perfect 與過去簡單式

容易弄混淆或誤用的 been to, gone to, went to

下列句子有兩句是錯的,找不出來的話就看看影片囉。不要偷看最下面的答案喔!

I went to New York last year.

I have been to New York.

I have gone to New York.

He has gone to New York.

He has been to New York.

He has gone to New York last year.

1 been to: 

現在完成式:S + has/have been to + place.

用這個句型表達去過某個地方,但是現在回來了,不在哪個地方了。

He’s been to Paris. (He is now at home again.) 他去過巴黎(現在回來了)

I’ve been to Paris. (I am now at home again.) 我去過巴黎(現在回來了)

2 gone to:

現在完成式:S + has/have gone to + place.     V1: go, V2: went, V3: gone

用這個句型表人去了某個地方,人還在那裡,還沒有回來。所以表達自己去過某個地方絕對不要用這個句型。

He’s gone to Paris. (He is in Paris now.) 他去了巴黎(人現在在巴黎)

He has=He’s

I’ve gone to Paris. (X) 我人去了巴黎(錯誤的句子,因為說話時人在說話處)

3 went to:

過去簡單式:S + went to + place + past time expression

用這個句型表示過去的某個時間點去了某個地方。

I went to Paris last summer. (我去年夏天去了巴黎)

He went to Paris this morning. (他今天早上去了巴黎)

答案

I went to New York last year.

I have been to New York.

I have gone to New York. (X)

He has gone to New York.

He has been to New York.

He has gone to New York last year. (X)  He went to New York last year.

基礎文法L1 現在簡單式與現在進行式 + 現在簡單式與現在完成式

回答網友的問題的時候突然發現,啊,基礎文法第一課忘記放上來了,所以順便放一下:)

A: What movie are you going to see? 你打算看哪一部電影?

B: 我還沒決定。

1. B: I haven’t decided yet.
2. B: I don’t decide yet.

答案應該選 1 還是 2 呢?想一想,或者念念看覺得哪一個比較順呢?

第一個答案是現在完成式,第二個答案是現在簡單式,哪一個正確呢?

中文的用法跟英文很不同,多半是用時間來表達時態,我昨天買一本書,我今天買一本書,我明天買一本書,我每天買一本書,把時間改掉,就可以表達不同時間。可是英文的話,時態的變化不單只有時間副詞,更重要的是動詞的變化,沒有適當的動詞變化的話,即便有時間副詞,有時候還是無法表達清楚真正的意思,也會常常造成誤解。

有些同學常常不管什麼時態的表達,通通會用動詞的原型,也就是現在簡單式,有時候加上時間可以理解,但是有時候會令人不知道究竟要表達的是什麼。比方說下面的句子。

I buy a book today. (X)

這句子中文看起來是對的,很多人也會這麼說,我今天買一本書,但是在英文是錯的。為什麼?因為英文的現在簡單式,句型是主詞加動詞的原型 ,多半用來表達一個事實或者是一個經常性的動作或習慣等等。

a. 事實
The Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 太陽從東邊升起西邊落下。

b. 經常性動作或習慣
I work from 9 to 5. 我朝九晚五。(我工作時間從早上九點到下午五點)
I play basketball in my free time. 我有空時打籃球。

所以假如用現在簡單式
I buy a book today. (X) 這個句子是錯的,也看不出來書究竟買了沒。

I buy a book 表示我經常買書,可能是我每天或每星期或每個月這種固定的習慣。

I buy a book once a week. 我一個星期買一本書。這個句子就是正確的

假如要表達今天已經買了一本書,英文要用過去簡單式
I bought a book today.

假如要表達今天打算買一本書,英文要用未來簡單式
I’m going to buy a book today.

那現在完成式呢?現在完成式有點複雜,很多同學都會用錯。現在完成式的句型是主詞加上have/has再加上動詞的第三個變化過去分詞。不但要背清楚動詞的第三態的過去分詞,最難的是使用的時機,什麼時候才要用現在完成式呢?

現在完成式可以用來表達經驗,變化,成就,打算做但還未完成的動作,一段期間做過的重複動作,發生在過去的狀態一直延續到現在,過去不確定時間發生的事,但與現在相關。還有很多文法書上沒有寫出來的,所以真的是要靠多做題目,多觀察看究竟是什麼時候用,用在什麼地方。下面是一些例子

a. 經驗
I have been to Japan. 我去過日本。
I have had red wine. 我喝過紅酒。

b. 變化
Her English has improved since she moved to Australia. 她的英文變好了,自從她搬到澳洲去後。

c. 成就
My son has learned how to read. 我兒子學會閱讀。

d. 打算做但還未完成的動作
Bill has still not arrived. 比爾還沒到。
I haven’t finished my homework yet. 我還沒做完作業。

e. 一段期間重複動作
I have had five cups of coffee today. 我今天喝了五杯咖啡。

f. 發生在過去的狀態一直延續到現在
They have lived in Taipei since they were born. 他們從一出生就住在臺北。

g. 過去不確定時間發生的事,但與現在相關
I have seen that movie. 我看過那部電影了。 發生在過去,但時間不重要,重要的可能是我看過了,所以我現在不想再看一次。

說了半天,這樣答案有出來了嗎?

A: What movie are you going to see? 你打算看哪一部電影?
1. B: I haven’t decided yet.
2. B: I don’t decide yet.

不會選2,因為做決定不是個事實,也不是個習慣性經常性的動作,所以要選1。我還沒有決定。可以想做是上面的d或g,或者有時候把它當作一個慣用法來記。我還沒決定就用I haven’t decided. 我已經決定了 I have decided. 是在過去做的決定,但跟現在有關,所以用現在完成式,否定就用I haven’t decided.

怎麼說的這麼複雜啊!沒辦法啊,時態的東西很難三兩句說完的。有些人說學好英文時態不重要,文法不重要,恩,絕對不對啊,假如你不學好幾個基本的時態,你在溝通的時候很容易出問題啊。所以時態是值得好好花點時間把它弄懂的。

可以上去部落格的Search… 搜尋的地方打入想要練習的時態,下面放現在簡單式跟現在完成式的聯結,基礎文法的講義說的比較清楚,也有一些例題,多練習一定有幫助的。Good luck and have a good weekend 

基礎文法L1 現在簡單式與現在進行式            Jessie Lin   P.1

                       

想要把文法學好,第一個要把詞性弄清楚。每個英文字都歸屬於一個或多個詞性,隨著詞性的不同,它的用法,位置,與修飾的對象都會有差別。

A. 翻譯練習

把下面這兩個句子翻譯成英文,注意中文跟英文的字詞排列順序是不一樣的喔!

1. 我跟我弟總是在星期天下午到公園打籃球。

2. 林書豪的籃球打得很好,他是一個很棒的NBA球員。

B. 詞性練習

英文句子的基本句型一般的順序是主詞+動詞+受詞+地點+時間。試著把上面的句子中每個字的詞性都找出來。

  1. 動詞verb(v)
  2. 名詞noun(n)
  3. 代名詞pronoun(pron)
  4. 形容詞adjective(adj)
  5. 副詞adverb(adv)
  6. 連接詞conjunction(conj)
  7. 介系詞preposition(prep)
  8. 感歎詞interjection(interj)

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1                Jessie Lin   P.2

C. 八大詞類( the parts of speech)            

學到一個新單字的時候要先注意它的詞性與每個詞性的用法。每個英文單字都可以歸類為英文的八大詞類之一。同一個字可能有好幾種不同的詞性。如: Loveis in the air. 與 I love you. 這兩個句子中love 分別是名詞與動詞。同一個字的詞性不同時,意義也可能不同。如:在The exam was really hard.中這個句子的hard是形容詞,表示困難的。work hard, play hard這個片語的hard是副詞,表示程度上很努力地做某事。所以記單字時要一併把詞性記住才能寫出與說出正確的句子。

八個詞性分別是動詞,名詞,代名詞,形容詞,副詞,連接詞,介系詞跟感歎詞。

1. 動詞 Verb:

用來描述一個動作或狀態的字。在英文當中可說是最重要也最困難的。一般放在主詞的後面。英文用動詞來表達時態,主動被動。動詞主要分三種。

a. 行為動詞:用來表達主詞的行為或動作。又可分

(a.)不及物動詞 intransitive verb

不及物動詞表達主詞所作的動作,後面不需要受詞。

Time flies.

Time flies when you’re having fun.

My father shaves.

My father shaves every morning before he goes to work.

(b.)及物動詞 transitive verb

及物動詞把主詞的動作轉移到另外一個名詞,也就是受詞的身上,所

以及物動詞後面一定有一個接受動作的受詞。

He bought a diamond engagement ring.

He bought a diamond engagement ring for his girlfriend last night.

Tim ate three hamburgers.

Tim ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

b. 連綴動詞 linking verb

連綴動詞經常用來表達狀態,或一些小動作。連綴動詞把主詞動詞後面

的主詞補語連接在一起。主詞補語通常是名詞或形容詞。主詞補語為名

詞時,會等於主詞。主詞補語為形容詞是用來修飾主詞。

I feel sick.

My mother is a housewife.

You look tired.

c. 助動詞 auxiliary verb

助動詞與主要動詞合併起來成為一個動詞片語,用來表達時態或語態等。

The band is coming to Taiwan next month.

He didn’t go to school yesterday.

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.3

  1. 動詞: 動詞的四個面貌:動詞依時態不同會有不同的面貌
  1. Present (V1) 動詞原型: I work from nine to five.
  2. Past (V2) 動詞過去式: I worked late last night.
  3. Past Participle (V3) 動詞過去分詞: I have worked hard.
  4. Present Participle (V-ing) 動詞現在分詞: I am working now.
  1. 名詞 (nouns):名詞用來表達人、事、物、地等。英文句子的構成要件就是主詞跟動詞。名詞用來當主詞、受詞與補語。名詞當主詞時放在句首,當受詞與補語時放在動詞後面。主詞一定要是名詞,所以當要表達的字是動詞時,必須把動詞加上ing成為動名詞或加上不定詞to。名詞可以接在其他詞類後形成片語。只有形容詞才可以用來修飾名詞。

如:Peter, Taipei, table, truth..等。

Albert is a nice guy.

Barack Obama is the current President of the United States.

Baking and swimming are my hobbies.

  1. 代名詞 (pronouns):是用來取代名詞的字。前面已經提過的名詞或是說話的人彼此都知道的名詞都可用代名詞代替。主要是避免重複。用法與主詞雷同。

如:you, him, herself, everyone, this, which, what…等。

Will you give me your name and phone number?

My father is very tall. He’s one meter 85.

  1. 形容詞 (adjectives):用來形容、描述、說明一個名詞或代名詞。形容詞多放在修飾的名詞前或放在連綴動詞後。形容詞有正面的形容詞,負面的形容詞,有比較級,有最高級。

如:hot, Taiwanese, her, that, some, whose…

The most popular Taiwanese drink is probably pearl milk tea.

The coffee tastes bitter.

  1. 副詞 (adverbs):用來修飾動詞、形容詞,副詞,或整個句子,表達程度,次數,頻率等等。副詞不可以修飾名詞。副詞的移動性很高,常放在動詞後,形容詞前,也可放句首或句尾。不同的副詞按照強調的部分不同,可放不同地方,意義也會有所不同。頻率副詞多放一般動詞前,be動詞後。

如:always, usually, sometimes, quickly, late, very…等。

Fortunately, she won the lottery.

It’s appropriate not to take your shoes off at the door.

It’s not appropriate to take your shoes off at the door.

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.4

  1. 連接詞 (conjunctions):用來連接單字 (words)、片語 (phrases)或子句 (clauses)。注意連接詞所連接的詞性必須一致。
  1. 對等連接詞 coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, yet, so
  2. 從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunctions: if, before, because, when
  3. 關係連接詞 correlative conjunctions: either…or, neither…nor, both…and, whether…or, not only…but also

He’s the kind of person you either love or hate.

Although John was sick, he still went to work.

It was raining but they still went to the park.

  1. 介係詞 (prepositions):用來表達兩件事物的關係,如位置、方向、空間、時間或因果等。後面一定要加名詞或代名詞結合成介係詞片語。

如:about, around, in, on under, of, under, with, between, for… 等。

He arrived in London on Sunday morning.

I get up at 7 o’clock from Monday to Friday.

  1. 感嘆詞 (interjections):用來表達強烈的情緒或驚訝。

如:oh, wow, yeah, ouch…等。

Oh! I didn’t know that was you.

Wow! It’s unbelievable.

閱讀下列短文,寫出每個詞性的前三個字,不要重複。

Tom thinks Mary is wonderful. He loves her madly, and he dreams of marrying her, but unfortunately he is too old for her. Today they are at a café with their friends Mandy and Jack, so Tom can’t get romantic with Mary.

  1. 動詞verb:
  2. 名詞noun:
  3. 代名詞pronoun:
  4. 形容詞adjective:
  5. 副詞adverb:
  6. 連接詞conjunction:
  7. 介系詞preposition:

 

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.5                                  

D. 現在簡單式Simple Present

英文共有十二個時態。學習每一個時態時要記住下列幾點。

一,使用時機,什麼時候該用這個時態,二,句型,每個時態的句型的肯定句,否定句,Yes/No問句,WH問句,時態句型的變化主要在動詞,同時也要記住該句型所使用的是哪個助動詞。三,常見副詞,有些副詞常常會跟著這個句型一起出現,記住了有助於正確使用時態。四,動詞變化,不同時態的動詞變化需要加s,加ed,還是加ing等。

一、      現在簡單式的使用時機

現在簡單式多用在表達日常生活的習慣,事實,真理等。

現在簡單式的句型可細分為一般動詞與be動詞兩種句型。每個英文句子都要有主詞跟動詞,所以當描述現在的事實狀態時,假如句子沒有一般動詞,有名詞,形容詞,介系詞片語,副詞等時,則需要有現在簡單式的be,也就是am, is, are。

 

  1. 習慣性動作 habitual actions

He usually gets up at 6.30.

  1. 永久性狀態 permanent state

I don’t like beef.

  1. 永恆性事實 eternal truths

Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

  1. 感覺,感情或信仰的動詞verbs of perception, emotion, and belief

I believe in God.

  1. 未來的時刻表 future with timetables, programs, etc.

The movie starts at 7.30 p.m.

  1. 假設語氣的副詞子句 conditional

If it rains, I’ll stay at home.

二、      () 現在簡單式的一般動詞的句型

一般動詞的句型只要在主詞後面加一般動詞。當主詞是第三人稱單數,也就是任何可以用he/she/it代替的主詞時,需要在動詞後面加s。否定句跟疑問句需要助動詞do/does來幫忙。第三人稱單數用does,其他用do。

第一人稱單數I (I永遠大寫)

第二人稱單數you

第三人稱單數he/she/it (my father/his mother/our dog/her best friend)

第一人稱複數we

第二人稱複數you (you單複數同形)

第三人稱複數they

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.6

現在簡單式的一般動詞的句型

  1. 肯定句   Affirmative

主詞+動詞原型

S  + V1

I       ride a bicycle.

You   take a bus.

He   drives a car.

She   rides a scooter.

It     sleeps.

We   walk.

You   take the MRT.

They   take the train.

  1. 否定句 Negative

否定句需要有助動詞do/does來幫忙,把don’t/doesn’t放在一般動詞前面。

主詞+助動詞 + not   +動詞原型

S   +   do/does not         + V1

I         do not (don’t)     eat beef.

You       do not            like Japanese food.

He         does not (doesn’t)   drink coffee.

She       does not            cook.

It         does not            work.

We         do not            get up early.

You         do not            sleep for eight hours.

They       do not            play mahjong.

  1. Yes/No 問句 Yes/No question

造問句需要有助動詞do, does來幫忙。把助動詞放在主詞前面造問句。

助動詞   +主詞   +動詞原型

Do/Does  +  S       +  V1

Do             I         work hard?

Do         you       play basketball?

Does       he         go bowling?

Does       she       watch sports on TV?

Does       it         have fun?

Do         we         go jogging?

Do         you       do yoga?

Do         they       play sports?

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.7

  1. WH問句 WH question

WH問句也需要助動詞do/does來幫忙造問句。句型是把則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞、主詞、動詞,其他的部份

WH疑問詞+   助動詞   +主詞+動詞+(其他部分)?

WH           +    do/does    +   S     +     V1               ?

What 問什麼,可以跟其他的字組合來問不同問題

What do you do in your free time? I play online games in my free time.

What do you think of Korean dramas? I think it’s very interesting.

What kind of food does Lisa like?   She likes Indian food.

Where 問地點  

Where do you live?   I live in Tucheng.

Where do you go to school? I go to National Taiwan University.

Where does your father work? He works in a bank.

When 問時間

When do you exercise? I exercise every Monday and Wednesday.

When do you visit your parents? I visit my parents on big holidays.

When does Peter go on vacation? He goes on vacation in August.

Why 問理由

Why do you study English?

I study English because it’s an international language.

Why do you like Thai food? Because I lived in Thailand when I was a child.

Why does your father work in China? Because the pay is better.

Who問誰

Who do you live with? I live with my coworkers.

Who do you play badminton with? I paly badminton with my sister.

Who does Mary work for? She works for her aunt.

How 問如何

How often do you get a haircut? I get a haircut twice a year.

How long do you use the computer every day?

I use the computer for four or five hours.

How much does the dress cost? It costs NT$2,500.

特別注意當疑問詞what或who當主詞時,則不需要助動詞,而且動詞應用第三人稱單數。

What makes your happy? Helping people makes me happy.

Who cooks dinner for you? My dad cooks dinner for me.

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.8

三、現在簡單式的副詞如:every day, every week, once a week, twice a month, three times a year, always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, never…等。

四、現在簡單式拼字與發音規則

英文在表達現在簡單式時,當主詞為第三人稱單數(任何可以用he、she、it代替的名詞)時,動詞後面要加s。加s的拼字與發音規則如下。

拼字規則

  1. 大部分的動詞在字尾加s。

talk-talks, learn-learns, read-reads, get-gets

  1. 當動詞字尾是sh, ch, ss, x, z時,則加es。

wash-washes, watch-watches, kiss-kisses, fix-fixes, buzz-buzzes

  1. 當動詞字尾為子音加y時,需將y去掉,加ies。

study-studies, cry-cries, fly-flies, try-tries

  1. 當動詞字尾為母音加y時,則只要加s,即可。

say-says, play-plays, pray-prays, pay-pays

  1. 有幾個特別的變化需記住。

have-has, do-does, go-goes

發音規則

  1. 當動詞字尾是無聲子音如/f/, /k/, /p/, /t/, 時,加s後,應讀做/s/。

laugh-laughs, cook-cooks, stop-stops, meet-meets

  1. 當動詞字尾是有聲子音如/d/, /n/, /l/, /v/ 等或母音時,加s後,應讀做/z/。

read-reads, learn-learns, sell-sells, live-lives, know-knows, see-sees

  1. 當動詞字尾為/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, / dʒ/時,加s後,應讀做/ɪz/時。要注意的是,發音時看的是最後一個音,而非最後一個字母,如dance就是這一類。

miss-misses, buzz-buzzes, wish-wishes, match-matches, judge-judges,

英文字母的母音(vowels)為a, e, i, o, u,其餘為子音(consonants)。

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, /ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/,

/ aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

1. save _______ 2. work ______ 3. notice ________ 4. try  _______

5. teach _______ 6. start ______ 7. buy ________ 8. fix  ________

9. have________  10. finish_______

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.9

() 現在簡單式be動詞的句型

現在簡單是的be動詞有三個,am, is, are。I後面永遠接am,he, she, it或其他第三人稱單數永遠接is,we, they are或其他複數則接are。

1. 肯定句

   主詞+現在式be動詞+名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

S + am/is/are      + noun/adjective/preposition

I       am          a teacher.

You       are          a student.

He       is          thirsty.

She       is          hungry.

It         is          pretty.

We       are          at home.

You       are         in a good mood.

They     are        on the bus

  1. 否定句 : 英文句子改否定跟疑問時都需要助動詞,be本身就是助動詞。所以否定句只要在be後面加not。is與not可以縮寫成isn’t,are與not可以縮寫成aren’t。但是am跟not不可以縮寫。

S + am/is/are + not +       noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

I       am       not        a Japanese teacher.

You     are       not (aren’t)   busy.

He     is       not (isn’t)    in the living room.

She     is       not          a model.

It       is       not          new.

We     are       not          from Japan.

You     are       not          helpful.

They     are      not          over 18 years old.

3. Yes/No 問句 :英文句子疑問時要把助動詞放到主詞前面,be本身就是個助動詞。所以yes/no問句只要把be放在主詞前面就可以造問句

Am/Is/Are +   S       +   noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

Am            I           late?

Are          you           the only child?

Is            he           sick?

Is            she           friendly?

Is           it           broken?

Are         we           loud?

Are           you           American?

Are         they         engineers?

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.10

4. WH問句: 英文的疑問詞大致有what, where, when, why, who, how。把WH疑問詞放最前面再放be、主詞與其他部分就可造WH問句。

WH   be1 + S +   ( noun/ adjective / preposition phrase)

What 問什麼

What is your favorite color?   My favorite color is blue.

What is that on the table?   It is my new cell phone.

What day is it?   It’s Tuesday.

Where 問地點

Where am I?   You are in the hospital.

Where is your father?   He is in the bathroom.

Where are my books?   They are under the table.

When 問時間

When is your birthday? It is January 1st.

When is the party?   It is on Saturday.

When is the library open? It is open at 9 a.m.

Why 問理由

Why are you so happy? It is my birthday today.

Why is he late? He overslept.

Why are they sleepy? They got up early.

Who問誰

Who is he?   He is my brother.

Who is Lisa? She is the new assistant.

Who is in the bathroom? Tom is in the bathroom.

How 問如何

How are you? I am fine. Thank you.

How long is the movie? It is about two hours.

How tall are you? I’m 1 meter 65.

特別Who 與What 這兩個疑問詞可以當主詞,只要把be放在疑問詞後即可

Who is there? That is my friend.

What is on the table? It is Tom’s new toy.

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.11

E. 現在進行式Present Progressive         

一、使用時機

  1. 現在發生暫時性的動作temporary actions happening now

I’m calling from work.

  1. 重複性的動作,但是暫時性的狀態repeated actions, but not a permanent

state

He’s having driving lessons.

  1. 有always的討厭的習慣 irritating habits with “always”

You’re always losing your keys.

  1. 未來的安排 future arrangement

Sam is getting married next year.

二、現在進行式的句型

1. 肯定句:主詞+現在式be動詞+動詞-ing

S +   am/is/are   +   V1-ing

I       am             cooking.

You     are           dancing.

He      is             working.

She       is             singing.

It       is              sleeping.

We       are             having fun.

You       are             crying.

They     are             talking.

2. 否定句只要在現在式be動詞am/is/are後面加not,即可

否定句  S + am/is/are + not +   V1-ing

I         am     not     eating.

You       are       not     listening.

He         is       not     writing.

She       is       not     reading.

It         is         not     barking.

We         are       not     shopping.

You       are       not     drinking.

They       are       not     swimming.

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.12

3. Yes/No 問句則把現在式be動詞am/is/are放在主詞前面造問句

Am/Is/Are + S +       V1-ing

Am     I               dreaming?

Are     you             taking a bus?

Is       he               coming?

Is       she              walking?

Is       it               sitting?

Are     we               winning?

Are     you             playing?

Are     they             losing?

4. WH問句將WH疑問詞放在最前面再放現在式be動詞am/is/are、主詞與動詞-ing

WH      am/is/are + S +   V1-ing

Why       am          I         crying?

What     are         you       doing?

When       is           he         coming?

Who       is           she       talking to?

Where     is           it         sleeping?

How      are         we         getting there?

Who       are         you       waiting for?

Why       are         they       standing?

what跟who當疑問主詞的時候,只要把助動詞跟其他部分加在疑問詞後即可。

What is going on?

Who is making that noise?

三、現在進行式的副詞如:now, at the moment, immediately, right away, right now, these days, this year, this week…等等。

 

  

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.13

  1. 現在進行式Present Progressive            

四、現在進行式拼字規則

英文動詞的變化大致有下列四種。

  1. 第一個是動詞原型V1,也就是在字典中查到的字典型如eat。用在現在簡單式,但是第三人稱單數的現在簡單式要加s,如eat, eats。
  2. 第二種是過去式時使用的第二態V2,動詞可分規則動詞與不規則動詞,規則動詞加ed,如cooked,不規則則需牢記,如ate。
  3. 第三態又叫過去分詞V3,用在完成式與被動。一樣分規則變化與不規則變化兩種。規則變化則加ed,與第二態過去式一樣,如cooked。不規則的第三態與過去式V2有時相同,有時不同,也需牢記,如eaten。
  4. 第四種是現在分詞,也就是動詞後面加ing,用在進行式。不規則動詞的三態變化可以在字典中查到,需要牢記。

英文在表達進行式時,動詞後面要加ing。加ing的拼字規則如下。

  1. 大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ing。

work-working, help-helping, call-calling, wash-washing

  1. 動詞字尾為e時,必須去掉e加ing。

live-living, hope-hoping, dance-dancing, smile-smiling

  1. 動詞字尾為ie時,必須去掉ie加ying。

lie-lying, die-dying, tie-tying

  1. 一個音節的動詞最後三個字母為子音加母音加子音時,需重複字尾再加ing。

shop-shopping, sit-sitting, run-running, swim-swimming

然而當字尾為w, x, y時,只要加ing即可。

sew-sewing, fix-fixing, say-saying

  1. 兩個音節以上且重音在最後一個音節的動詞,字尾發音為短母音加子音時,也需重複字尾加ing。

begin-beginning, control-controlling, prefer-preferring, omit-omitting

五、現在進行式拼字練習

1. carry _________  2. tap ___________   3. ride __________

4. win _________   5. forget __________  6. lie ­­­­­­­ __________

7. try _________ 8. fly   __________   9. write _________

10. see __________

 

 

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.14

F. 非行為動詞(狀態動詞) Non-Action Verbs (Stative Verbs)                                    

狀態動詞stative verbs或非行為動詞non-action verbs指的是英文有些動詞用來表達人的情感,狀況,自己無法控制的情緒,這些動詞即使在表達現在的感覺或狀況時還是不用現在進行式。

狀態動詞或非行為動詞通常是用來

1. 描述一個狀態 Describe a state of being (be, feel)

Jane is tired but happy.

She feels good.

2. 表達情感 Express emotions (like, love, hate)

Do you like my new dress?

I love it!

3. 描述心裡狀態 Describe mental states (know, remember, believe, think [=believe], suppose, understand)

I know a lot of good restaurants.

I think you’re right.

4. 表示所有 Show possession (have, own, posses, belong)

Eric has a headache.

My sister owns an apartment.

5. 描述感受與五官的感覺 Describe perception and senses (hear, see, smell, taste, feel, notice, seem, look [=seem], appear, sound)

I hear the telephone.

Linda seems tired.

6. 描述需要跟偏好 Describe needs and preferences (need, want, prefer)

I need a pen.

She prefers beef than pork.

7. 描述度量衡 Describe measurements (weigh, cost, contain)

How much does it cost?

He weighs 80 kilograms.

注意:有些動詞可以有行為動詞與非行為動詞的不同意義。比方說taste, smell, feel, look, think, have, weigh

I taste garlic. Did you put some in here? (I notice garlic.)

The soup tastes good. Try some. (The soup is good.)

I’m tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt. (I’m trying the soup.)

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.15

G. 頻率副詞Frequency Adverbs

頻率副詞常出現在現在簡單式的句子中,用來表達做某件事情的頻率有多頻繁。

How often可以用來問頻率,回答的時候要注意下列的句型。

肯定句

  1. 主詞+頻率副詞+一般動詞S + F.A. + V.

She usually comes to class late.

  1. 主詞+be動詞+頻率副詞S + Be + F.A.

She is usually late for class.

否定句

  1. 主詞+頻率副詞+don’t/doesn’t+一般動詞 (除了always跟ever之外)

She usually doesn’t come to class late.

She doesn’t always come to class late.

  1. 主詞+be動詞+not+頻率副詞

She isn’t usually late for class.

疑問句

  1. 助動詞+主詞+頻率副詞+一般動詞?

Does she usually come to class late?

  1. be動詞+主詞+頻率副詞?

Is she usually late for class?

How often do you exercise?

always                             100%

almost always

usually

often                               75%

frequently

generally

I   sometimes       exercise.

occasionally

seldom                               25%

rarely                               10%

hardly ever

almost never

never / not ever                      0%

頻率副詞除了usually, often, frequently, generally, sometimes, occasionally可以放句首,句尾外,其他通常只會放在句中。

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.16

G. 頻率副詞Frequency Adverbs

另外一種回答How often的句型可以用時間副詞來表達頻率,記得通常都放在句尾,而且不要與頻率副詞一起用。

How often do you exercise?

I exercise every morning/every night/every day/every month/every year.

I exercise once a week/twice a month/three times a year./

I exercise every other day/every other week/every two weeks.

I exercise three times every two weeks

 

Daily Routine     English Firsthand Unit 3 When do you start?   P.35

Read about Erika’s schedule. Fill in the spaces. Use the words. There is one extra.

work, watch, go to bed, drive, takes, get up, work out, eat, is, get, read

I almost always _____________ at 6.45. Then I _________ breakfast and get ready for work till about 8.30. I ______________ to work. It _____________ about 20 minutes. I usually ___________ from 9:00 to 5:00, but I sometimes have to work overtime. My lunch break _________ from 12:00 to 1:00. Sometimes I eat in the company cafeteria, and sometimes I go to a restaurant with coworkers. I often go to the health club to _______________ after work for an hour or so, and I usually get home around 6:30 or 7:00. Then I have dinner, work at my computer for a while, and __________ books. I hardly ever ______________ TV. I usually _________ at about 11:00 during the week, but not until 12:00 or 1:00 on weekends.

Now listen and check your answer.

Write about your schedule on a piece of paper. Use at least 8 different verbs and 4 adverbs of frequency.

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.17

H. 現在式助動詞do/doesam/is/are 造問句時的用法與區別

英文造問句與改否定的時候都需要一個助動詞,這個助動詞依主詞,表達的時態,表達的語態會有所不同。造問句的時候要把助動詞放到主詞前面,造否定把not放到助動詞後面。要決定助動詞先要先弄清楚要表達的是哪個時態,來選擇助動詞,在依主詞不同,選擇最適當的助動詞。

a. 現在簡單式:

表達事實或一般習慣狀態時,因為有兩種不同句型,句子裡有一般動詞的時候,用do/does造問句。句子裡沒有一般動詞,有am/is/are的時候,用am/is/are造問句。要按照不同的人稱來用不同助動詞。

 

一般動詞句型:主詞+動詞原型 (第三人稱單數加s)

S      +    V1

I/You/We/They work.     Where do you work?    Do your parents work?

He/She/It works.        Where does he work?   Does your mother work?

be動詞句型主詞+現在式be動詞+名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

S + am/is/are + noun/adjective/preposition phrase

I am a teacher.                      Where am I?                   Am I tall?

He/She/It is happy.               Why is he happy?           Is he handsome?

We/You/They are at home.     Where are the kids?      Are they at home?

b. 現在進行式:主詞+現在式be動詞+動詞ing

表達現在正在進行的動作,短暫性的動作時,本身句型只有am/is/are三個助動詞,而且動詞會加ing,依主詞不同,來決定助動詞是am, is, 還是are。

S  +  am/is/are + V-ing

I am cooking.                          What am I doing?         Am I dreaming?

He/She/It is dancing.               How is he doing?         Is he sleeping?

We/You/They are  singing.    Why are they singing?   Are they crying?

在缺助動詞的句子中,可以看句子有沒有一般動詞,有一般動詞的原型的話,就是現在簡單式,用do/does造問句。有一般動詞的現在分詞(動詞ing/V-ing)時,就是現在進行式用am/is/are造問句。假如完全沒有動詞,就需要am/is/are當動詞,就用am/is/are造問句。

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1           Jessie Lin   P.18

H. 現在式助動詞do/doesam/is/are 造問句時的用法與區別

練習題,用am/is/aredo/doesyes/no問句:

 

1.     you / lazy or hardworking

2.    Taipei / a noisy city

3.    you / use the computer every day

4.    your brother / smoke

5.    your father/living abroad (住國外)

6.    your parents/ generous or stingy (大方或小氣)

7.    the weather/ terrible today

8.    you / sleep naked  (裸睡)

9.    your friends / smart

10.  your classmates / sitting now

11.   your mother / work in a bank

12.  your blood type / A  (血型)

13.  you / have a  pet

14.  your classmates / naughty    (淘氣)

15.  Jay Chou / a top model   (名模)

16.  your English teacher / helpful

17.  your shoes / new

18.  your best friend / married

19.  you / a careless person  (粗心大意的人)

20.  you / reading a good book at the moment

21.  your mother / cook dinner for you

22.  President Ma / busy

23.  you / over 18 years old

24.  English / easy or difficult for you

25.  you / in a good mood today   (好心情)

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1            Jessie Lin   P.19

I. 現在簡單式跟現在進行式的比較

現在簡單式 現在進行式
1. 用來表達事實She speaks good English.

I come from Taiwan.

  1. 用來表達現在正在進行的動作

She is speaking on the phone.

Look! The bus is coming.

  1. 用來表達持續一段時間的行為,重複性的動作

He lives in Hong Kong.

She travels a lot in her job.

  1. 用來表達現在前後的一個限定期間內發生的動作

He is living in Japan.

She is traveling around Europe for a month.

  1. 用來表達想法與感覺

I don’t know what to do.

She likes American movies.

  1. 不用來表達想法與感覺。

I’m not knowing what to do.

She is liking American movies.

  1. 用have來表達擁有,用think表達意見

I have a new cell phone.

I think you’re right.

  1. 用have跟think表達動作

I’m having a lot of fun.

He’s having dinner with his family.

I’m thinking about my work.

 

Practice

I leave (leave) home at 7 o’clock in the morning.

  1. She usually ______ (work) in the Sales Department in London, but at the moment she ______ (do) a training course in Bristol.
  2. Linda _____ (wash) her hair every day.
  3. He _____ (try) very hard in every game that he _______ (play).
  4. Excuse me. I think that you ______ (sit) in my seat.
  5. ___________ (you/listen) to the radio very often?
  6. Don’t talk to me now. I ________ (write) an important e-mail.
  7. Why ____________ (they/drive) on the left in Britain?
  8. It ___________ (not/get) dark at this time of year until about 10 o’clock.
  9. It usually ______ (rain) here a lot, but it __________ (not/rain) now.
  10. A: What are you doing?

B: I ________ (bake) a cake. Why ____________ (you/smile)?

______________(I/do) something wrong?

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1            Jessie Lin   P.20

J. 祈使句Imperative                  

1. 定義:

祈使句是英文的句子的一種,其主詞通常省略,用來表達命令,給與建議等。

  1. 句型:

祈使句的主詞為你或你們,通常主詞省略,動詞皆為原形。

否定句則在動詞前面加 Don’t

Stand up! / Shut up. / Be quiet. / Be careful.

Don’t yell at me. / Don’t think too much.

3. 用法:祈使句常用在下列狀況:

a. 給方向或指示 give directions and instructions

Turn left at the traffic light.

b. 給命令與指令 give orders or commands

Don’t move.

c. 做要求 make requests

Please read this article.

d. 給忠告或建議 give advice or make suggestions

Don’t exercise when you’re sick.

e. 給警告 give warnings

Be careful! Don’t trip!

f. 邀請某人 invite someone

Work out with us tomorrow.

4. 注意事項:

a. 注意祈使句的你或你們通常省略,有主詞時語氣會變得很不客氣。

You sit down! / You listen!

b. 祈使句可以把說話的對象的人名或稱呼放在句子的最前面或最後面,但

要用逗號與句子分開。

Marla, please get ready.

Get ready, guys.

c. 祈使句表達客氣的語氣時可加please,放在句首不用逗號,放句尾需用

逗號與句子隔開。

Please follow me. / Follow me, please.

 

 

Answer Key

  1. 翻譯練習 P.1

1. 我跟我弟總是在星期天下午到公園打籃球。

My brother and I always play basketball in the park on Sunday afternoon.

2. 林書豪的籃球打得很好,他是一個很棒的NBA球員。

Jeremy Lin plays basketball well. He is an excellent NBA player.

B. 詞性練習 P.1

1. My(adj) brother(n) and(conj)  I(pron) always(adv) play(verb)

basketball(noun) in(prep) the(adj) park(n) on(prep) Sunday(n)

afternoon(n).

  1. Jeremy(n) Lin(n) plays(v) basketball(n) well(adv) .

He(pron) is(v) an(adj) excellent(adj) NBA(n) player(n).

C. 八大詞類( the parts of speech) P.4

 

  1. 動詞verb: thinks, is, loves
  2. 名詞noun: Tom, Mary, café
  3. 代名詞pronoun: He, her, they
  4. 形容詞adjective: wonderful, old, romantic
  5. 副詞adverb: madly, unfortunately, too
  6. 連接詞conjunction: and, but, so
  7. 介系詞preposition: of, for, at

D. 現在簡單式Simple Present P.8

1. saves /z/ 2. works /s/ 3. notices /ɪz/ 4. tries /z/ 5. teaches /ɪz/

6. starts /s/ 7. buys /z/ 8. fixes /ɪz/ 9. has /z/ 10. finishes /ɪz/

E. 現在進行式 Present Progressive P.13

  1. carrying 2. topping 3. riding 4. winning 5. forgetting
  2. lying 7. trying 8. flying 9. writing 10. seeing

G. 頻率副詞 Frequency Adverbs  P.16

get up, eat, drive, takes, work, is, work out, read, watch, go to bed

Sometimes I get up at 8 a.m. when I have a morning class, but I usually don’t get up till noon. Then I eat some fruit for breakfast. After that I often surf the Net and check out the news. I rarely go out in the afternoon because I have a lot of work to do in the afternoon. I always take a bus to work. I almost never take a taxi home, but once in a while, I do that when I’m really tired. I usually take a shower right after I get home. Then I have some late night snacks before I go to bed.

H. 現在式助動詞do/doesam/is/are 造問句時的用法與區別

1. Are you lazy or hardworking?

2. Is Taipei a noisy city?

3. Do you use the computer every day?

4. Does your brother smoke?

5. Is your father living abroad?

6. Are your parents generous or stingy?

7. Is the weather terrible today?

8. Do you sleep naked?

9. Are your friends smart?

10. Are your classmates sitting now?

11. Does your mother work in a bank?

12. Is your blood type A?

13. Do you have a pet?

14. Are your classmates naughty?

15. Is Jay Chou a top model?

16. Is your English teacher helpful?

17. Are your shoes new?

18. Is your best friend married?

19. Are you a careless person?

20. Are you reading a good book at the moment?

21. Does your mother cook dinner for you?

22. Is President Ma busy?

23. Are you over 18 years old?

24. Is English easy or difficult for you?

25. Are you in a good mood today?

I. 現在簡單式跟現在進行式的比較

1. works, is doing

2. washes

3. tries, plays

4. are sitting

5. Do you listen

6. am writing

7. do they drive

8. doesn’t get

9. rains, isn’t raining

10. am baking, are you smiling, Am I doing

現在完成式與過去完成式

現在完成式 連結是把這一篇的現在完成式解說,內容跟這篇差不多,排列順序不同,自己覺得比較清楚。順便附上影片連結。

 

 

 

這是配合Azar文法中級課本的第四章,內容有現在完成式,現在完成進行式,現在完成式與過去簡單式的區別,過去完成式。完成式一直是很多人永遠弄不清楚或永遠不會用或永遠都用錯的時態。要弄清楚一定要先懂,然後多做題目,了解什麼時候用,多觀察,然後再用出來。加油囉。潔西重新整理,不過有點倉促,有發現不對的地方或錯誤再麻煩跟潔西說,大大感激:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.1

jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect                      

英文有十二個時態。在學每一個時態時要記住四點:使用時機、句型、動詞變化以及搭配的副詞。最重要是理解跟多做練習,才能靈活運用、得心應手。

一、現在完成式的使用時機

1. 現在完成式可以用來表達在過去發生的事情,這個事情或狀態從過去開始一直延續到現在,在未來也可能繼續持續下去。表達這種情形時,多跟sincefor連用。

He has been a pro-gamer for three years.

She has worked at HTC since 2010.

I have lived in Taipei since I was born.

They have become successful since they have been in Taiwan.

  for + 一段時間 (for twenty minutes, for three hours, for two weeks, for three months, for years, for a long time) 表示這個事件持續了多久

 since + 一個過去時間點 (since 7:00, since Monday, since 1998, since two days ago, since this morning) 表示這個事件開始的時間

since + S + V2 (since I was a child) 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中的活動已經在過去結束。

since + S + have + V3 (since I have worked at IBM) 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中在過去開始持續到現在。

a. Fill in the blanks with for or since 空格中填入for或since

  1. She has been married _______ ten years.
  2. They have worked at the factory ________ they were 18 years old.
  3. We have lived in Japan _______ 2010.
  4. He hasn’t played basketball _______ over two years.
  5. I have known Tom _________ high school.
  6. They have won every game _______ they have played.

b. Answer the questions 回答下列問題

1. How long have you studied at this school?

2. How long have you known your best friend?

3. How long have your parents been married?

4. How long have you had your current hairstyle? (現在的髮型維持多久了?)

5. How long have you had your cell phone?

6. How long have you been up today? (今天醒來多久了?)

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.2

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

2. 現在完成式常用來表達在過去某個不特定時間發生的事情,發生的時間不確

定或不重要,重要的是結果,而且結果是跟現在有關的。

I have seen this movie before. I don’t want to see it again now.

He has left the company. He doesn’t work here now.

現在完成是用來當表示剛剛最近不久前發生的事情時,常與just, recently,

   lately連用。

We’ve just gotten back from Tokyo.

I’ve recently signed a contract to write a book.

He hasn’t had time lately.

(美式英語常用過去簡單式來表示: We just got back from Tokyo.)

(在這個用法中不會有過去時間: We’ve just got back from Tokyo yesterday.)

現在完成式用來表達過去的經驗時常與ever(in your life time)曾經(從你這

輩子出生到現在),never(=at no time) 從不(從來沒有)連用。注意ever在

這個句型多放在疑問句,不用在肯定句。never用在否定句就不能再有not。

Have you ever met a famous person?

Yes, I have met a famous person. /Yes, I have ever met a famous person.

No, I have not met a famous person. / No, I have never met a famous person.

No, I have not never met a famous person.

現在完成式強調已發生的事或發生的比預期早的時,常與already連用。

already的位置多放在have/has與V3間,也可放句尾。

Do you want something to eat? No, thanks. I’ve already eaten.

Are you going to see that movie? No. I’ve already seen it.

現在完成式常用not yet來表達還沒有發生的事,但我們認為未來會發生。

yet的位置多放在句尾,也可以放在haven’t跟V3間。

I haven’t finished this work yet. (but I will finish it.)

They haven’t replied to my letter yet. (but they will reply.)

現在完成式用yet在問句中表達我們預期會發生的事情是否已經發生。

有時後我們用already在問句中,這通常表示訝異某事比預期還早的發生。

Have you paid the bill yet?

Have you found a job yet?

Has he already gotten his flu shot? The flu season hasn’t begun yet.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.3

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

2.

a. Make sentences using the Present Perfect with already or yet.

根據提示,用already或yet造句

(I/not/read/today’s newspaper) yet.

I haven’t read today’s newspaper yet.

1. (you/decide/which one to buy) yet?

_________________________________________________

2. (I/explain/this to you three times) already.

_________________________________________________

3. (Their baby son/start/talking) already.

_________________________________________________

4. (you/phone/Jane) yet?

_________________________________________________

5. (The game/not/finish) yet.

_________________________________________________

6. (I/have/lunch) already.

_________________________________________________

7. (He/spend/all his money) already.

_________________________________________________

b. Complete the sentences using the Preset Perfect form of the verbs words in brackets ( ). 根據括號裡的動詞提示,用現在完成式完成句子

Don’t take my plate away. I haven’t finished (not/finish) my meal.

  1. A: What’s that book about? B: I don’t know. I _________ (not/read) it.
  2. I __________ (lose) my pen. Can I borrow yours, please?
  3. A: I __________ (book) a room here for tonight. B: Yes, madam, what’s your name, please?
  4. I’m not sure what the problem with the car is. It _______(not/happen) before.
  5. A: ____________ (you/reply) to that letter from the bank? B: No, I haven’t, but I’ll do it soon.
  6. A: What’s happening in this program? B: I don’t know. _____________. (It/just/start)
  7. A: How’s Lucy?  B: She’s very happy. ________________ (She/just/finish) her exams.
  8. Could I have a copy of Next Magazine, please?  B: Sorry. __________________ (I/just/sell) the last copy.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.4

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

Gone and been

S + has/have been to + place. 現在完成式用這個句型表達去過某個地方,

但是現在回來了,不在哪個地方了。

S + has/have gone to + place. 現在完成式用這個句型表人去了某個地方,

人還在那裡,還沒有回來。所以表達自己去過某個地方絕對不要用這個句型。

He’s been to Paris. (He is now at home again.) 他去過巴黎(現在回來了)

He’s gone to Paris. (He is in Paris now.) 他去了巴黎(人現在在巴黎)

I’ve been to Paris. (I am now at home again.) 我去過巴黎(現在回來了)

 I’ve gone to Paris. 我人去了巴黎(錯誤的句子,因為說話時人在說話處)

3. 現在完成式也用來表達過去到現在一段時間內重複的活動,實際發生的時間

並不重要,強調的是次數。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。後面可以加時間,但是時間一定要是到目前為止today, this morning, this month, this year,不能是過去時間。

We have had three tests so far this semester.

We have done quite a lot of work today.

He hasn’t had a holiday this year.

I have had five cups of coffee today.

I have had five cups of coffee yesterday.

Answer the questions

How many times have you shopped this week?

I’ve shopped twice this week.  / I haven’t shopped at all this week.

  1. How many times have you been to a KTV this year?
  2. How many cups of coffee have you had today?
  3. How many phone calls have you made today?
  4. How many times have you eaten Japanese food this month?
  5. How many times have you done laundry this week?
  6. How many times have you cleaned the house this month?

4. 現在完成式常跟第一次,第二次,最高級等連用。

This is the first time I’ve been so Canada, so it’s all new to me.

He loves this movie. This is the fifth time he’s seen it.

Paris is the most beautiful place I’ve ever been.

This is the best book I’ve ever read.

(ever在這樣的句型可以放在肯定句,表這輩子到目前為止)

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.5

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   

二、現在完成式的句型為主詞+have/has+過去分詞(V3)

1. 肯定句句型為S + have/has + V3 (V3指的是動詞的第三態,過去分詞)

S   +    have/has + V3

I        have been to Australia.

They     have  eaten dinner.

She      has earned millions of dollars since 1995.

2. 否定句在助動詞have/has後面加not

S  +   haven’t/hasn’t + V3

We     haven’t seen the movie.

You     haven’t traveled in Taiwan.

He      hasn’t made much money in his life.

3. Yes/No 問句把助動詞have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has + S + V3

Have       you cooked Thai food?

Have       they arrived?

Has        she finished the report?

4.WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH       have/has    +   S    +   V3

Where      have          you       been?

What       have          they      done?

How long    has           May       studied English?

三、現在完成式的副詞如:never, ever, already, yet, lately, recently, just, this week, today, 也常跟介系詞for與since連用…等。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.6

四、現在完成式規則動詞過去分詞的拼字與發音變化的規則

規則動詞的過去分詞拼字變化與過去簡單式的動詞過去式變化相同如下:

1. 大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ed。

work-worked, help-helped, call-called, wash-washed

2. 動詞字尾已經有e時,只要加d即可。

live-lived, die-died, dance-danced, smile-smiled

3. 動詞字尾為子音加y時,必須去y加ied。

study-studied, cry-cried, worry-worried, copy-copied.

4. 只有一個音節的動詞字尾發音為短母音加子音時,重複字尾再加ed。

shop-shopped, plan-planned, tap-tapped, hop-hopped

5. 兩個音節以上且重音在最後一個音節的動詞,字尾發音為短母音加子音時,也需重複字尾加ed。

admit-admitted, prefer-preferred, omit-omitted, occur-occurred

規則動詞的過去分詞發音的變化也與過去簡單式的過去變化相同如下:

1. 動詞字尾是無聲子音時,加ed後讀/ t /。無聲子音指的是除了/ t /之外的

/ k /, / f /, / s /, / ʃ/, / tʃ/, /θ / 等。

cook-cooked, laugh-laughed, kiss-kissed, wash-washed, watch-watched

2. 動詞字尾是有聲子音或母音時,加ed後讀/d/。有聲子音指的是除了/ d /之外的/ b /, / g /, / r /, / l /, / m /, / n /, / v / 等。

call-called, rain-rained, love-loved, play-played, try-tried

3. 動詞字尾的發音是/ t /, / d /的發音時,加ed後讀/ɪd /。

want-wanted, need-needed, visit-visited, wait-waited

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/, / aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

把下列動詞改成過去式,並放入正確的字尾ed發音的欄位。

1. clean 打掃  2. cook 做菜  3. want想要 4. invite 邀請 5. listen 聽

6. need 需要  7. relax 放鬆  8. shop 購物   9. study 用功  10. talk 說話

11. visit 拜訪  12. wait  等待 13. play玩  14. watch 看  15. cry 哭泣

/t/
/d/
/ɪd/

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.7

原型V1 過去式V2 過去分詞V3 現在分詞V-ing
1. be 是2. buy 買

3. come 來

4. do 做

5. drink 喝

6. drive 開車

7. eat 吃

8. find 找

9. fly 飛

10. forget忘記

11. get 拿

12. give 給

13. go 去

14. have 有

15. know 知道

16. leave 離開

17. lose 輸,遺失

18. make  做

19. meet 碰面

20. quit戒,辭職

21. read 閱讀

22. ride 騎

23. run 跑

24. see 看

25. sell 賣

26. sing 唱歌

27. sit 坐

28. sleep 睡

29. speak 說

30. spend 花費

31. swim 游泳

32. take 拿

33. think 想

34. wear 穿

35. win 贏

36. write 寫

was/werebought

came

did

drank

drove

ate

found

flew

forgot

got

gave

went

had

knew

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

rode

ran

saw

sold

sang

sat

slept

spoke

spent

swam

took

thought

wore

won

wrote

beenbought

come

done

drunk

driven

eaten

found

flown

forgotten

gotten

given

gone

had

known

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

ridden

run

seen

sold

sung

sat

slept

spoken

spent

swum

taken

thought

worn

won

written

beingbuying

coming

doing

drinking

driving

eating

finding

flying

forgetting

getting

giving

going

having

knowing

leaving

losing

making

meeting

quitting

reading

riding

running

seeing

selling

singing

sitting

sleeping

speaking

spending

swimming

taking

thinking

wearing

winning

writing

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.8

B.  現在完成式與過去簡單式的不同

a. 比較

現在完成式Present Perfect 過去簡單式Simple Pas
  1. 用來表達過去某個時間開始的事情,持續到現在,可能持續到未來。

I have lived in Taipei for 20 years.

2. 用來表達發生在過去不特定時間發生的事情。強調與現在之間的關係。

They have decided to get married.

He has been to Japan twice.

3. 用來表達事情發生在一段期間內,而這期間還沒有結束。

I have read two books today.

  1. 用來表達過去發生的某件事情,在過去已經結束了。

I lived in Sydney for 2 years.

2. 用來表達過去特定時間發生的事情。強調過去的時間。

They decided to get married last night.

He was in Japan last year.

3. 用來表達事情發生在一段期間內,而這期間已經結束。

I read two books last night.

b . 使用

我們常用現在完成式來表達生活中的經驗。

I have been to Japan three times.

用過去簡單式來說明某件事發生確切時間。

I went to Japan last year.

所以我們問經驗的時候會先用現在完成式來問,回答也用現在完成式。但是接下來的問題會用過去式來得到其他更詳盡的資料,而回答時也用過去式。

A: Have you been to Japan?

B: Yes, I’ve been to Japan twice.

A: Really. When was the last time you went to Japan?

B: I went there last May. I went to Hokkaido.

A: How did you like it?

B: I loved it. It was beautiful and people are very friendly.

 

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.9

C.  現在完成式與過去簡單式的不同

b. 根據括號內提示的動詞,用現在完成式或過去簡單式完成句子

1

A: _______ you ever _________ anyone famous? (meet)

B: Yes, I ______, actually.  When I ______ in Mexico on vacation. (be)

A: Really? Who _____ you ______ ? (meet)

B: Michael Jackson. He _____ in the same restaurant as me. (be)

2.

A: ________ you ever ________ a diary? (write)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ one when I was a teenager. (write)

A: ________ you ________ it every day? (write)

B: No, I _________. Only when I ______ on holiday. (be)

3.

A: ________ you ever _______ to France? (go)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ there six years ago. (go)

A: Where ______ you _______ ? (stay)

B: I _______ an apartment near Bordeaux. (rent)

4.

A: ______ your mother ever _____ to a rock concert? (go)

B: Yes, she _____. She _______to one or two when she was young. (go)

A: Who _____ she _______? (see)

B: Well, I know she _____ David Bowie before he ______famous. (see,

become)

5.

A: ______ you ever _____ to play an instrument? (learn)

B: No, I ________. What about you?

A: Well, I _____ to learn the piano at school. (try)

B: ______ you any good? (be)

A: No, I ______ no idea what I was doing! (have)

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.10

D.  現在完成進行式

一、現在完成進行式的使用時機

1. 我們用現在完成進行式來表達某件事情或某個動作在過去開始,持續了一段

時間到現在,這個狀況還沒結束,很可能會持續到未來。

I have been waiting here for thirty minutes.

They have been sitting in class since 8 o’clock.

2. 我們用現在完成進行事來表達某件事情或動作剛剛結束,現在沒有發生,但

是可以看到一些動作的結果。

The kids have been playing here. Their toys are all over the room.

It’s been raining. The streets are still wet.

 

二、現在完成進行式的句型為:主詞+have/has+been+現在分詞(V-ing)

1. 肯定句S + have/has + been + V-ing

S   +  have/has  +  been  + V-ing

I      have been living here since I was born.

They   have been swimming.

She    has been working all day.

2. 否定句在助動詞have/has後面加not

S  +  haven’t/hasn’t + been + V-ing

I      haven’t been studying.

You     haven’t been making any progress.

He      hasn’t been waiting.

3. Yes/No 問句把助動詞have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has + S + been + V-ing

Have      you  been running?

Have      they been touring the U.S.?

Has        he  been writing his essay?

4.WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH            have/has    +   S    +   been + V-ing

How long         have          you       been waiting?

Who             has           she       been talking to?

How many people  have                     been standing in line?

三、現在完成進行式的副詞如:all day, all morning, today 等。也常跟介系詞for與since連用…等。

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.11

E.  現在完成式與現在完成進行式的不同

現在完成式Present Perfect 現在完成進行式Present Perfect Progressive
  1. 用來表達過去不特定期間發生的事情,動作已經結束,但是結果跟現在有關。強調結果。

I’ve read a book.

(I finished the book.)

She’s written an article.

(She finished the article.)

2. 用來表達完成了多少how much,做過多少次how many times,做了多少事情how many things。

I’ve read a lot about it.

I’ve been to Africa twice.

She’s written three articles.

3. 某些動詞用現在完成式與現在完成進行式表達的意義基本上是相同的。這些動詞是用來表達常態性,習慣性的活動,如:live, work, teach, study, smoke, play, wear glasses, read等等。

She’s studied pandas for two years.

I have lived here for ten years.

  1. 用來表達過去發生的事情,這動作還沒有結束,可能持續到未來。強調的是動作的持續。

I’ve been reading a book.

(I’m still reading it.)

She’s been writing an article. (She’s still writing it.)

2. 用來表達某件事情發生了多久

I’ve been reading books on pandas for two months.

3. 某些動詞用現在完成式與現在完成進行式表達的意義基本上是相同的。這些動詞是用來表達常態性,習慣性的活動,如:live, work, teach, study, smoke, play, wear glasses, read等等。

She’s been studying pandas for two years.

I’ve been living here for ten years.

Complete the conversations. 用現在完成式或現在完成進行式來完成句子

A: What are you doing, Trevor? (1) ___________ (you/be) in here for ages.

You’re making an awful mess.

B: (2) _________________ (I/clean) out this cupboard most of the afternoon.

There’s a lot of old stuff in here. (3) ______________ (I/find) these, look.

A: (4) ________________ (you/sit) there staring at those old boots for the

last five minutes. (5) _____________ (I/watch) you. (6) _____________

(you/be) in a dream.

A: They’re football boots. (7) _____________ (I/have) them since I was about

sixteen. (8) ________________ (they/be) in here for years.

A: Well, throw them away. And what about that tennis racket? Is that yours?

B: No, it must be yours. (9) ________________ (I/never/have) a tennis racket.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.12

F.  過去完成式

一、過去完成式的使用時機

1. 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生

在過去某個時間點前。

By 1960 most of Britain’s old colonies had become independent.

2. 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

I went to the box office at lunch-time, but they had already sold al the

tickets.

3. 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連

句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The bus had left before he got there.

The bus left before he got there.

二、過去完成式的句型為:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

1. 肯定句句型:S + had + V3

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished.

2. 否定句句型:S + had + not + V3

They hadn’t gone home until late.

3. Yes/No 問句句型:Had + S + V3?

Had he enjoyed the party?

4. WH 問句句型: WH + had + S + V3?

Where had he put his wallet?

G. 時態比較

句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1. When John arrived, they had diner. 當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.) 約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2. When John arrived, they were having dinner.當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3. When John arrived, they had had dinner. 當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.) 在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4. When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。

5. When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I miss the beginning.

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開始。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.13

G.  Add a sentence with the Past Perfect using the notes.

Claire looked very suntanned when I saw her last week.

She had just been on holiday. (just/be on holiday)

1. We rushed to the station, but we were too late.

______________________________ (the train/just/go)

2. I didn’t have an umbrella, but that didn’t matter.

______________________________ (the rain/stop)

3. When I got to the concert hall, they wouldn’t let me in.

______________________________ (forget/my ticket)

4. Someone got the number of the car the raiders used.

______________________________ (steal/it/a week before)

5. I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday.

______________________________ (not see/her/for ages)

6. Luckily the flat didn’t look too bad when my parents called in.

______________________________ (just/clean/it)

7. The boss invited me to lunch yesterday, but I had to refuse the invitation.

______________________________ (already/eat/my sandwiches)

H. 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的時態完成句子。

  1. I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).
  2. Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.
  3. We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.
  4. I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.
  5. It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.
  6. They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.
  7. I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ a lot in 20 years.
  8. The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.14

Answer Key

A. 一、

1.

a.

1. for  2. since  3. since  4. for  5. since  6. since

b.

1. I have studied at this school for three months.

2. I have know my best friend since college.

3. They have been married for over 30 years.

4. I have had my current hairstyle since this spring.

5. I have had my cell phone since last September.

6. I have been up for 12 hours.

2.

a.

1. Have you decided which one to buy yet?

2. I have already explained this to you three times.

3. Their baby son has already started talking.

4. Have you phoned Jane yet?

5. The game has not finished yet.

6. I have already had lunch.

7. He has already spent all his money.

b.

1. haven’t read

2. have lost

3. have booked

4. has not happened

5. Have you replied

6. It has just started

7. She has just finished

8. I have just sold

四、

/t/ cooked, relaxed, shopped, talked, watched
/d/ cleaned, listened, studied, played, cried
/ɪd/ wanted, invited, needed, visited, waited

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.15

C.

b.

1. Have, met, have, was, did, meet, was

2. Have, written, have, wrote, Did, write, didn’t, was

3. Have, been, have, went, did, stay, rented

4. Has, been, has, went, did, see, saw, became

5. Have, learned, haven’t, tried, Were, had

E.

(1) You have been

(2) I have been cleaning

(3) I have found

(4) You have been sitting

(5) I have been watching

(6) You have been

(7) I have had

(8) They have been

(9) I have never had

G.

  1. The train had just gone.
  2. The rain had stopped.
  3. I had forgotten my ticket.
  4. They had stolen it a week before.
  5. I hadn’t seen her in ages.
  6. I had just cleaned it.
  7. I had already eaten my sandwiches.

 

H.

1. called, had broken down

2. beat, was winning, scored

3. arrived, had finished, were sitting

4. ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5. started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6. were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7. didn’t recognize, had changed

8. had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing