現在式與過去式什麼時候用 do does / did 造問句 什麼時候用 am is are / was were 造問句

因為蠻多人都會弄不清楚什麼時候用 do does 造問句,什麼時候用 am is are 造問句。做成影片,希望有解釋的比較清楚,後面也有過去式,規則是一樣的,可以看完影片或文字解釋後,自己做練習題,全部做完再對答案,看自己懂了沒。有其他問題可以參考潔西家的文法連結整理,也可以留言問潔西。

簡言之:

英文的句子,每個句子都要有一個主詞跟一個動詞。要把句子改成否定句或疑問句時都需要助動詞來幫忙。怎麼樣找適當的助動詞呢?

第一:先辨別句子的時態,找出句子的動詞,現在簡單式的句子有兩種句型,可能是用一般動詞 1. He comes from Taipei. 或be動詞 2. He is from Taipei. 現在進行式的句型 3. He is working.  這三個句子的動詞分別是 comes, is, is working。

第二:當句子本身有助動詞時,直接在助動詞後面加not造否定句,把助動詞放到主詞前面造問句,因為be動詞本身就是助動詞,所以改問句時2跟3句就直接改成 2. Is he from Taipei?  3. Is he working?

第三:當句子本身沒有助動詞時,必須要依照時態與主詞的不同找一個助動詞來幫忙,在助動詞後面加not改否定,把助動詞放到主詞前面早問句。現在簡單式的助動詞是do/does,第三人稱單數時用does。所以第一句的疑問句就會是 Does he come from Taipei?

還是不清楚的可以看下面的影片或下面更詳細的每個時態的句型,會比較有清楚的概念

最前面簡單說明一下:

現在簡單式最簡單的辨識方式是看句子裡面有沒有 be 動詞,有 be 動詞的話就用 am, is, are 造問句

I am late.  — Am I late?

He is busy. — Is he busy?

They are at home. — Are they at home?

.

現在簡單式的句子裡面沒有 be 動詞時,一定就是一般動詞的句子,就需要用 do, does 造問句

They walk home. — Do they walk home?

He plays basketball every day. — Does he play basketball every day?

.

現在進行式的句型就是 be + V-ing ,所以一定有 be 動詞,就用 be 造問句。

I am dreaming. — Am I dreaming?

She is cooking. — Is she cooking?

They are swimming. — Are they swimming?

.

Do/Does/Am/Is/Are/Did/Was/Were 用法大解說

A 助動詞DO/DOES與AM/IS/ARE 造問句時的用法與區別

He is at work.              現在簡單式

He works from 9 to 5.   現在簡單式

He is working.              現在進行式

英文造問句與改否定的時候都需要一個助動詞,這個助動詞依主詞,表達的時態,表達的語態會有所不同。造問句的時候要把助動詞放到主詞前面,造否定把 not 放到助動詞後面。 要決定用 do/does 還是 am/is/are 造問句,首先要看句子本身有沒有一般動詞,如果有一般動詞就用 do/does,沒有的話就用 am/is/are。再來看人稱,再決定用的是 do 或 does,是 am, is, 還是are。

現在簡單式

用來表達經常性的動作,習慣跟事實。句型可分兩種,有一般動詞的句子,跟 be 動詞的句子。句子裡有一般動詞的時候,用 do 或 does 造問句。句子裡沒有一般動詞,而是 be 動詞 am, is, are 的時候,就用 am, is, are 來造問句。

這邊要特別注意的是學英文的時候記單字要記得連單字的詞性一起記。這樣才能分辨句子中有沒有動詞,才知道要要用哪個助動詞造問句。比方說中文的我很忙。我很累。忙跟累感覺都是動詞。但是在英文常用的單字是 busy , tired 這兩個字都是形容詞,所以問你忙嗎?會是 Are you busy? 而不會是 Do you busy?(X) 這個錯誤的句子。問你喝咖啡嗎?因為喝 drink 是動詞,所以會是 Do you drink coffee? 而不會是 Are you drink coffee?(X) 這個錯誤的句子。

a 一般動詞的句型:

有一般動詞的句子,肯定句是用主詞加動詞原型,但是第三人稱單數 he, she, it 或者任何可以用這三個代名詞代替的名詞,比方說 my father = he, his girlfriend = she, the dog = it ,這些第三人稱單數名詞後面的動詞要加 s 或 es,比方說 works, watches。在改否定的時候第三人稱單數用 does + not = doesn’t ,不是第三人稱單數的名詞就用 do + not = don’t 。造問句時把 do 跟 does 放到主詞的前面,在助動詞 do, does 的後面加的動詞都是動詞原型。

肯定句:主詞+動詞原型 (第三人稱單數加s)

S      +     V1

I           work.

You     work.

We      work.

They   work.

He      works.

She    works.

It         works.

.

否定句:主詞+助動詞 do/does+not +動詞原型 (第三人稱單數用 does)

S      +    do/does + not + V1

I                do            not   work.

You          do            not   work.

We           do            not   work.

They        do            not  work.

He            does       not   work.

She          does        not   work.

It              does        not    work.

.

Yes/No 問句: Do/Does + 主詞+動詞原型?

Do/Does   +  S  + V1

Do                   I    work?

Do               you   work?

Do                 we   work?

Do              they   work?

Does              he   work?

Does             she  work?

Does               it   work?

.

WH 問句: WH  + do/does + 主詞+動詞原型?

WH    +    do/does   +   S   +  V1?

Where          do              I        work?

Where          do             you    work?

Where          do             we      work?

Where        does            he      work?

Where        does           she      work?

Where        does            it      work?

PS: 因為想要讓大家清楚的看到每個助動詞,所以連 I 都放進問句,句子有點怪,我在哪裡工作?通常不會這樣問,不過為了容易懂所以就直接這用造問句。下面的一些例句也是一樣,都是為了統一巨型,所以有些語意會有點怪,請見諒。

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b BE動詞的句型

BE動詞的句型,就是簡單式的句子中沒有一般動詞,只有名詞,有形容詞,介系詞片語時,會有 be 動詞來當句子的動詞。主詞是 I 時 be動詞為 am,主詞是 you, we, they 或任何可以用這個字代替的代名詞如 my friends and I=we, Tom and Mary = they 用的be動詞是 are ,主詞是 he, she, it 或任何可以用這三個字代替的如 Tom = he, Mary = she, my job = it 時用的 be 動詞是 is。改否定句的時候在 am, is, are 後面加 not 就可以了。改疑問句的時候把 am, is, are 放到主詞前面造問句就可以了。

肯定句 :主詞+ am/is/are +名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

S   +    am/is/are  +   noun/adjective/preposition phrase

I               am                 a teacher.

You         are                 happy.

We          are                 happy.

They       are                 happy.

He            is                   at home.

She          is                   at home.

It              is                   at home.

.

否定句:主詞+ am/is/are +not + 名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

S   +    am/is/are   +   not   +  noun/adjective/preposition phrase

I               am                 not      a teacher.

You         are                 not      happy.

We          are                 not     happy.

They       are                 not     happy.

He            is                   not     at home.

She          is                   not     at home.

It              is                   not     at home.

.

Yes/No 問句: Am/Is/Are +主詞+ + 名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語?

Am/Is/Are   +    S    +    noun/adjective/preposition phrase?

Am                      I             a teacher?

Are                   you          happy?

Are                   we            happy?

Are                  they          happy?

Is                      he             at home?

Is                    she             at home?

Is                      it               at home?

.

WH 問句: WH + am/is/are +主詞+  ?

WH      +    am/is/are    +    S    +   ?

What             am                   I ?

Where          are                    you?

Where          are                   we?

Where          are                   they?

How               is                    he?

How               is                    she?

How               is                      it?

.

2 現在進行式

現在進行式用來表示現在正在進行的動作,短期間發生的動作,或表示未來安排好的事件。句型是主詞加上 be 動詞再加上現在分詞。因為句子本身就有 be 動詞 am, is, are,所以造否定句的時候就在 be 動詞後面加 not,改問句時就把 be 動詞放到主詞前面就可以。

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肯定句:主詞 + am/is/are +現在分詞

S    +    am/is/are    +     V-ing

I                 am                  cooking.

You           are                  singing.

We            are                  singing.

They         are                  singing.

He              is                    sleeping.

She            is                    sleeping.

It                is                    sleeping.

.

否定句:主詞 + am/is/are + not + 現在分詞

S    +    am/is/are  +   not    +     V-ing

I                 am              not           cooking.

You           are              not           singing.

We            are              not           singing.

They         are             not            singing.

He              is               not           sleeping.

She            is               not           sleeping.

It                is               not           sleeping.

.

Yes/No 問句:Am/Is/Are  + 主詞 +現在分詞?

Am/Is/Are    +        S       +    V-ing?

Am                            I              cooking?

Are                         you            singing?

Are                          we            singing?

Are                        they           singing?

Is                             he             sleeping?

Is                            she            sleeping?

Is                              it              sleeping?

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WH問句  + am/is/are  + 主詞 +現在分詞?

WH    +    am/is/are    +     S      +    V-ing?

What           am                    I              doing?

Where         are                  you          going?

Where         are                   we           going?

Where         are                  they         going?

How              is                     he            doing?

How              is                     she          doing?

How              is                       it            doing?

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B 過去式也是如此推斷,過去簡單一般動詞的句子就用 did 造問句跟否定,有 be 動詞時就用 was/were 造問句跟否定。過去進行式用 was/were 造問句跟否定。 總之呢,每個時態造問句跟否定都需要用助動詞來幫忙,所以要造問句時,首先要找出句子的助動詞,只有現在簡單或過去簡單會有本身沒有助動詞只有一般動詞的句子,這時候用 do, does, did 造問句,而其他時態,比方說現在完成式用 have/has 造問句。過去完成式用 had 造問句。未來式用 am/is/are 或 will 造問句。不同語態就用不同的助動詞如:would, could, can, may, …等來造問句

如何用正確的助動詞 am/is/are或do/does 造問句

a

可以先看句子裡面有沒有一般動詞,比方說第三句,有 use 這個一般動詞,再看主詞,主詞為 you,所以用 do 造問句:Do you use a computer every day? 假如像第四句,有一般動詞smoke,主詞是第三人稱單數 your brother,則用 does 造問句。Does your brother smoke?

b

句子裡面假如沒有一般動詞,但是有形容詞 lazy, hardworking,或者是名詞 a noisy city 等其他詞性,這時候,看主詞不同,用am, is are造問句。you 的 be 動詞是 are,所以第一句是 Are you lazy or hardworking? 第二句主詞 Taipei 就相當於 it,所以 be 動詞用 is,問句為 Is Taipei a noisy city?

c

句子裡面假如有一般動詞,但是後面是加了 ing 的現在分詞,那麼表示是現在進行式,所以要用 be 動詞造問句。如第五句,有現在分詞 living,這時候要用 be 動詞造問句,主詞是 your father,所以相當於 he,用 is 造問句。Is your father living abroad?

d

假如不知道詞性的話,最好的方式是查字典,因為像 tired 累, busy 忙,這種中文感覺像動詞的字在英文其實都是形容詞喔。

e. 最後切記切記,be 動詞 am/is/are本身就是動詞,所以不會跟一般動詞的原形同時出現,絕對不要把他們放在一起啊:)

練習題目:

  1. you / lazy or hardworking
  2. Taipei / a noisy city
  3. you / use the computer every day
  4. your brother / smoke
  5. your father/living abroad (住國外)
  6. your parents/ generous or stingy (大方或小氣)
  7. the weather/ terrible today
  8. you / sleep naked  (裸睡)
  9. your friends / smart
  10. your classmates / sitting now
  11. your mother / work in a bank
  12. your blood type / A  (血型)
  13. you / have a  pet
  14. your classmates / naughty    (淘氣)
  15. Jay Chou / a top model   (名模)
  16. your English teacher / helpful
  17. your shoes / new
  18. your best friend / married
  19. you / a careless person  (粗心大意的人)
  20. you / reading a good book at the moment
  21. your mother / cook dinner for you
  22. President Ma / busy
  23. you / over 18 years old
  24. English / easy or difficult for you
  25.  you / in a good mood today   (好心情)

.

翻譯練習答案

1 Are you lazy or hardworking?

2 Is Taipei a noisy city?

3 Do you use the computer every day?

4 Does your brother smoke?

5 Is your father living abroad?

6 Are your parents generous or stingy?

7 Is the weather terrible today?

8 Do you sleep naked?

9 Are your friends smart?

10 Are your classmates sitting now?

11 Does your mother work in a bank?

12 Is your blood type A?

13 Do you have a pet?

14 Are your classmates naughty?

15 Is Jay Chou a top model?

16 Is your English teacher helpful?

17 Are your shoes new?

18 Is your best friend married?

19 Are you a careless person?

20 Are you reading a good book at the moment?

21 Does your mother cook dinner for you?

22 Is President Ma busy?

23 Are you over 18 years old?

24 Is English easy or difficult for you?

25 Are you in a good mood today?

B 過句簡單式造問句 did 或 was were

Past Tense was/were/did 的用法

英文的句子一定要有主詞跟動詞。

過去簡單式的句型如下

一般動詞                    : S + V2

I got up early this morning.

沒有一般動詞( be 動詞) : S + was/were + 名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

He was worried.

.

1 肯定句:有一般動詞時用動詞的過去式V2

I came to class late.

沒有一般動詞的句子,要有Be2 (was, were)

I was late for class.

.

2 疑問句:有一般動詞用did造問句,動詞改為原型。

Did you come to class late?

沒有一般動詞時,則用 Be2(was, were)造問句。

Were you late for class?

.

過去進行式

1 肯定句:S + was/were + V-ing

She was taking a shower when I called.

2 疑問句:Was/Were + S + V-ing?

Were you taking  a shower when I called?

Was she taking a shower when I called?

I/he/she/it  was + V-ing, You/We/They  were + V-ing.

.

這是個練習的活動,要找到有做這件事的人可以用yes/no問題來問。所以把下面的句子都改成 yes/no 問題,有一般動詞就用 did 造問句,沒有一般動詞,句子就會有 was/were,就用 was/were 造問句。改問句時主詞通通改為 you

比方說

這個句子中有動詞的過去式,所以要用 did 造問句,後面動詞就要變回原型

drank coffee this morning.

Did you drink coffee this morning?

.

下面這個句子裡面有 be 動詞的過去式,因為主詞是 you 所以就用 were 來造問句

was sick last week.

Were you sick last week?

改問句時主詞通通改為 you

Find someone who…

1 took the MRT to school today.

2 was tired when he/she got up this morning.

3 was in class last time.

4 worked overtime last week.

5 chatted online last night.

6 was good at math when he/she was a child.

7 ate out last night.

8 was born in Taipei.

9 was worried last week.

10 went to a wedding last month.

11 posted pictures on Facebook last week.

12 brought more than NT$1,000 with him/her.

13 drank pearl milk tea last month.

14 took a shower this morning.

15 was at home yesterday morning.

16 came to class late today.

.

答案:

1 Did you take the MRT to school today?

2 Were you tired when you got up this morning?

3 Were you in class last time?

4 Did you work overtime last week?

5 Did you chat online last night?

6 Were you good at math when you were a child?

7 Did you eat out last night?

8 Were you born in Taipei?

9 Were you worried last week?

10 Did you go to a wedding last month?

11 Did you post pictures on Facebook last week?

12 Did you bring more than NT$1,000 with you?

13 Did you drink pearl milk tea last month?

14 Did you take a shower this morning?

15 Were you at home yesterday morning.

16 Did you come to class late today?

問題與答案一起

Find someone who…

1 took the MRT to school today.

Did you take the MRT to school today?

2 was tired when he/she got up this morning.

Were you tired when you got up this morning?

3 was in class last time.

Were you in class last time?

4 worked overtime last week.

Did you work overtime last week?

5 chatted online last night.

Did you chat online last night?

6 was good at math when he/she was a child.

Were you good at math when you were a child.

7 ate out last night.

Did you eat out last night?

8 was born in Taipei.

Were you born in Taipei?

9 was worried last week.

Were you worried last week?

10 went to a wedding last month.

Did you go to a wedding last month?

11 posted pictures on Facebook last week.

Did you post pictures on Facebook last week?

12 brought more than NT$1,000 with him/her.

Did you bring more than NT$1,000 with you?

13 drank pearl milk tea last month.    bubble tea

Did you drink pearl milk tea last month?

14 took a shower this morning.

Did you take a shower this morning?

15 was at home yesterday morning.

Were you at home yesterday morning?

16 came to class late today.

Did you come to class late today?

基礎文法 L4發問與連接詞

快要陣亡的潔西今天整理房間跟講義的時候下午在地上昏睡過去,好像連續三天下午昏迷過去,醒來喝個咖啡,八九點又昏睡過去,然後被噩夢驚醒的樣子,全身痠痛,很多部位的關節刺痛,有些部位痛的很厲害,覺得身體好像快要不是自己的了,還外加喉嚨超痛,然後完全沒有力氣。躺了很久睡不著,乾脆起來把堆了一星期的事,學員評估給主管,回信給學生,答應學生的講義答案等等趕一趕。FB還有訊息沒回,平常很安靜的Line,今天突然訊息不斷,明天再看囉。看了沒回過去不去,但這一回又不知何時了。明天一早起來第一件事要去看醫生。

潔西真的覺得自己應該是免疫系統失調的風溼關節炎。從前陣子右腳的大拇指的左側關節處就開始痛,痛了一兩個星期,想說鞋子的關係,不過有一個星期天,跟同學去吃烤肉,喝了兩杯啤酒,天啊,回家痛到一個不行,整個大抽痛,跟針刺一樣。老弟學生都說應該是痛風,還嚇潔西不快去看會很嚴重,所以去看了醫生,抽血。上星期去看報告。醫生說,尿酸沒有過高,免疫系統的檢查也正常,那為什麼痛?醫生解釋說風濕性的關節炎比較不像其他病,抽血就能看肝功能指數,看X光就知道骨頭有沒有斷掉,肺有沒有長東西,需要長期觀察,然後靠徵狀去推斷,所以就是開藥,繼續觀察。

但是潔西吃那個藥都沒效,感覺更嚴重了。剛剛睡覺也不知道是噩夢醒來還是痛醒,可是很妙的是,痛醒的部位現在有點都不痛,然後身上的關節,手腕,指頭,膝蓋,腳踝,甚至剛剛腳底都莫名其妙地在痛,就這兒痛一下,那兒痛一下,有時候大痛,有時候小痛,吃完東西常常就抽痛,覺得不是什麼好預兆,但也不知道要看什麼科,看了過敏風溼關節痛風科,醫生說要觀察。明天去拿英明格順便問醫生好了。上上星期四頭狂痛,遲到。這星期五也痛到世界末日,一直掙扎要不要請假所以這份講義不儘理想,大家就多忍耐。啊,假如有人知道可以看什麼醫生還是要推薦的麻煩告知。

這是配合Azar文法中級課本的第五章的問句跟第八章的連接詞。所以主要是造問句,介紹what, where, when, why, who, which, how等疑問詞的用法。另外有附加問句,潔西改寫了一下,希望有比較清楚。還有表達想同意見的too, so, either, neither的用法。另外連接詞,對等連接詞,從屬連接詞的用法。

這一課潔西先復習了前面說過的時態,因為時態不熟的話,問句根本造不出來。熟了時態,接下來造問句就只要把助動詞放到主詞前面,wh問句再把wh疑問詞放到最前面就可以了。裡面潔西用簡單的例子,雖然有時候看起來意思怪怪的sleep是睡覺,動詞,asleep是睡著了,形容詞。用來分開一般動詞跟be動詞的句型。但其實大致上應該是可以理解的。恩,潔西本人,想了很久,寫了很久,希望有一點點讓同學可以比較容易理解那就很開心。最近事情很多,低落心情,不過偶爾看到網友同學的支持與鼓勵都非常感動,給潔西一點力氣繼續撐下去。

文法就是要弄清楚一定要先懂,然後多做題目,了解什麼時候用,多觀察,然後再用出來。加油囉。潔西重新整理,不過有點倉促,有發現不對的地方或錯誤再麻煩跟潔西說,大大感激:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

又上課同學第11頁的第一的第四個句子There weren’t studying, were they? 應該是They weren’t studying, were they?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.1

jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A.  現在簡單式

用來表達事實跟習慣,經常性動作

兩種句型:1. S + V1,   2. S + be1 + noun/adj/prep phrase

  1. 一般動詞句型:主詞+動詞原形(動詞第三人稱單數加s)

造疑問句時,需要do/does這兩個助動詞幫忙,把助動詞放到主詞前面,在助動詞does後的動詞要用原型

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I sleep 8 hours a day.
You sleep 8 hours a day.
He sleeps 8 hours a day.
Yes/No問句 Do I sleep 8 hours a day?
you sleep 8 hours a day?
Does he sleep 8 hours a day?
WH問句 How many hours a day do I sleep?
How many hours a day do you sleep?
How many hours a day does he sleep?
Who sleeps 8 hours a day?

2.be動詞句型:主詞+現在式be動詞(am/is/are)+名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

因為am/is/are本身就可以當助動詞用,疑問句把am/is/are放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I am asleep.
You are asleep.
He is asleep.
Yes/No問句 Am I asleep?
Are you asleep?
Is he asleep?
WH問句 Why am I asleep?
Why are you asleep?
Why is he asleep?
Who is asleep?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.2

B.  現在進行式

用來表達正在進行的動作

句型:S + be1 + V-ing 主詞+現在式be動詞(am/is/are)+現在分詞

因為am/is/are本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把am/is/are放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I am sleeping.
You are sleeping.
He is sleeping.
Yes/No問句 Am I sleeping?
Are you sleeping?
Is he sleeping?
WH問句 Why am I sleeping?
Why are you sleeping?
Why is he sleeping?
Who is sleeping?

C.  現在完成式

用來表過去做的事情,跟現在有關係,但是做那件事的時間不重要,如表達經驗,另外表達過去重複做的動作,跟從過去到現在一直持續的狀態。

句型:S + have/has + V3  主詞+have/has+過去分詞

have/has本身就可以當助動詞,所以疑問句把have/has放到主詞前面即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I have slept for 8 hours.
You have slept for 8 hours.
He has slept for 8 hours.
Yes/No問句 Have I slept for 8 hours?
Have you slept for 8 hours?
Has he slept for 8 hours?
WH問句 How many hours have I slept?
How many hours have you slept?
How many hours has he slept?
Who has slept for 8 hours?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.3

D.  過去簡單式

用來表達過去發生的單一事件,或重複性的動作,但是已經結束。

兩種句型:1. S + V2,   2. S + be2 + noun/adj/prep phrase

  1. 一般動詞句型:主詞+動詞過去式

造疑問句時,需要did這個助動詞幫忙,把助動詞放到主詞前面,在did後面的動詞要用原型。

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I slept 8 hours last night.
You slept 8 hours last night.
He slept. 8 hours last night.
Yes/No問句 Did I sleep 8 hours last night?
Did you sleep 8 hours last night?
Did he sleep 8 hours last night?
WH問句 How many hours did I sleep last night?
How many hours did you sleep last night?
How many hours did he sleep last night?
Who slept 8 hours last night?

2. be動詞句型:主詞+過去式be動詞(was/were)+名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

因為was/were本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把was/were放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I was asleep.
You were asleep.
He was asleep.
Yes/No問句 Was I asleep?
Were you
Was he asleep?
WH問句 Why was I asleep?
Why were you
Why was he asleep?
Who was asleep?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.4

E.  過去進行式

用來表達過去的某個時間點正在進行的動作。

句型:S + be2 + V-ing 主詞+過去式be動詞(was/were)+現在分詞

因為was/were本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把was/were放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I was sleeping at that time.
You were sleeping at that time.
He was sleeping at that time.
Yes/No問句 Was I sleeping at that time?
Were you sleeping at that time?
Was he sleeping at that time?
WH問句 Why was I sleeping at that time?
Why were you sleeping at that time?
Why was he sleeping at that time?
Who was sleeping at that time?

F.  過去完成式

用來表達在過去某時點前發生的事。表達過去發生的兩件事時,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單是來表達。

句型:S + had + V3  主詞+had+過去分詞

have/has本身就可以當助動詞,所以疑問句把have/has放到主詞前面即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I had slept when he came.
You had slept when he came.
He had slept when he came.
Yes/No問句 Had I slept when he came?
Had you slept when he came?
Had he slept when he came?
WH問句 How long had I slept? when he came?
How long had you slept? when he came?
How long had he slept? when he came?
Who had slept when he came.

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.5

G.  未來簡單式

用來表達未來可能發生的事或計劃好的事。

兩種句型:1. S + will + V1   2. S + be1 + going to + V1

  1. will句型:主詞+will+動詞原形

造疑問句時,因為will本身是助動詞,所以需要把will放到主詞前面即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I will sleep soon.
You will sleep soon.
He will sleep soon.
Yes/No問句 Will I sleep soon?
Will you sleep soon?
Will he sleep soon?
WH問句 When will I sleep?
When will you sleep?
When will he sleep?
Who will sleep?

2. be going to 動詞句型:主詞+現在式be動詞(am/is/are)+動詞原形

因為am/is/are本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把am/is/are放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I am going to sleep soon.
You are going to sleep soon.
He is going to sleep soon.
Yes/No問句 Am I going to sleep soon?
Are you going to sleep soon?
Is he going to sleep soon?
WH問句 When am I going to sleep soon?
When are you going to sleep soon?
When is he going to sleep soon?
Who is going to sleep soon?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.6

H.  未來進行式

用來表達未來的某個時間點正在進行的動作。

兩種句型:1. S + will + be + V-ing  2. S + be1 + going to + be + V-ing

  1. will句型:主詞+will+be+現在分詞

造疑問句時,因為will本身是助動詞,所以需要把will放到主詞前面即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I will be sleeping.
You will be sleeping.
He will be sleeping.
Yes/No問句 Will I be sleeping
Will you be sleeping
Will he be sleeping
WH問句 Where will I be sleeping
Where will you be sleeping
Where will he be sleeping
Who will be sleeping

2. be going to 動詞句型:主詞+現在式be動詞(am/is/are)+be+現在分詞

因為am/is/are本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把am/is/are放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I am going to be sleeping.
You are going to be sleeping.
He is going to be sleeping.
Yes/No問句 Am I going to be sleeping?
Are you going to be sleeping?
Is he going to be sleeping?
WH問句 Where am I going to be sleeping?
Where are you going to be sleeping?
Where is he going to be sleeping?
Who is going to be sleeping?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.7

I.  未來完成式

用來表達未來某件事發生在某個時點之前。表達未來發生兩件事,先發生的用未來完成,後發生的用未來簡單式。

兩種句型:1. S + will + have + V3  2. S + be1 + going to + have + V3

  1. will句型:主詞+will+have+過去分詞

造疑問句時,因為will本身是助動詞,所以需要把will放到主詞前面即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I will have slept when he comes.
You will have slept when he comes.
He will have slept when he comes.
Yes/No問句 Will I have slept when he comes?
Will you have slept when he comes?
Will he have slept when he comes?
WH問句 How long will I have slept when he comes?
How long will you have slept when he comes?
How long will he have slept when he comes?
Who will have slept when he comes?

2. be going to動詞句型:主詞+現在式be動詞(am/is/are) going to+have+過去分詞

因為am/is/are本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把am/is/are放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I am going to have slept when he comes.
You are going to have slept when he comes.
He is going to have slept when he comes.
Yes/No問句 Am I going to have slept when he comes?
Are you going to have slept when he comes?
Is he going to have slept when he comes?
WH問句 How long am I going to have slept when he comes?
How long are you going to have slept when he comes?
How long is he going to have slept when he comes?
Who is going to have slept when he comes?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.8

J.  WH 疑問詞用法

1. where用來問地點

Where did he go?  He went home.

2. when用來問時間

what time用來問幾點幾分

When did he leave?  He left five minutes ago.

What time did he leave?  He left at 5.20.

3. why用來問原因

what for也可以用來問原因

how come用來問原因時用的是肯定句的句型

Why did he left? Because he didn’t feel well.

What did he leave for?  He left for a better job.

How come he left? Because nobody talked to him.

4. who可以用來當做問句的主詞,用來問誰,這時候句子用肯定句句型

who也可以用來當問句中的受詞,正式用法用的是whom,但口語多用who

Who took my umbrella?  Mike. /Mike too your umbrella.

Who did you talk to?  I talked to Mike.

5. what可以用來當做問句的主題,用來問什麼,這時候句子用肯定句句型

what也可以用來當問句中的受詞

What happened?  Someone stole Jane’s bag.

What did you talk about?  We talked about movies.

What is your father like?  He’s tall and handsome. He’s friendly.

6. which用來讓人做選擇,有多種可能性時,可以從中作選擇

A: May I borrow a pen from you?

B: Sure. I have tow pens. This pen has black ink. That has red ink.

Which pen do you want?

Which one do you want?

Which do you want?

A: Here’s a photo of my daughter’s class.

B: Very nice. Which one is your daughter?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.9

K.  WH 疑問詞用法

7. what kind of 用來讓人在一個大種類當中,選擇某種特定的種類

What kind of shoes did you buy?  I bought sandals.

What kind of fruit do you like best?  I like strawberries.

8. whose用來詢問誰的。注意不要跟who is混淆

Whose book is this?  It’s John’s book.

Whose are those?  They’re mine.

Whose car did you borrow?  I borrowed Karen’ car.

Who’s that? Mary.

Whose is that?  Mary’s.

9. how的用法非常多,可以用來問如何,問交通工具的方式,how後面可以配合形容詞,副詞問不同的意思。

How did you get here?  I took a bus.

How old are you?  I’m twenty-one.

How tall are you?  I’m one meter 65.

How big is your apartment? It has five rooms.

How sleep are you?  I’m very sleepy.

How hungry are you?  I’m starving.

How soon will you be ready?  I’ll be ready in five minutes.

How quickly can you get here?  I can get here in 30 minutes.

How often do you exercise?  I exercise twice a week.

How many times a day do you eat?  I eat three or four times a day.

How far is it from Taipei to Kaohsiung?  It’s about 400 kilometers.

How far do you live from school?  I live about four blocks from school.

How long does it take to cook rice?  It takes twenty minutes.

How many days will you be in Hong Kong?  I will be there for two weeks.

How do you spell your name?  It’s J-E-S-S-I-E.

How are you getting along?  Great!

How do you feel?  I feel terrific!

How do you like your job? It’s great.

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.10

L.  附加問句 Tag Questions

1. 定義:附加問句就是在句尾,除了主要句子外,有一個含有助動詞的問句。

May is sick, isn’t she?

You didn’t understand, did you?

2. 使用時機:

附加問句常用在

  1. 確認我們認為是真的的資訊。

Tim lives in Hong Kong, doesn’t he?

  1. 對一個狀況表達意見。

It’s a nice day, isn’t it?

3. 句型:

附加問句的句子包含了一個主要句子跟後面的一個附加問句,而這附加問句有“對吧?”這樣的意思。

當主要句子是肯定句時,後面的附加問句就會是否定的。而預期對方的回答是肯定的。

肯定句+否定附加問句

You work on Fridays, don’t you?

He has been to Canada, hasn’t he?

當主要句子是否定句時,後面的附加問句就會是肯定的。而預期對方的回答也是否定的。

否定句+肯定附加問句

They aren’t from Australia, are they?

She didn’t go home, did she?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.11

M. 附加問句 Tag Questions

4. 附加問句的助動詞

附加問句中使用的助動詞依主要子句的時態不同,會使用不同的助動詞。

  1. be動詞:當本身句子有be動詞如am, is, are, was, were時,就直接用這些be動詞來造出適當附加問句。

They are late again, aren’t they?

She is cooking, isn’t she?

He wasn’t at home, was he?

They weren’t studying, were they?

  1. do, does, did:表達現在簡單式,過去簡單式時,肯定句不會出現助動詞,否定會用don’t, doesn’t, didn’t,這時需依時態造出適當的附加問句。

You like to drink coffee, don’t you?

She gets up early, doesn’t she?

They didn’t pay, did they?

You didn’t make it, did you?

  1. have, has, had:表達現在完成式,過去完成式時,分別用have, has, had, haven’t, hasn’t, hadn’t來造附加問句。

You have eaten Thai food, haven’t you?

He hasn’t had the time, has he?

She had lived in New York before she died, hadn’t she?

  1. will:表達未來的時候,可以用will, won’t來造出適當附加問句。

You will tell him, won’t you?

They won’t come, will they?

  1. can, could, should…等情態助動詞也可以依表達的情態,造出適當的富家問句。

Nancy can swim, can’t she?

They shouldn’t do that, should they?

6. 附加問句的代名詞

附加問句只可以用代名詞來表示前面主要子句的名詞。假如主詞是this, that時,附加子句的主詞只可以用it。假如主要子句中是I am的句型時,附加問句要用aren’t I?  I’m next, aren’t I?

Tom works here, doesn’t he?   Tom works here, doesn’t Tom?

That’s good news, isn’t it?    That’s good news, isn’t that?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.12

M.附加問句 Tag Questions

7. 附加問句的語調

  1. 下降:當附加問句用來確認資訊,給予評論時,假如說話的人覺得聽的人應該是會認同他的想法時,語調會往下。與其說在問對方,不如是說尋求對方的認同,告訴他這個想法。

A: It’s getting warmer, isn’t it?  B: Yeah. Seems more like summer.

  1. 上揚:附加問句可以像yes/no問句一樣用來問對方問題,在句尾語調往上,說話的人會期待回答的人給一個yes或no的答案。也可以用在說話者心中有個想法,但想要確認是否正確。

A: You’re not moving, are you? B: Yes. We’re returning to L.A.

or  B: No. We’re staying here.

N. Too, so, either, neither

中文表達對肯定句的贊同與否定句的同樣不贊同都是用“也”,英文的用法卻有不同,同為肯定時用too, so, 兩者皆為否定時用either, neither。

   We can use so or too to agree with a positive statement.

表達對一個肯定句有相同的看法,贊同時可用下列句型。

S=subject 主詞  A= Auxiliary Verb 助動詞

Me too. = S + A, too. = So + A + S.

A: I love Taiwanese food.

B: Me too. / I do, too. / So do I.

A; I have eaten Mexican food.

B: Me too. / I have, too. / So have I.

We can use either or neither to disagree with a negative statement.

表達對一個否定句有同樣否定看法,不贊同時可用下列句型。

Me neither. = S+ A + not either. = Neither + A + S.

A: I’m not in the mood for Japanese food.

B: Me neither. / I’m not either. / Neither am I.

A: I can’t eat spicy food.

B: Me neither. / I can’t either. / Neither can I.

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.13

O. 句子的種類 types of sentences   

D. 文章的元素

letter    字母   b             英文有二十六個"字母"

word     單字   book          一個或一個以上的字母組合就形成單字

phrase   片語   English book   兩個以上的單字可形成片語,有動詞、名詞、

形容詞與副詞片語。

clause    子句   Because I love English

一個句子有一組主詞與動詞與其他必要部分就叫一個子句,

子句的語意不完整時叫非獨立子句。

sentence  句子  This is an English book.

一個子句的語意完整時叫獨立子句,可以自己成為一個句子。

Because I love English, I became an English teacher.

一個非獨立子句可以跟一個獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

三種子句

1. noun clause 名詞子句        Everyone knows that I love beef.

2. adjective clause 形容詞子句 My sister who lives in Canada loves beef.

3. adverb clause 副詞子句     Although I love beef, I hate pork.

paragraph 段落  幾個句子就形成一個段落。每個段落都有一個主旨,短的段落可能只有一句,長的可以到十句或更多。常見的段落模式如下

topic sentence       主題句,用來說明段落大意

supporting sentences 支持句,用來闡述說明主題

concluding sentence  結論句,用來結尾

essay     文章   幾個有組織的段落就形成一篇文章

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.14

O. 句子的種類 types of sentences   

E. 四個句子的種類

1. simple sentences 簡單句

I love beef.

2. compound sentences 並和句

I love beef, but I hate pork.

3. complex sentences 複合句

Although I love beef, I hate pork.

4.compound-complex sentences 混合句

My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a day.

1. 簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,

但整體視為一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

2. 並合句是由對等連接詞(and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet)將兩個獨立子句連接

而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.

3. 複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(如because, although, when,

before等)所帶領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。可能包

含了一個名詞子句,或形容詞子句,或副詞子句。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

I can’t believe she is only 17.

4. 混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句而形

成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did

nothing.

 

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.15

轉折語Transitional signals                                     

  1. 1.  對等詞 coordinators
  2. 對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個,可用fanboys來記:  and, but, so, or, nor, for, yet
  3. b.  配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 有五個:

both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor,

whether … or。

這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

Would you rather take a written or an oral exam?

The system is not only complicated but also inefficient.

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句, 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

S + V, CC S + V.

I was feeling hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

  1. 2.  從屬詞subordinator

從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction 是帶領副詞子句的連接詞,如although, when, while, before, after, because, if, as, 等。

它會放在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

SC + S + V, S + V.     or    S + V + SC + S + V.

Because I was feeling hungry, I made myself a sandwich.

I made myself a sandwich because I was hungry.

  1. 3.  轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

S + V; CA, S + V.       or    S + V. CA, S + V.

I was feeling hungry; therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. Therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. I made myself a sandwich, therefore.

I was feeling hungry. I, therefore, made myself a sandwich.

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.18

Answer Key 解答

P.16 Worksheet 37A: What’s the question 2?

  1. What did John watch?
  2. Where did Mary study?
  3. Who(m) was she talking to?
  4. When did the move begin?
  5. Why did Ali go to the dentist?
  6. How much did your watch cost?
  7. What did you buy?
  8. Why did they miss the party?
  9. When are you going to the zoo?
  10. What did Akiko see last night?

P.17 Worksheet 37B: What’s the questions 2?

1. What did Jeremy play?

2. Where did Jose ride his bike?

3. Who were you writing a letter to?

4. When does class begin?

5. Why did Ken stay home last night.

6. How many sisters does Kenji have?

7. How much did you spend on gifts for your family?

8. Why were your parents angry?

9. When is Mohammed going to visit you?

10. What did Yuko buy at the mall?

 

P.18 Worksheet 36: Board Game 造出格子中的答案的問句。也就是想想怎麼樣的狀況問題,對方會回答格子中的句子。可以好好回答,也可以發揮想象力,潔西有幾個搞笑一下,可以寫很正常的啦,答案可能有不同的,每題只列一個。

2. When is your rent due?

3. What happened?

4. Why did you walk home?

5. Where does your sister live?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.19

P.18 Worksheet 36: Board Game

6. What did you do last weekend?

7. Where were you this morning?

8. Why are you looking at me like that?

9. Why are you going to Disneyland?

10. What do you do in your free time?

11. What are you going to do tomorrow?

12. What’s the matter?

13. How many pets do you have?

14. What’s your best friend’s name?

15. Why aren’t you happy?

16. Why is the little boy crying?

17. What are you worried about?

18. Why don’t you live with your family?

19. What animals do you like best?

20. What did she do?

21. Who is she?

22. Is that your brother? Why does he look like your father?

23. Who do you look like in your family?

24. Why didn’t he go on the ski trip?

25. Why did you buy new shoes?

26. What did the man do to you?

27. What’s that sound?

28. Why is the floor wet?

29. When will you graduate?

30. When are you free?

31. What did you buy?

32. What’s wrong with you?

33. Whose book is this?

34. Why did you go out with that playboy?