【潔西家英文】現在完成式 現在完成進行式 翻譯練習

今天是 April 1st, April Fools’ Day 愚人節,大家應該都希望這場疫情只是一場愚人節的玩笑,一覺醒來疫情就消失了。在2020年一開始設新年新希望時絕對沒想到規劃好的生活,計畫,一轉眼,整個社會,整個國家,甚至全世界都因為這個新冠病毒 COVID-19,人仰馬翻,天翻地覆。

這場疫情造成太多人的太多的不便,太多計劃被打斷,太多行程被取消,很多人已經失去工作了,很多人被規定要待在家裡不能出門,但是呢最慘的是很多人已經失去他們最愛的人。非常不幸地,各國感染死亡人數還在不斷地增加,疫情還可能更嚴重。

假如要抱怨每個人大概都說不完,但是呢也不能不抱怨,抱怨其實有益身心健康,不開心的事說出來比悶在心中好,有人聽你訴苦,多少能夠撫慰一點怒氣跟怨氣?但是抱怨也是ㄧ句起,三句多,也就是適量,抱怨多了人緣會變差,誰想一天到晚聽不開心的事?

每個人都希望自己生活一帆風順,但是天底下聽過多少人的人生真的是如此?人生不如意十之八九,隨便路上捉住一兩個路人,或問問周遭朋友,最近有沒有不順心的事?你有時間聽的話,不少人大概都有一籮筐的苦水等著訴說。

人生不如意十之八九,那活著有什麼意思?對潔西來說,人生很多時候真的就是靠那一兩分美好幸福而活的。人生真的是要靠希望這種東西,就好像掛在馬前面的胡蘿蔔,讓馬繼續往前走的動力。這疫情終究會過去的,最難熬的應該是就像潔西在經歷憂鬱症的時候,有時候你真的看不到光芒,因為你看不到出口,你不知道終點在哪裡,疫情究竟何時會結束?現在全世界的專家沒有人能夠告訴你一個確切的答案,但是能肯定的是,這跟潔西的憂鬱症一樣,會過去的,雨過天晴總有等到的那一天。

雖然現在我們有很多的不方便,很多的不順遂,但是事情遇到也只能去處理去面對,對於自己能掌握之外的事情就只能接受,再怎麼不喜歡再怎麼討厭,因為沒有什麼事是你可以做的。那自己可以做什麼?自己的心情,自己的生活,自己面對事情的態度,自己處理事情的方法,這些是自己可以決定的。去想辦法讓自己開心還是要放著讓自己不開心?說來容易做來難 Easier said than done.

潔西昨天起床突然發現,啊,這星期因為連假很多人請假,課程也停,所以這星期只有上兩堂課,四個小時,啊,好慘,假如要付房租的話可能付不出來,只能喝水吃空氣了。心情有點沮喪,然後偏頭痛又剛好來敲門,吃了藥還是很不舒服,全身關節都在痛。平常一兩個星期痛一次,這次隔比較久,所以呢就痛得特別嚴重。

但是呢心情不好也無濟於事,就是想開點,這樣有比較多時間做一些平常想做沒時間做的事,頭痛就只能讓它痛,就躺在床上,看看影片,睡睡覺,雖然覺得很浪費時間,但是人很多時後就是需要休息,不好好休息身體就會跟你抗議。所以昨天就睡了一天,還好今天起來就好多了,沒有像先前有時候會連痛兩天。

潔西其實是很悲觀的人,因為憂鬱症,躁鬱症,慢慢學到啊,要正面樂觀積極才是王道,因為生活就是這樣,很多時候真的有太多的人事物是你沒辦法改變只能接受的,最容易也最難做到的就是去改變你的心情,你對於事物的觀點跟想法,假如要說適者生存的話,越是樂觀正面的人越容易在任何處境下活下來吧?開心也是過一天,難過也是一天,為什麼要不開心?很多時候這個不開心不是一種選擇,我的心情就是這麼糟,我也不想這麼糟,憂鬱很久的潔西很有心得的。

人都有心情的起伏,假如怎麼樣讓沒辦法讓自己開心,真的要考慮去看醫生,用藥物的方式先把大腦的神經傳導素做適當調整,但是大部分正常的人或許應該是能夠自己去多做一些讓自己開心的事把自己的心情提振起來。做什麼事會開心?潔西不知道別人,但是我知道自己做什麼事會開心,因為我花了很多時間去想,去嘗試,很久以前我寫了一百零一件做了會開心的事,最近應該可以寫新版的,因為隨時間不同,人會改變,什麼事會讓自己開心也會改變,自己才會真正的知道究竟什麼事會讓自己開心,多去嘗試不同的事情,只有自己才最了解自己才知道什麼事會真的讓自己開心。

寫太多了,提醒大家,最近真的要多保重自己,多洗手,口罩沒事還是多戴著。潔西先前看到 Fortune Magazine 財星雜誌的網路上的新聞報導在遙遠的小國冰島的檢測,冰島只有三十多萬人,政府反應很快,找了專門檢驗機構來對健康跟生病的人做隨機抽樣檢測,當時(3/24)有百分之三點二的國民,也就是七百三十七人測出陽性反應,也就是帶有病毒。這當中十五個人在醫院,兩個人在加護病房,其他人多是輕微徵狀或沒有徵狀 asymptomatic ,這些人被要求自我隔離 self-quarantine。根據資料他們在冰島的檢測結果,他們推斷高危險人口的五分之一確診,約百分之一的人口是沒有症狀但是帶有病毒,會感染給別人的。

昨天有看到新聞說對於建議從國外回台灣的人全面檢測的提議但是被否定掉了,理由還是潔西覺得很奇怪的偽陰性,也就是有些人可能初期感染了病毒,但是徵狀還沒出來。看到新聞的說法是說假如檢測出來是偽陰性的話,會變得放任這些人到處跑,造成防疫的更大困難。潔西覺得這個邏輯很奇怪,就規定所有回台的人都檢測,不管檢驗出來的結果是什麼都還是要隔離兩週,這樣子即便是偽陰性也不會放任他們到處跑啊?

已經有國外回台灣居家隔離傳染給家人的例子了,昨天也看到有一個病例是國外回來沒有徵狀但是帶有病毒的,因為有接觸者有發病所以才檢測出來。昨天好像看到目前台北市跟新北市都各有一萬多人正在居家隔離,這些居家隔離的人萬一有人是帶有病毒但是沒有徵狀的,很容易家人就會忽略了應該有的防疫措施,這些家人萬一被居家隔離的人感染了但也是無徵狀的是不是又會出門感染給其他人呢?

但是呢關於這種檢測的東西也不是我們小老百姓可以決定的,怎麼辦?好好保護自己啊!那天上課前被學生問到說老師你都不會怕啊?我們都是上班下班,同一間辦公室,老師要到處跑。恩,老實說,現在其實有些課已經請假取消了,也有些課就乾脆到學生家上課了,那天想想,現在上課的地方只有星巴克。潔西最近都找最邊邊的角落上課,上課儘可能都戴著口罩,桌子會先消毒一下,下課回到家第一件事先洗澡。另外潔西比大家好的就是可以挑非交通顛峰時刻出門,本來就討厭上下班的捷運,所以都會提早出門上課,可以走路上課的地方就走路上課。潔西家中有八十多歲的老爸,潔西的學生家中也有小朋友,要把自己保護好,才是對自己跟對別人負責的。現在已經沒有所謂的太小心了 You can’t be too careful. 接下來的發展會是如何,這個疫情還會持續多久,沒有一個專家目前可以給出一個正確答案,同學先前說她老公說亂世要先自保,說得一點都沒錯,大家好好保護自己,多洗手,手不要碰臉,口罩雖然戴了不舒服還是戴吧!

影片有點長,建議先做題目,分個幾次對答案

 

 

現在完成式    

1 經驗

past ——x——now————— future        x: event/activity/action

             ?

1 肯定句:主詞(S)+have/has+過去分詞(V3)

I have eaten Swiss food.

They have tried kayaking.

He has gone whale watching.

She has been to India.

 

2 否定句:主詞(S)+have/has+not +過去分詞(V3)

I have not eaten Swiss food.  haven’t

They have not tried kayaking.

He has not gone whale watching.  hasn’t

She has not been to India.

 

3 Yes/No 問句:Have/Has +主詞 (S) +過去分詞(V3)

Have you eaten Swiss food?

Have they tried kayaking?

Has he gone whale watching?

Has she been to India?

 

二 表達在過去發生的事情,這個事情或狀態從過去開始一直延續到現在,在未來也可能繼續持續下去

現在完成式    past —x———————now ————— future    x: action

                          —x———————x- – – – – – – – –

I have taught English for twenty years.

I have taught English since 2000.

 

三 現在完成可用來當表示剛剛最近不久前發生的事情時,常與 just, recently, lately 連用

We’ve just gotten back from Tokyo.

 

四 現在完成式強調已發生的事或發生的比預期早的時,常與 already 連用

Do you want something to eat? No, thanks. I’ve already eaten.

 

五 現在完成式常用 not yet 來表達還沒有發生的事,但我們認為未來會發生

I haven’t finished this work yet. (but I will finish it.)

 

六 現在完成式用 yet 在問句中表達我們預期會發生的事情是否已經發生

Have you paid the bill yet?

 

七 現在完成式也用來表達過去到現在一段時間內重複的活動,實際發生的時間並不重要,強調的是次數。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。

I have seen five movies this month.    

 

八 現在完成式常跟第一次,第二次,最高級等連用。

This is the first time I’ve been to Canada, so it’s all new to me.

Paris is the most beautiful place I’ve ever been.

 

九 現在完成式常用來表達在過去某個不特定時間發生的事情,發生的時間不確定或不重要,重要的是結果,而且結果是跟現在有關的。

I have seen this movie before. I don’t want to see it again now.

 

現在完成進行式

現在完成進行式用來表達過去開始一直持續到現在的行為動作狀態。這個狀況通常還可能會持續到未來。特別是用來說明動作持續多久。

1 肯定句句型:主詞 S + have/has + been + V-ing

It has been raining.

 

2 否定句句型:主詞 S + have/has + not + been + V-ing

It hasn’t been raining.

 

3 Yes/No 問句句型: Have/Has +主詞 S  + been + V-ing ?

Has it been raining?

 

4 WH 問句句型: WH疑問詞+ have/has +主詞 S  + been + V-ing ?

How long has it been raining?

 

題目 第四堂 翻譯練習

1 我去過加拿大,但是我沒去過美國。

2 巴西(Brazil)贏過幾次世界杯(the World Cup)?

3 她看過那部電影五次,但是我從來沒看過。

4 你曾經丟過護照嗎?

5 瑪麗(Mary)有過很多不同的工作而且住過不同的地方。

6 你結婚了嗎?你結婚多久了?

7 我認識麗莎(Lisa)。我認識她很久了。

8 艾倫(Alan)頭痛。他從今天早上起床就一直頭痛。

9 露絲(Ruth)正在看報紙。她已經看報紙看了兩個小時了。

10 不好意思我遲到了。你等多久了?

11 珍妮佛(Jennifer)在她的辦公室裡。她從七點就在那裡了。

12 一個小時前開始下雨的。已經下雨下一個小時了。

13 這些鞋子我幾天前買的。

14 沒人住在那些房子裡。他們已經空著很多年了。

15 大衛(David)從他七歲就開始彈鋼琴了。

16 我們還沒付電費。

17 你見過我弟弟了嗎,還是我應該幫你們介紹?

18 我在大學時是個打字很慢的人,但是我已經變快了。

19 我弟弟跟他老婆不再住這裡了。他們已經搬到西雅圖(Seattle)了。

20 明天是瑞秋(Rachel)的生日,我還沒買禮物給她。

21 A: 保羅(Paul)幾點到達? B: 他已經到了。

22 你已經開始你的新工作了嗎?

23 你不能上床睡覺 — 你還沒有刷牙。

24 A: 湯姆在這裡嗎?  B: 不好意思,他剛離開。

25 才九點,安娜(Anna)已經上床睡覺了。

26 我們在芝加哥(Chicago)住了六年,但是我們現在住在波斯頓(Boston)。

27 我們去年沒有去度假。

28 我看過她幾次,但是我從來沒有跟她說過話。

29 你幾點完成你的工作的?

30 凱西(Kathy)常旅遊。她去過很多國家。

翻譯練習答案

.

.

.

.

 

1 我去過加拿大,但是我沒去過美國。

I have been to Canada, but I haven’t been to the U.S.

She has gone to Canada.

 

2 巴西(Brazil)贏過幾次世界杯(the World Cup)?

2 How many time has Brazil won the World Cup?

 

3 她看過那部電影五次,但是我從來沒看過。

3 She has seen the movie five times, but I haven’t seen it. 

 

4 你曾經丟過護照嗎?

4 Have you (ever) lost your passport?

 

5 瑪麗(Mary)有過很多不同的工作而且住過不同的地方。

5 Mary has had many different jobs and has lived in many places.

 

6 你結婚了嗎?你結婚多久了?

6 Are you married? How long have you been married?

 

7 我認識麗莎(Lisa)。我認識她很久了。

7 I know Lisa. I have known her for a long time.

 

8 艾倫(Alan)頭痛。他從今天早上起床就一直頭痛。

8 Alan has a headache.

He has had a headache since he got up this morning. 

 

9 露絲(Ruth)正在看報紙。

她已經看報紙看了兩個小時了。

Ruth is reading the newspaper.

She has been reading it for two hours.

 

10 不好意思我遲到了。

你等多久了?

Sorry I’m late.

How long have you been waiting?

 

11 珍妮佛(Jennifer)在她的辦公室裡。

她從七點就在那裡了。

11 Jennifer is in her office.

She has been there since 7:00.

 

12 一個小時前開始下雨的。

已經下雨下一個小時了。

12 It started raining an hour ago.

It has been raining for an hour.

 

13 這些鞋子我幾天前買的。

13 I bought these shoes a few days ago.

 

14 沒人住在那些房子裡。

他們已經空著很多年了。

14 Nobody lives in those houses.

They have been empty for many years.

 

15 大衛(David)從他七歲就開始彈鋼琴了。

15 David has played the piano since he was seven years old.

 

16 我們還沒付電費。

16 We haven’t paid the electric bill yet.

16 We didn’t pay the electric bill yet.

 

17 你見過我弟弟了嗎,還是我應該幫你們介紹?

17 Have you met my brother, or should I introduce you?

 

18 我在大學時是個打字很慢的人,但是我已經變快了。

18 I was a very slow typist in college, but I’ve gotten faster.

 

19 我弟弟跟他老婆不再住這裡了。

他們已經搬到西雅圖(Seattle)了。

19 My brother and his wife don’t live here anymore.

They have moved to Seattle.

 

20 明天是瑞秋(Rachel)的生日,我還沒買禮物給她。

20 It’s Rachel’s birthday tomorrow, and I haven’t bought her a present.

 

21 A: 保羅(Paul)幾點到達?

B: 他已經到了。

21 A: What time is Paul arriving?

     B: He’s already arrived.

 

22 你已經開始你的新工作了嗎?

22 Have you started your new job?

 

23 你不能上床睡覺 — 你還沒有刷牙。

23 You can’t go to bed — you haven’t brushed your teeth yet.

 

24 A: 湯姆在這裡嗎? 

B: 不好意思,他剛離開。

24 A: Is Tom here?

     B: No, sorry, he’s just left.

 

25 才九點,安娜(Anna)已經上床睡覺了。

25 It’s only 9:00, and Anna has already gone to bed.

 

26 我們在芝加哥(Chicago)住了六年,但是我們現在住在波斯頓(Boston)。

26 We lived in Chicago for six years, but now we live in Boston.

 

27 我們去年沒有去度假。

27 We didn’t take a vacation last year.

 

28 我看過她幾次,但是我從來沒有跟她說過話。

28 I’ve seen her a few times, but I have never spoken to her.

 

29 你幾點完成你的工作的?

29 What time did you finish your work?

 

30 凱西(Kathy)常旅遊。她去過很多國家。

30 Kathy travels a lot. She has visited many countries.

現在完成進行式 Present Perfect Continuous

現在完成進行式

一 現在完成進行式的使用時機

  1. 我們用現在完成進行式來表達某件事情或某個動作在過去開始,持續了一段時間到現在,這個狀況還沒結束,很可能會持續到未來。

I have been waiting here for thirty minutes.

They have been sitting in class since 8 o’clock.

 

  1. 我們用現在完成進行事來表達某件事情或動作剛剛結束,現在沒有發生,但是可以看到一些動作的結果。

The kids have been playing here. Their toys are all over the room.

It’s been raining. The streets are still wet.

 

二、現在完成進行式的句型為:主詞+have/has+been+現在分詞(V-ing)

肯定句S + have/has + been + V-ing

S   +  have/has  +  been  + V-ing

I      have been living here since I was born.

They   have been swimming.

She    has been working all day.

否定句在助動詞have/has後面加not

S  +  haven’t/hasn’t + been + V-ing

I      haven’t been studying.

You     haven’t been making any progress.

He      hasn’t been waiting.

 

Yes/No 問句把助動詞have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has + S + been + V-ing

Have      you  been running?

Have      they been touring the U.S.?

Has        he  been writing his essay?

 

WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH            have/has    +   S    +   been + V-ing

How long         have          you       been waiting?

Who             has           she       been talking to?

How many people  have                     been standing in line?

 

三、現在完成進行式的副詞如:all day, all morning, today 等。也常跟介系詞for與since連用…等。

 

 

現在完成式與過去完成式

現在完成式 連結是把這一篇的現在完成式解說,內容跟這篇差不多,排列順序不同,自己覺得比較清楚。順便附上影片連結。

 

 

 

這是配合Azar文法中級課本的第四章,內容有現在完成式,現在完成進行式,現在完成式與過去簡單式的區別,過去完成式。完成式一直是很多人永遠弄不清楚或永遠不會用或永遠都用錯的時態。要弄清楚一定要先懂,然後多做題目,了解什麼時候用,多觀察,然後再用出來。加油囉。潔西重新整理,不過有點倉促,有發現不對的地方或錯誤再麻煩跟潔西說,大大感激:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.1

jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect                      

英文有十二個時態。在學每一個時態時要記住四點:使用時機、句型、動詞變化以及搭配的副詞。最重要是理解跟多做練習,才能靈活運用、得心應手。

一、現在完成式的使用時機

1. 現在完成式可以用來表達在過去發生的事情,這個事情或狀態從過去開始一直延續到現在,在未來也可能繼續持續下去。表達這種情形時,多跟sincefor連用。

He has been a pro-gamer for three years.

She has worked at HTC since 2010.

I have lived in Taipei since I was born.

They have become successful since they have been in Taiwan.

  for + 一段時間 (for twenty minutes, for three hours, for two weeks, for three months, for years, for a long time) 表示這個事件持續了多久

 since + 一個過去時間點 (since 7:00, since Monday, since 1998, since two days ago, since this morning) 表示這個事件開始的時間

since + S + V2 (since I was a child) 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中的活動已經在過去結束。

since + S + have + V3 (since I have worked at IBM) 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中在過去開始持續到現在。

a. Fill in the blanks with for or since 空格中填入for或since

  1. She has been married _______ ten years.
  2. They have worked at the factory ________ they were 18 years old.
  3. We have lived in Japan _______ 2010.
  4. He hasn’t played basketball _______ over two years.
  5. I have known Tom _________ high school.
  6. They have won every game _______ they have played.

b. Answer the questions 回答下列問題

1. How long have you studied at this school?

2. How long have you known your best friend?

3. How long have your parents been married?

4. How long have you had your current hairstyle? (現在的髮型維持多久了?)

5. How long have you had your cell phone?

6. How long have you been up today? (今天醒來多久了?)

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.2

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

2. 現在完成式常用來表達在過去某個不特定時間發生的事情,發生的時間不確

定或不重要,重要的是結果,而且結果是跟現在有關的。

I have seen this movie before. I don’t want to see it again now.

He has left the company. He doesn’t work here now.

現在完成是用來當表示剛剛最近不久前發生的事情時,常與just, recently,

   lately連用。

We’ve just gotten back from Tokyo.

I’ve recently signed a contract to write a book.

He hasn’t had time lately.

(美式英語常用過去簡單式來表示: We just got back from Tokyo.)

(在這個用法中不會有過去時間: We’ve just got back from Tokyo yesterday.)

現在完成式用來表達過去的經驗時常與ever(in your life time)曾經(從你這

輩子出生到現在),never(=at no time) 從不(從來沒有)連用。注意ever在

這個句型多放在疑問句,不用在肯定句。never用在否定句就不能再有not。

Have you ever met a famous person?

Yes, I have met a famous person. /Yes, I have ever met a famous person.

No, I have not met a famous person. / No, I have never met a famous person.

No, I have not never met a famous person.

現在完成式強調已發生的事或發生的比預期早的時,常與already連用。

already的位置多放在have/has與V3間,也可放句尾。

Do you want something to eat? No, thanks. I’ve already eaten.

Are you going to see that movie? No. I’ve already seen it.

現在完成式常用not yet來表達還沒有發生的事,但我們認為未來會發生。

yet的位置多放在句尾,也可以放在haven’t跟V3間。

I haven’t finished this work yet. (but I will finish it.)

They haven’t replied to my letter yet. (but they will reply.)

現在完成式用yet在問句中表達我們預期會發生的事情是否已經發生。

有時後我們用already在問句中,這通常表示訝異某事比預期還早的發生。

Have you paid the bill yet?

Have you found a job yet?

Has he already gotten his flu shot? The flu season hasn’t begun yet.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.3

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

2.

a. Make sentences using the Present Perfect with already or yet.

根據提示,用already或yet造句

(I/not/read/today’s newspaper) yet.

I haven’t read today’s newspaper yet.

1. (you/decide/which one to buy) yet?

_________________________________________________

2. (I/explain/this to you three times) already.

_________________________________________________

3. (Their baby son/start/talking) already.

_________________________________________________

4. (you/phone/Jane) yet?

_________________________________________________

5. (The game/not/finish) yet.

_________________________________________________

6. (I/have/lunch) already.

_________________________________________________

7. (He/spend/all his money) already.

_________________________________________________

b. Complete the sentences using the Preset Perfect form of the verbs words in brackets ( ). 根據括號裡的動詞提示,用現在完成式完成句子

Don’t take my plate away. I haven’t finished (not/finish) my meal.

  1. A: What’s that book about? B: I don’t know. I _________ (not/read) it.
  2. I __________ (lose) my pen. Can I borrow yours, please?
  3. A: I __________ (book) a room here for tonight. B: Yes, madam, what’s your name, please?
  4. I’m not sure what the problem with the car is. It _______(not/happen) before.
  5. A: ____________ (you/reply) to that letter from the bank? B: No, I haven’t, but I’ll do it soon.
  6. A: What’s happening in this program? B: I don’t know. _____________. (It/just/start)
  7. A: How’s Lucy?  B: She’s very happy. ________________ (She/just/finish) her exams.
  8. Could I have a copy of Next Magazine, please?  B: Sorry. __________________ (I/just/sell) the last copy.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.4

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

Gone and been

S + has/have been to + place. 現在完成式用這個句型表達去過某個地方,

但是現在回來了,不在哪個地方了。

S + has/have gone to + place. 現在完成式用這個句型表人去了某個地方,

人還在那裡,還沒有回來。所以表達自己去過某個地方絕對不要用這個句型。

He’s been to Paris. (He is now at home again.) 他去過巴黎(現在回來了)

He’s gone to Paris. (He is in Paris now.) 他去了巴黎(人現在在巴黎)

I’ve been to Paris. (I am now at home again.) 我去過巴黎(現在回來了)

 I’ve gone to Paris. 我人去了巴黎(錯誤的句子,因為說話時人在說話處)

3. 現在完成式也用來表達過去到現在一段時間內重複的活動,實際發生的時間

並不重要,強調的是次數。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。後面可以加時間,但是時間一定要是到目前為止today, this morning, this month, this year,不能是過去時間。

We have had three tests so far this semester.

We have done quite a lot of work today.

He hasn’t had a holiday this year.

I have had five cups of coffee today.

I have had five cups of coffee yesterday.

Answer the questions

How many times have you shopped this week?

I’ve shopped twice this week.  / I haven’t shopped at all this week.

  1. How many times have you been to a KTV this year?
  2. How many cups of coffee have you had today?
  3. How many phone calls have you made today?
  4. How many times have you eaten Japanese food this month?
  5. How many times have you done laundry this week?
  6. How many times have you cleaned the house this month?

4. 現在完成式常跟第一次,第二次,最高級等連用。

This is the first time I’ve been so Canada, so it’s all new to me.

He loves this movie. This is the fifth time he’s seen it.

Paris is the most beautiful place I’ve ever been.

This is the best book I’ve ever read.

(ever在這樣的句型可以放在肯定句,表這輩子到目前為止)

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.5

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   

二、現在完成式的句型為主詞+have/has+過去分詞(V3)

1. 肯定句句型為S + have/has + V3 (V3指的是動詞的第三態,過去分詞)

S   +    have/has + V3

I        have been to Australia.

They     have  eaten dinner.

She      has earned millions of dollars since 1995.

2. 否定句在助動詞have/has後面加not

S  +   haven’t/hasn’t + V3

We     haven’t seen the movie.

You     haven’t traveled in Taiwan.

He      hasn’t made much money in his life.

3. Yes/No 問句把助動詞have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has + S + V3

Have       you cooked Thai food?

Have       they arrived?

Has        she finished the report?

4.WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH       have/has    +   S    +   V3

Where      have          you       been?

What       have          they      done?

How long    has           May       studied English?

三、現在完成式的副詞如:never, ever, already, yet, lately, recently, just, this week, today, 也常跟介系詞for與since連用…等。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.6

四、現在完成式規則動詞過去分詞的拼字與發音變化的規則

規則動詞的過去分詞拼字變化與過去簡單式的動詞過去式變化相同如下:

1. 大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ed。

work-worked, help-helped, call-called, wash-washed

2. 動詞字尾已經有e時,只要加d即可。

live-lived, die-died, dance-danced, smile-smiled

3. 動詞字尾為子音加y時,必須去y加ied。

study-studied, cry-cried, worry-worried, copy-copied.

4. 只有一個音節的動詞字尾發音為短母音加子音時,重複字尾再加ed。

shop-shopped, plan-planned, tap-tapped, hop-hopped

5. 兩個音節以上且重音在最後一個音節的動詞,字尾發音為短母音加子音時,也需重複字尾加ed。

admit-admitted, prefer-preferred, omit-omitted, occur-occurred

規則動詞的過去分詞發音的變化也與過去簡單式的過去變化相同如下:

1. 動詞字尾是無聲子音時,加ed後讀/ t /。無聲子音指的是除了/ t /之外的

/ k /, / f /, / s /, / ʃ/, / tʃ/, /θ / 等。

cook-cooked, laugh-laughed, kiss-kissed, wash-washed, watch-watched

2. 動詞字尾是有聲子音或母音時,加ed後讀/d/。有聲子音指的是除了/ d /之外的/ b /, / g /, / r /, / l /, / m /, / n /, / v / 等。

call-called, rain-rained, love-loved, play-played, try-tried

3. 動詞字尾的發音是/ t /, / d /的發音時,加ed後讀/ɪd /。

want-wanted, need-needed, visit-visited, wait-waited

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/, / aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

把下列動詞改成過去式,並放入正確的字尾ed發音的欄位。

1. clean 打掃  2. cook 做菜  3. want想要 4. invite 邀請 5. listen 聽

6. need 需要  7. relax 放鬆  8. shop 購物   9. study 用功  10. talk 說話

11. visit 拜訪  12. wait  等待 13. play玩  14. watch 看  15. cry 哭泣

/t/
/d/
/ɪd/

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.7

原型V1 過去式V2 過去分詞V3 現在分詞V-ing
1. be 是2. buy 買

3. come 來

4. do 做

5. drink 喝

6. drive 開車

7. eat 吃

8. find 找

9. fly 飛

10. forget忘記

11. get 拿

12. give 給

13. go 去

14. have 有

15. know 知道

16. leave 離開

17. lose 輸,遺失

18. make  做

19. meet 碰面

20. quit戒,辭職

21. read 閱讀

22. ride 騎

23. run 跑

24. see 看

25. sell 賣

26. sing 唱歌

27. sit 坐

28. sleep 睡

29. speak 說

30. spend 花費

31. swim 游泳

32. take 拿

33. think 想

34. wear 穿

35. win 贏

36. write 寫

was/werebought

came

did

drank

drove

ate

found

flew

forgot

got

gave

went

had

knew

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

rode

ran

saw

sold

sang

sat

slept

spoke

spent

swam

took

thought

wore

won

wrote

beenbought

come

done

drunk

driven

eaten

found

flown

forgotten

gotten

given

gone

had

known

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

ridden

run

seen

sold

sung

sat

slept

spoken

spent

swum

taken

thought

worn

won

written

beingbuying

coming

doing

drinking

driving

eating

finding

flying

forgetting

getting

giving

going

having

knowing

leaving

losing

making

meeting

quitting

reading

riding

running

seeing

selling

singing

sitting

sleeping

speaking

spending

swimming

taking

thinking

wearing

winning

writing

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.8

B.  現在完成式與過去簡單式的不同

a. 比較

現在完成式Present Perfect 過去簡單式Simple Pas
  1. 用來表達過去某個時間開始的事情,持續到現在,可能持續到未來。

I have lived in Taipei for 20 years.

2. 用來表達發生在過去不特定時間發生的事情。強調與現在之間的關係。

They have decided to get married.

He has been to Japan twice.

3. 用來表達事情發生在一段期間內,而這期間還沒有結束。

I have read two books today.

  1. 用來表達過去發生的某件事情,在過去已經結束了。

I lived in Sydney for 2 years.

2. 用來表達過去特定時間發生的事情。強調過去的時間。

They decided to get married last night.

He was in Japan last year.

3. 用來表達事情發生在一段期間內,而這期間已經結束。

I read two books last night.

b . 使用

我們常用現在完成式來表達生活中的經驗。

I have been to Japan three times.

用過去簡單式來說明某件事發生確切時間。

I went to Japan last year.

所以我們問經驗的時候會先用現在完成式來問,回答也用現在完成式。但是接下來的問題會用過去式來得到其他更詳盡的資料,而回答時也用過去式。

A: Have you been to Japan?

B: Yes, I’ve been to Japan twice.

A: Really. When was the last time you went to Japan?

B: I went there last May. I went to Hokkaido.

A: How did you like it?

B: I loved it. It was beautiful and people are very friendly.

 

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.9

C.  現在完成式與過去簡單式的不同

b. 根據括號內提示的動詞,用現在完成式或過去簡單式完成句子

1

A: _______ you ever _________ anyone famous? (meet)

B: Yes, I ______, actually.  When I ______ in Mexico on vacation. (be)

A: Really? Who _____ you ______ ? (meet)

B: Michael Jackson. He _____ in the same restaurant as me. (be)

2.

A: ________ you ever ________ a diary? (write)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ one when I was a teenager. (write)

A: ________ you ________ it every day? (write)

B: No, I _________. Only when I ______ on holiday. (be)

3.

A: ________ you ever _______ to France? (go)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ there six years ago. (go)

A: Where ______ you _______ ? (stay)

B: I _______ an apartment near Bordeaux. (rent)

4.

A: ______ your mother ever _____ to a rock concert? (go)

B: Yes, she _____. She _______to one or two when she was young. (go)

A: Who _____ she _______? (see)

B: Well, I know she _____ David Bowie before he ______famous. (see,

become)

5.

A: ______ you ever _____ to play an instrument? (learn)

B: No, I ________. What about you?

A: Well, I _____ to learn the piano at school. (try)

B: ______ you any good? (be)

A: No, I ______ no idea what I was doing! (have)

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.10

D.  現在完成進行式

一、現在完成進行式的使用時機

1. 我們用現在完成進行式來表達某件事情或某個動作在過去開始,持續了一段

時間到現在,這個狀況還沒結束,很可能會持續到未來。

I have been waiting here for thirty minutes.

They have been sitting in class since 8 o’clock.

2. 我們用現在完成進行事來表達某件事情或動作剛剛結束,現在沒有發生,但

是可以看到一些動作的結果。

The kids have been playing here. Their toys are all over the room.

It’s been raining. The streets are still wet.

 

二、現在完成進行式的句型為:主詞+have/has+been+現在分詞(V-ing)

1. 肯定句S + have/has + been + V-ing

S   +  have/has  +  been  + V-ing

I      have been living here since I was born.

They   have been swimming.

She    has been working all day.

2. 否定句在助動詞have/has後面加not

S  +  haven’t/hasn’t + been + V-ing

I      haven’t been studying.

You     haven’t been making any progress.

He      hasn’t been waiting.

3. Yes/No 問句把助動詞have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has + S + been + V-ing

Have      you  been running?

Have      they been touring the U.S.?

Has        he  been writing his essay?

4.WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH            have/has    +   S    +   been + V-ing

How long         have          you       been waiting?

Who             has           she       been talking to?

How many people  have                     been standing in line?

三、現在完成進行式的副詞如:all day, all morning, today 等。也常跟介系詞for與since連用…等。

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.11

E.  現在完成式與現在完成進行式的不同

現在完成式Present Perfect 現在完成進行式Present Perfect Progressive
  1. 用來表達過去不特定期間發生的事情,動作已經結束,但是結果跟現在有關。強調結果。

I’ve read a book.

(I finished the book.)

She’s written an article.

(She finished the article.)

2. 用來表達完成了多少how much,做過多少次how many times,做了多少事情how many things。

I’ve read a lot about it.

I’ve been to Africa twice.

She’s written three articles.

3. 某些動詞用現在完成式與現在完成進行式表達的意義基本上是相同的。這些動詞是用來表達常態性,習慣性的活動,如:live, work, teach, study, smoke, play, wear glasses, read等等。

She’s studied pandas for two years.

I have lived here for ten years.

  1. 用來表達過去發生的事情,這動作還沒有結束,可能持續到未來。強調的是動作的持續。

I’ve been reading a book.

(I’m still reading it.)

She’s been writing an article. (She’s still writing it.)

2. 用來表達某件事情發生了多久

I’ve been reading books on pandas for two months.

3. 某些動詞用現在完成式與現在完成進行式表達的意義基本上是相同的。這些動詞是用來表達常態性,習慣性的活動,如:live, work, teach, study, smoke, play, wear glasses, read等等。

She’s been studying pandas for two years.

I’ve been living here for ten years.

Complete the conversations. 用現在完成式或現在完成進行式來完成句子

A: What are you doing, Trevor? (1) ___________ (you/be) in here for ages.

You’re making an awful mess.

B: (2) _________________ (I/clean) out this cupboard most of the afternoon.

There’s a lot of old stuff in here. (3) ______________ (I/find) these, look.

A: (4) ________________ (you/sit) there staring at those old boots for the

last five minutes. (5) _____________ (I/watch) you. (6) _____________

(you/be) in a dream.

A: They’re football boots. (7) _____________ (I/have) them since I was about

sixteen. (8) ________________ (they/be) in here for years.

A: Well, throw them away. And what about that tennis racket? Is that yours?

B: No, it must be yours. (9) ________________ (I/never/have) a tennis racket.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.12

F.  過去完成式

一、過去完成式的使用時機

1. 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生

在過去某個時間點前。

By 1960 most of Britain’s old colonies had become independent.

2. 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

I went to the box office at lunch-time, but they had already sold al the

tickets.

3. 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連

句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The bus had left before he got there.

The bus left before he got there.

二、過去完成式的句型為:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

1. 肯定句句型:S + had + V3

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished.

2. 否定句句型:S + had + not + V3

They hadn’t gone home until late.

3. Yes/No 問句句型:Had + S + V3?

Had he enjoyed the party?

4. WH 問句句型: WH + had + S + V3?

Where had he put his wallet?

G. 時態比較

句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1. When John arrived, they had diner. 當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.) 約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2. When John arrived, they were having dinner.當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3. When John arrived, they had had dinner. 當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.) 在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4. When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。

5. When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I miss the beginning.

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開始。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.13

G.  Add a sentence with the Past Perfect using the notes.

Claire looked very suntanned when I saw her last week.

She had just been on holiday. (just/be on holiday)

1. We rushed to the station, but we were too late.

______________________________ (the train/just/go)

2. I didn’t have an umbrella, but that didn’t matter.

______________________________ (the rain/stop)

3. When I got to the concert hall, they wouldn’t let me in.

______________________________ (forget/my ticket)

4. Someone got the number of the car the raiders used.

______________________________ (steal/it/a week before)

5. I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday.

______________________________ (not see/her/for ages)

6. Luckily the flat didn’t look too bad when my parents called in.

______________________________ (just/clean/it)

7. The boss invited me to lunch yesterday, but I had to refuse the invitation.

______________________________ (already/eat/my sandwiches)

H. 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的時態完成句子。

  1. I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).
  2. Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.
  3. We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.
  4. I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.
  5. It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.
  6. They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.
  7. I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ a lot in 20 years.
  8. The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.14

Answer Key

A. 一、

1.

a.

1. for  2. since  3. since  4. for  5. since  6. since

b.

1. I have studied at this school for three months.

2. I have know my best friend since college.

3. They have been married for over 30 years.

4. I have had my current hairstyle since this spring.

5. I have had my cell phone since last September.

6. I have been up for 12 hours.

2.

a.

1. Have you decided which one to buy yet?

2. I have already explained this to you three times.

3. Their baby son has already started talking.

4. Have you phoned Jane yet?

5. The game has not finished yet.

6. I have already had lunch.

7. He has already spent all his money.

b.

1. haven’t read

2. have lost

3. have booked

4. has not happened

5. Have you replied

6. It has just started

7. She has just finished

8. I have just sold

四、

/t/ cooked, relaxed, shopped, talked, watched
/d/ cleaned, listened, studied, played, cried
/ɪd/ wanted, invited, needed, visited, waited

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.15

C.

b.

1. Have, met, have, was, did, meet, was

2. Have, written, have, wrote, Did, write, didn’t, was

3. Have, been, have, went, did, stay, rented

4. Has, been, has, went, did, see, saw, became

5. Have, learned, haven’t, tried, Were, had

E.

(1) You have been

(2) I have been cleaning

(3) I have found

(4) You have been sitting

(5) I have been watching

(6) You have been

(7) I have had

(8) They have been

(9) I have never had

G.

  1. The train had just gone.
  2. The rain had stopped.
  3. I had forgotten my ticket.
  4. They had stolen it a week before.
  5. I hadn’t seen her in ages.
  6. I had just cleaned it.
  7. I had already eaten my sandwiches.

 

H.

1. called, had broken down

2. beat, was winning, scored

3. arrived, had finished, were sitting

4. ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5. started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6. were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7. didn’t recognize, had changed

8. had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing