寫作文法二:用連接詞來連接句子

 

 

 

連接詞的用法

 

快要死掉的潔西不想再繼續躺床上,因為還是蠻生氣的,所以繼續整理寫作時講到的連接詞的部分。fanboys 對等連接詞,for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 這些還好,但是關係連結詞 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor ,只要看到學生的文章出現後面這個關係連接詞頭就很痛,說百分之八十會用錯應該不誇張。

 

因為潔西教的都是比較初級的學生,當然還是有很好的程度的人蠻麻煩就不要對號入座說,老師我明明就沒寫錯,你怎麼可以這樣說我,哈哈。一樣前面廢文後面正文,另外還有不少的練習,文法跟寫作真的就是要清楚用法後,多做練習,多去看母語使用者用在哪裡,然後自己練習出來才能學起來。文法是語言的整理,不是先有文法才有語言的。所以不用死記文法,背了一堆規則卻不知道該用在哪或用錯。然後看到聽到跟上課老師講的文法不一樣的句子也不用太意外,語言是活的跟人一樣,聽歌聽多就知道了,就像沒有所有的人的國語都百分之百正確,說的標準,用字正確一樣的意思。

 

潔西很生氣的主要原因是今天是小寶的畢業典禮,然後潔西調了很多個鬧鐘因為早上八點要到,順便插話,畢業典禮為什麼都要在一早?整死誰啊?反正結果就是鬧鐘一直被潔西按掉,然後頭還大痛,想說再睡一下好了,再次醒來九點半,訊息問老姐,她說畢業典禮已經結束,在拍照,不用過去了。唉!大寶的畢業典禮那天也是頭痛到爆。畢業典禮症候群?頭痛已經很習慣了,但是像今天這樣這麼生氣還是第一次。氣自己還是氣偏頭痛啊?唉。

 

昨天才去跟醫生討論頭痛的問題,醫生有介紹另外一個醫生,潔西預掛幾個星期後,居然還 93 號,早上的門診 93號是要看到幾點?要幾點去啊?昨天其實頭好壯壯,下午看醫生,晚上跟同學吃飯,中間那段期間就去信義誠品混,研究學生教潔西的放空,找個地方坐下來,找本書,翻一翻就整個放空,本來帶了講義想說可以準備,但是覺得累,不想思考,就發呆發呆什麼都不想,還挺舒服的,能什麼都不想就腦袋一片空白也不錯,但是也不容易,對潔西這種人而言。時間也過得很快。晚上跟同學吃很久很想吃一直沒吃的泰國菜。四個人叫了七道菜再加上甜點,吃超飽,真好,難得食慾這麼好,最近都亂吃,也吃不下,常常水果就一餐,蛋糕也可以是一餐。

 

晚上回家不知為何超累,可能是因為星期六上課,星期天上課,星期天上課完後又去聽演奏會,星期一起床後還沒整理到前幾天的一團混亂又出門鬼混。而且回到家突然心情很差,最近不太想看新聞, Orlando Massacre 美國奧蘭多的大屠殺,有的是用 Shooting ,潔西覺得 Massacre 才貼切,49人死亡,53人受傷,潔西剛剛刷FB不小心看到很喜歡的 CNN 記者 Anderson Cooper 在報導相關新聞,第一句話就說他不打算說槍手的名字跟相關訊息,已經被報導的太多了,看過十一季,每季二十多集的犯罪心理美國影集的潔西完全明白他的意思。有不少的人做這樣的事只是想要出名留名,潔西看了這種新聞除了傷心外又生氣,唉,不想談這部分,最近還是遠離新聞比較好些。

 

突然想到前些日子寫的夜店迷思,更難過。潔西還去過一些 gay bar ,先前也寫過,去 foam party 泡泡派對的時候,在舞池旁的超好的帥哥同志還會幫潔西把沾在臉上的泡泡抹掉。有些無知的人又要攻擊去什麼夜店,跑什麼 gay bar ,對某些特定的族群的歧視跟種族的對立就是因為無知的人被利用被煽動,自以為做了正確的事,整個世界才會越來越糟。波斯頓馬拉松受到攻擊的人跟這些在 gay bar 被殺害的人有什麼不同呢?都是人生父母養的孩子啊!又要掉眼淚了。覺得學好英文多出去旅遊多看看世界開拓一下自己的心胸跟視野,當宅男宅女沒什麼不好,但是自己的思考模式價值觀是不是被媒體被特殊的人影響,有沒有在某個不知道的地方偏差掉了?好好用自己的腦子想想,大腦不用也會生鏽的啊!
回來偏頭痛,其實偏頭痛有時候有跡可循,有時候一整個莫名其妙,氣壓的變化已經是有被證實也會影響,所以就很怕突然好天氣突然下雨,一下冷一下熱這種天氣,醫生都知道這種時候病人就會多起來。然後潔西吃藥後的狀況也是時好時壞,頭痛通常會壓下來,只是時間問題,但是有時候吃完藥沒多久又頭好壯壯沒事般,有時候會像今天這樣全身沒力疲憊到不太能動,一整個覺得快要不行了,大概就是只能一直睡。今天一早起來還肩膀酸痛,腰酸背痛,一整個虛到爆。

 

一直睡會更氣,笑了,有時候好氣的?因為就會覺得一事無成啊,所以現在就是躺在椅子上,腳翹在床上跟桌上,把上星期上課的講義再整理分享一下,感覺比較沒有那麼廢,不會對自己那麼生氣。生氣也沒用的事,也不會改變任何事實,能做能改的就去改,對於不能改變的事就是接受,往前進,不用再回頭了,也不用想太多了。只是潔西狀況好的時候就會一直衝,然後完全失智,一直到掉下來,累啊!真的是該來躺一下了。連接詞還真的蠻重要的,用錯語意有時候就錯了。不難,只是容易用錯,尤其是 either … or, nerither … nor 這種。下面講點規則,做做練習應該希望會有點概念。

 

 

英文有八大詞類( the parts of speech)分別是動詞,名詞,代名詞,形容詞,副詞,連接詞,介系詞跟感歎詞。要學好英文,詞性非常重要。學到一個新單字的時候要先注意它的詞性,不同詞性的用法可能不同,適用於不同句型的句子。千萬不可以只是中翻英。

 

其中連接詞 conjunctions可以用來連接單字 (words)、片語 (phrases),子句 (clauses)或句子(sentences)。注意連接詞所連接的詞性必須一致。這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號,連接句子的時候則需要逗號。另外應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

 

連接詞可以分下面幾種

 

a 對等連接詞 coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, yet, so

It was raining, but they still went to the park.

 

b 從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunctions: if, before, because, when

Although John was sick, he still went to work.

 

c 關係連接詞 correlative conjunctions: either…or, neither…nor, both…and,

not only…but also

He’s the kind of person you either love or hate.

 

要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。這也是學生最常犯的錯誤之一,用逗號分開兩個獨立的句子,假如兩個句子關係密切可以用 ; 分號,但是絕對不可以用逗號,需要用對等連接詞來合併句子,形成並合句。

 

對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個:常用的是 and, but, so, or 其他還有 nor, for 跟yet。可用fanboys來記:for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 。潔西去紐約的學生放假回來台灣加強補文法,喔,這也是讓潔西印象深刻的同學,潔西幫她上一對一,她說她以為 fanboys 只是美國老師瞎掰,居然連潔西也這麼說,恩,其實寫作書上都有寫啦。

 

對她印象深刻是因為她只放假回來一個月就要回美國去了,所以時間很趕,很難改時間,潔西有一次幫她上一對一頭痛得很厲害,問說可不可以改時間,她沒辦法,所以潔西就撐著頭痛去上課,坐公車到捷運站一下車就吐得亂七八糟。到了補習班上課勉強上到一半又衝去廁所吐,後來真的上不下去不行,跟學生勉強又約了別的時候然後潔西坐計程車回家睡覺了。在文化推廣部上課的時候有一次也是,頭痛到爆,還有半個小時下課就忍不住衝出去教室去廁所狂吐,然後很抱歉地跟學生說下次再補回時間。頭痛真的是沒痛過的人不知道,這種還是不知道比較幸福。 Ignorance is bliss. 無知是種福氣,潔西又濫用成語了。

 

下面是幾個對等連接詞的用法,要記住什麼時候用的是哪一個,不要用錯了喔。

 

For 用來表原因:I am very tired, for I worked very hard today.

And 用來表達同等的概念:I am very tired, and I want to rest for a few minutes.

Nor 用來表達否定的選擇:I am not tired, nor am I hungry right now.

But 用來表達對比:I am tired, but I have no time to rest now.

Or 用來表達選擇:I will take a nap, or I will go out jogging.

Yet 用來表達對比:I will take a nap, yet I am unable to relax.

So 用來表達結果:I am tired, so I will take a nap.

 

Nor 的句子要特別注意的是,nor 本身有否定的意思,就不要再有 not 了,另外 nor 後面的句子要倒裝,就是要把助動詞放到主詞前面。

 

練習一:用對等連接詞 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 把下列句子合併成一個句子。

1 The shepherd has  cooperative flock of sheep.

They will cheerfully donate their wool.

 

2 The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo.

He is appreciated by the bull riders.

 

3 Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today.

You should get in line early.

 

4 Young Billy will surely get first prize in the science fair.

He has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

 

5 The aardvark does not make a good pet.

It gets rid of ants.

 

6 Are you comfortable?

Shall I turn on the air conditioner?

 

7 The couple liked their new house.

They didn’t like the spiders.

 

8 Children should not play with fire.

They should not play with power tools.

 

9 The entire junior class worked on the project.

Every member should be rewarded.

 

10 After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers.

He can’t remember the names to go with them.

 

 

配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 有四個:

both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor

 

這四個真的很致命,因為跟中文不太一樣的用法,很多人位置放錯,詞性用錯,主動詞一致沒用對。先說明他們的用法

 

1 both … and:用來強調就某件事,某個人,某種狀況來說,不光只是一個是真確的對另外

一個也是,也就是兩者皆…的意思

2 not only … but also:用來表達兩件都是真實或發生了的事情,特別是令人感到意外的

3 either … or:用來表達兩個或多個選項之一。或用在假如一件事沒發生,則另外一件事會

發生

4 neither … nor 用來表達兩者皆非,既不…也不…

 

所以要連接的時候就要想說,是要表達兩個都是相同的狀況,用 both … and 或強調的時候也可以用 not only … but also 。而兩個選一個的時候就用 either … or 。只有在要表達兩者皆非,兩個都不是的時候才會用 neither … nor 。

 

這些配對連接詞知道要選用哪一個後,要特別注意的是主動詞的一致。當主詞用這些配對連接詞連用時,both … and …  的動詞要用複數形,其他 not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor  的動詞則取決於動詞靠近的主詞。所以就記 both … and 因為有兩者,所以那個句子的動詞一定是複數形,而其他的三個用法的動詞就取決其靠近動詞的主詞。假如接近動詞的主詞是單數時則用單數的動詞,主詞是複數的時候則用複數動詞。

 

把下面的句子配合規則看過記一下再做下面練習題就會發現,其實也沒有那麼難喔。

 

Both my mother and my sister are here.

Not only my mother but also my sister is here.

Not only my sister but also my parents are here.

Neither my mother nor my sister is here.

Neither my sister nor my parents are here.

Either Mr. Lee or Ms. Lin is going to teach our class today.

 

練習二: a 練習 在空格中填入 is 或 are

1 Both the teacher and the student __________ here.

2 Neither the teacher nor the student __________ here.

3 Not only the teacher but also the student __________ here.

4 Not only the teacher but also the students __________ here.

5 Either the students or the teacher __________ planning to come.

6 Either the teacher or the students __________ planning to come.

7 Both the students and the teachers __________ planning to come.

8 Both the students and the teacher __________ planning to come.

 

 

練習三:b 改錯

1 Either John will call Mary or Bob.

2 Not only Sue saw the mouse but also the cat.

3 Both my mother talked to the teacher and my father.

4 Either Andy or Bobby are going to clean the room.

5 I enjoy not only reading novels but also magazines.

6 Oxygen is plentiful. Both air contains oxygen and water.

 

 

接下來是練習合併兩個句子,幾個重點

1 找出兩個句子的共同點

2 決定應該用的連接詞

3 把連接詞放在對等的字詞片語子句前面,兩邊的詞性一定要一樣

4 注意主動詞的一致,除了 both … and 連接主詞時用複數動詞外,其他的幾個連接主詞時,動詞都要依照接近的那個主詞的單複數一致。

 

不要用看的,真的,文法看不會的,沒有自己實際寫一寫,不會知道錯在哪裡,然後看得懂,要寫的時候卻又寫不出來,注意一下自己的學習方式,怎麼樣才最有效?潔西是聽說打字動感型的,看書看不下去的時候要用念的才會懂,不然就用打字的,看十分鐘可能在同一頁,但是打字或唸出來大概三五分鐘就可以理解,每個人不同,找出適合自己的方法吧!

 

答案都在最後面

 

練習四:c 合併句子

用 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor 來連接或改寫下面的句子

1 He does not have a pen.

He does not have paper.

 

2 Ron enjoys bungee jumping.

Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

 

3 You can have tea, or you can have coffee.

 

4 Jamie is not in class today.

Lucy is not in class today.

 

5 Ken is absent.

David is absent.

 

6 We can fix dinner for them here, or we can take them to a restaurant.

 

7 She wants to buy a Mercedes Benz or she wants to buy a BMW.

 

8 The leopard faces extinction. The tiger faces extinction.

 

9 The library doesn’t have the book I need.

The bookstore doesn’t have the book I need.

 

10 We could fly, or we could take the train.

 

11 The president’s assistant will not confirm the story.

The president’s assistant will not deny the story.

 

12 Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

 

13 Smallpox is a dangerous disease.

Malaria is a dangerous disease.

 

14 Her roommates don’t know where she is.

Her brother doesn’t know where she is.

 

15 According to the news report, it will snow tonight, or it will rain tonight.

 

 

 

 

答案在下面,不要偷看不要偷看不要偷看,很重要,所以要說三次,有空的時候自己練習一下再對答案吧!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

練習一:用對等連接詞 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 把下列句子合併成一個句子。

1 The shepherd has cooperative flock of sheep.

They will cheerfully donate their wool.

The shepherd has cooperative flock of sheep, and they will cheerfully donate their wool.

 

2 The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo.

He is appreciated by the bull riders.

The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo, but he is appreciated by the bull riders.

 

3 Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today.

You should get in line early.

Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today, so you should get in line early.

 

4 Young Billy will surely get first prize in the science fair.

He has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

Young Bill will surely get first prize in the science fair, for he has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

 

5 The aardvark does not make a good pet.

It gets rid of ants.

The aardvark does not make a good pet, yet it gets rid of ants.

 

6 Are you comfortable?

Shall I turn on the air conditioner?

Are you comfortable or shall I turn on the air conditioner?

 

 

7 The couple liked their new house.

They didn’t like the spiders.

The couple liked their new house, but they didn’t like the spiders.

 

8 Children should not play with fire.

They should not play with power tools.

Children should not play with fire, nor should they play with power tools.

 

9 The entire junior class worked on the project.

Every member should be rewarded.

The entire junior class worked on the project , so every remember should be rewarded.

 

10 After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers.

He can’t remember the names to go with them.

After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers, but he can’t remember the names to go with them.

 

 

練習二: a 練習 在空格中填入 is 或 are

1 Both the teacher and the student are here.

 

2 Neither the teacher nor the student is here.

 

3 Not only the teacher but also the student is here.

 

4 Not only the teacher but also the students are here.

 

5 Either the students or the teacher is planning to come.

 

6 Either the teacher or the students are planning to come.

 

7 Both the students and the teachers are planning to come.

 

8 Both the students and the teacher are planning to come.

 

 

 

練習三:b 改錯

1 Either John will call Mary or Bob.

John will call either Mary or Bob.  / Either John or Mary will call Bob.

 

2 Not only Sue saw the mouse but also the cat.

Sue not only saw the mouse but also the cat.

 

3 Both my mother talked to the teacher and my father.

Both my mother and my father talked to the teacher.

 

4 Either Andy or Bobby are going to clean the room.

Either Andy or Bobby is going to clean the room.

 

5 I enjoy not only reading novels but also magazines.

I enjoy not only reading novels but also reading magazines.

 

6 Oxygen is plentiful. Both air contains oxygen and water.

Oxygen is plentiful. Air contains both oxygen and water.

 

 

 

練習四:c 合併句子

用 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor 來連接或改寫下面的句子

1 He does not have a pen.

He does not have paper.

He has neither a pen nor paper.

(He doesn’t not have a pen or paper)

 

2 Ron enjoys bungee jumping.

Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

Both Ron and Bob enjoy bungee jumping.

Not only Ron but also Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

 

3 You can have tea, or you can have coffee.

You can have either tea or coffee.

 

4 Jamie is not in class today.

Lucy is not in class today.

Neither Jamie nor Lucy is in class today.

Not only Jamie but also Lucy is absent.

 

5 Ken is absent.

David is absent.

Both Ken and David are absent.

 

 

6 We can fix dinner for them here, or we can take them to a restaurant.

We can either fix dinner for them here or take them to a restaurant.

 

7 She wants to buy a Mercedes Benz or she wants to buy a BMW.

She wants to buy either a Mercedes Benz or BMW.

 

8 The leopard faces extinction. The tiger faces extinction.

Both the leopard and the tiger face extinction.

 

9 The library doesn’t have the book I need.

The bookstore doesn’t have the book I need.

Neither the library nor the bookstore has the book I need.

 

10 We could fly, or we could take the train.

We could either fly or take the train.

 

11 The president’s assistant will not confirm the story.

The president’s assistant will not deny the story.

The president’s assistant will neither confirm nor deny the story.

 

12 Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Both coal and oil are irreplaceable natural resources.

Not only coal but also oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

 

13 Smallpox is a dangerous disease.

Malaria is a dangerous disease.

Both smallpox and malaria are dangerous diseases.

 

14 Her roommates don’t know where she is.

Her brother doesn’t know where she is.

Neither her roommates nor her brother knows where she is.

 

15 According to the news report, it will snow tonight, or it will rain tonight.

According to the news report, it will either snow or rain tonight.

 

基礎文法 L4發問與連接詞

快要陣亡的潔西今天整理房間跟講義的時候下午在地上昏睡過去,好像連續三天下午昏迷過去,醒來喝個咖啡,八九點又昏睡過去,然後被噩夢驚醒的樣子,全身痠痛,很多部位的關節刺痛,有些部位痛的很厲害,覺得身體好像快要不是自己的了,還外加喉嚨超痛,然後完全沒有力氣。躺了很久睡不著,乾脆起來把堆了一星期的事,學員評估給主管,回信給學生,答應學生的講義答案等等趕一趕。FB還有訊息沒回,平常很安靜的Line,今天突然訊息不斷,明天再看囉。看了沒回過去不去,但這一回又不知何時了。明天一早起來第一件事要去看醫生。

潔西真的覺得自己應該是免疫系統失調的風溼關節炎。從前陣子右腳的大拇指的左側關節處就開始痛,痛了一兩個星期,想說鞋子的關係,不過有一個星期天,跟同學去吃烤肉,喝了兩杯啤酒,天啊,回家痛到一個不行,整個大抽痛,跟針刺一樣。老弟學生都說應該是痛風,還嚇潔西不快去看會很嚴重,所以去看了醫生,抽血。上星期去看報告。醫生說,尿酸沒有過高,免疫系統的檢查也正常,那為什麼痛?醫生解釋說風濕性的關節炎比較不像其他病,抽血就能看肝功能指數,看X光就知道骨頭有沒有斷掉,肺有沒有長東西,需要長期觀察,然後靠徵狀去推斷,所以就是開藥,繼續觀察。

但是潔西吃那個藥都沒效,感覺更嚴重了。剛剛睡覺也不知道是噩夢醒來還是痛醒,可是很妙的是,痛醒的部位現在有點都不痛,然後身上的關節,手腕,指頭,膝蓋,腳踝,甚至剛剛腳底都莫名其妙地在痛,就這兒痛一下,那兒痛一下,有時候大痛,有時候小痛,吃完東西常常就抽痛,覺得不是什麼好預兆,但也不知道要看什麼科,看了過敏風溼關節痛風科,醫生說要觀察。明天去拿英明格順便問醫生好了。上上星期四頭狂痛,遲到。這星期五也痛到世界末日,一直掙扎要不要請假所以這份講義不儘理想,大家就多忍耐。啊,假如有人知道可以看什麼醫生還是要推薦的麻煩告知。

這是配合Azar文法中級課本的第五章的問句跟第八章的連接詞。所以主要是造問句,介紹what, where, when, why, who, which, how等疑問詞的用法。另外有附加問句,潔西改寫了一下,希望有比較清楚。還有表達想同意見的too, so, either, neither的用法。另外連接詞,對等連接詞,從屬連接詞的用法。

這一課潔西先復習了前面說過的時態,因為時態不熟的話,問句根本造不出來。熟了時態,接下來造問句就只要把助動詞放到主詞前面,wh問句再把wh疑問詞放到最前面就可以了。裡面潔西用簡單的例子,雖然有時候看起來意思怪怪的sleep是睡覺,動詞,asleep是睡著了,形容詞。用來分開一般動詞跟be動詞的句型。但其實大致上應該是可以理解的。恩,潔西本人,想了很久,寫了很久,希望有一點點讓同學可以比較容易理解那就很開心。最近事情很多,低落心情,不過偶爾看到網友同學的支持與鼓勵都非常感動,給潔西一點力氣繼續撐下去。

文法就是要弄清楚一定要先懂,然後多做題目,了解什麼時候用,多觀察,然後再用出來。加油囉。潔西重新整理,不過有點倉促,有發現不對的地方或錯誤再麻煩跟潔西說,大大感激:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

又上課同學第11頁的第一的第四個句子There weren’t studying, were they? 應該是They weren’t studying, were they?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.1

jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A.  現在簡單式

用來表達事實跟習慣,經常性動作

兩種句型:1. S + V1,   2. S + be1 + noun/adj/prep phrase

  1. 一般動詞句型:主詞+動詞原形(動詞第三人稱單數加s)

造疑問句時,需要do/does這兩個助動詞幫忙,把助動詞放到主詞前面,在助動詞does後的動詞要用原型

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I sleep 8 hours a day.
You sleep 8 hours a day.
He sleeps 8 hours a day.
Yes/No問句 Do I sleep 8 hours a day?
you sleep 8 hours a day?
Does he sleep 8 hours a day?
WH問句 How many hours a day do I sleep?
How many hours a day do you sleep?
How many hours a day does he sleep?
Who sleeps 8 hours a day?

2.be動詞句型:主詞+現在式be動詞(am/is/are)+名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

因為am/is/are本身就可以當助動詞用,疑問句把am/is/are放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I am asleep.
You are asleep.
He is asleep.
Yes/No問句 Am I asleep?
Are you asleep?
Is he asleep?
WH問句 Why am I asleep?
Why are you asleep?
Why is he asleep?
Who is asleep?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.2

B.  現在進行式

用來表達正在進行的動作

句型:S + be1 + V-ing 主詞+現在式be動詞(am/is/are)+現在分詞

因為am/is/are本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把am/is/are放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I am sleeping.
You are sleeping.
He is sleeping.
Yes/No問句 Am I sleeping?
Are you sleeping?
Is he sleeping?
WH問句 Why am I sleeping?
Why are you sleeping?
Why is he sleeping?
Who is sleeping?

C.  現在完成式

用來表過去做的事情,跟現在有關係,但是做那件事的時間不重要,如表達經驗,另外表達過去重複做的動作,跟從過去到現在一直持續的狀態。

句型:S + have/has + V3  主詞+have/has+過去分詞

have/has本身就可以當助動詞,所以疑問句把have/has放到主詞前面即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I have slept for 8 hours.
You have slept for 8 hours.
He has slept for 8 hours.
Yes/No問句 Have I slept for 8 hours?
Have you slept for 8 hours?
Has he slept for 8 hours?
WH問句 How many hours have I slept?
How many hours have you slept?
How many hours has he slept?
Who has slept for 8 hours?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.3

D.  過去簡單式

用來表達過去發生的單一事件,或重複性的動作,但是已經結束。

兩種句型:1. S + V2,   2. S + be2 + noun/adj/prep phrase

  1. 一般動詞句型:主詞+動詞過去式

造疑問句時,需要did這個助動詞幫忙,把助動詞放到主詞前面,在did後面的動詞要用原型。

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I slept 8 hours last night.
You slept 8 hours last night.
He slept. 8 hours last night.
Yes/No問句 Did I sleep 8 hours last night?
Did you sleep 8 hours last night?
Did he sleep 8 hours last night?
WH問句 How many hours did I sleep last night?
How many hours did you sleep last night?
How many hours did he sleep last night?
Who slept 8 hours last night?

2. be動詞句型:主詞+過去式be動詞(was/were)+名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

因為was/were本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把was/were放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I was asleep.
You were asleep.
He was asleep.
Yes/No問句 Was I asleep?
Were you
Was he asleep?
WH問句 Why was I asleep?
Why were you
Why was he asleep?
Who was asleep?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.4

E.  過去進行式

用來表達過去的某個時間點正在進行的動作。

句型:S + be2 + V-ing 主詞+過去式be動詞(was/were)+現在分詞

因為was/were本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把was/were放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I was sleeping at that time.
You were sleeping at that time.
He was sleeping at that time.
Yes/No問句 Was I sleeping at that time?
Were you sleeping at that time?
Was he sleeping at that time?
WH問句 Why was I sleeping at that time?
Why were you sleeping at that time?
Why was he sleeping at that time?
Who was sleeping at that time?

F.  過去完成式

用來表達在過去某時點前發生的事。表達過去發生的兩件事時,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單是來表達。

句型:S + had + V3  主詞+had+過去分詞

have/has本身就可以當助動詞,所以疑問句把have/has放到主詞前面即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I had slept when he came.
You had slept when he came.
He had slept when he came.
Yes/No問句 Had I slept when he came?
Had you slept when he came?
Had he slept when he came?
WH問句 How long had I slept? when he came?
How long had you slept? when he came?
How long had he slept? when he came?
Who had slept when he came.

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.5

G.  未來簡單式

用來表達未來可能發生的事或計劃好的事。

兩種句型:1. S + will + V1   2. S + be1 + going to + V1

  1. will句型:主詞+will+動詞原形

造疑問句時,因為will本身是助動詞,所以需要把will放到主詞前面即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I will sleep soon.
You will sleep soon.
He will sleep soon.
Yes/No問句 Will I sleep soon?
Will you sleep soon?
Will he sleep soon?
WH問句 When will I sleep?
When will you sleep?
When will he sleep?
Who will sleep?

2. be going to 動詞句型:主詞+現在式be動詞(am/is/are)+動詞原形

因為am/is/are本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把am/is/are放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I am going to sleep soon.
You are going to sleep soon.
He is going to sleep soon.
Yes/No問句 Am I going to sleep soon?
Are you going to sleep soon?
Is he going to sleep soon?
WH問句 When am I going to sleep soon?
When are you going to sleep soon?
When is he going to sleep soon?
Who is going to sleep soon?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.6

H.  未來進行式

用來表達未來的某個時間點正在進行的動作。

兩種句型:1. S + will + be + V-ing  2. S + be1 + going to + be + V-ing

  1. will句型:主詞+will+be+現在分詞

造疑問句時,因為will本身是助動詞,所以需要把will放到主詞前面即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I will be sleeping.
You will be sleeping.
He will be sleeping.
Yes/No問句 Will I be sleeping
Will you be sleeping
Will he be sleeping
WH問句 Where will I be sleeping
Where will you be sleeping
Where will he be sleeping
Who will be sleeping

2. be going to 動詞句型:主詞+現在式be動詞(am/is/are)+be+現在分詞

因為am/is/are本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把am/is/are放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I am going to be sleeping.
You are going to be sleeping.
He is going to be sleeping.
Yes/No問句 Am I going to be sleeping?
Are you going to be sleeping?
Is he going to be sleeping?
WH問句 Where am I going to be sleeping?
Where are you going to be sleeping?
Where is he going to be sleeping?
Who is going to be sleeping?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.7

I.  未來完成式

用來表達未來某件事發生在某個時點之前。表達未來發生兩件事,先發生的用未來完成,後發生的用未來簡單式。

兩種句型:1. S + will + have + V3  2. S + be1 + going to + have + V3

  1. will句型:主詞+will+have+過去分詞

造疑問句時,因為will本身是助動詞,所以需要把will放到主詞前面即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I will have slept when he comes.
You will have slept when he comes.
He will have slept when he comes.
Yes/No問句 Will I have slept when he comes?
Will you have slept when he comes?
Will he have slept when he comes?
WH問句 How long will I have slept when he comes?
How long will you have slept when he comes?
How long will he have slept when he comes?
Who will have slept when he comes?

2. be going to動詞句型:主詞+現在式be動詞(am/is/are) going to+have+過去分詞

因為am/is/are本身就可以當助動詞用,所以疑問句把am/is/are放到主詞前即可

WH疑問詞 助動詞 主詞 動詞 其他部分
肯定句 I am going to have slept when he comes.
You are going to have slept when he comes.
He is going to have slept when he comes.
Yes/No問句 Am I going to have slept when he comes?
Are you going to have slept when he comes?
Is he going to have slept when he comes?
WH問句 How long am I going to have slept when he comes?
How long are you going to have slept when he comes?
How long is he going to have slept when he comes?
Who is going to have slept when he comes?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.8

J.  WH 疑問詞用法

1. where用來問地點

Where did he go?  He went home.

2. when用來問時間

what time用來問幾點幾分

When did he leave?  He left five minutes ago.

What time did he leave?  He left at 5.20.

3. why用來問原因

what for也可以用來問原因

how come用來問原因時用的是肯定句的句型

Why did he left? Because he didn’t feel well.

What did he leave for?  He left for a better job.

How come he left? Because nobody talked to him.

4. who可以用來當做問句的主詞,用來問誰,這時候句子用肯定句句型

who也可以用來當問句中的受詞,正式用法用的是whom,但口語多用who

Who took my umbrella?  Mike. /Mike too your umbrella.

Who did you talk to?  I talked to Mike.

5. what可以用來當做問句的主題,用來問什麼,這時候句子用肯定句句型

what也可以用來當問句中的受詞

What happened?  Someone stole Jane’s bag.

What did you talk about?  We talked about movies.

What is your father like?  He’s tall and handsome. He’s friendly.

6. which用來讓人做選擇,有多種可能性時,可以從中作選擇

A: May I borrow a pen from you?

B: Sure. I have tow pens. This pen has black ink. That has red ink.

Which pen do you want?

Which one do you want?

Which do you want?

A: Here’s a photo of my daughter’s class.

B: Very nice. Which one is your daughter?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.9

K.  WH 疑問詞用法

7. what kind of 用來讓人在一個大種類當中,選擇某種特定的種類

What kind of shoes did you buy?  I bought sandals.

What kind of fruit do you like best?  I like strawberries.

8. whose用來詢問誰的。注意不要跟who is混淆

Whose book is this?  It’s John’s book.

Whose are those?  They’re mine.

Whose car did you borrow?  I borrowed Karen’ car.

Who’s that? Mary.

Whose is that?  Mary’s.

9. how的用法非常多,可以用來問如何,問交通工具的方式,how後面可以配合形容詞,副詞問不同的意思。

How did you get here?  I took a bus.

How old are you?  I’m twenty-one.

How tall are you?  I’m one meter 65.

How big is your apartment? It has five rooms.

How sleep are you?  I’m very sleepy.

How hungry are you?  I’m starving.

How soon will you be ready?  I’ll be ready in five minutes.

How quickly can you get here?  I can get here in 30 minutes.

How often do you exercise?  I exercise twice a week.

How many times a day do you eat?  I eat three or four times a day.

How far is it from Taipei to Kaohsiung?  It’s about 400 kilometers.

How far do you live from school?  I live about four blocks from school.

How long does it take to cook rice?  It takes twenty minutes.

How many days will you be in Hong Kong?  I will be there for two weeks.

How do you spell your name?  It’s J-E-S-S-I-E.

How are you getting along?  Great!

How do you feel?  I feel terrific!

How do you like your job? It’s great.

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.10

L.  附加問句 Tag Questions

1. 定義:附加問句就是在句尾,除了主要句子外,有一個含有助動詞的問句。

May is sick, isn’t she?

You didn’t understand, did you?

2. 使用時機:

附加問句常用在

  1. 確認我們認為是真的的資訊。

Tim lives in Hong Kong, doesn’t he?

  1. 對一個狀況表達意見。

It’s a nice day, isn’t it?

3. 句型:

附加問句的句子包含了一個主要句子跟後面的一個附加問句,而這附加問句有“對吧?”這樣的意思。

當主要句子是肯定句時,後面的附加問句就會是否定的。而預期對方的回答是肯定的。

肯定句+否定附加問句

You work on Fridays, don’t you?

He has been to Canada, hasn’t he?

當主要句子是否定句時,後面的附加問句就會是肯定的。而預期對方的回答也是否定的。

否定句+肯定附加問句

They aren’t from Australia, are they?

She didn’t go home, did she?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.11

M. 附加問句 Tag Questions

4. 附加問句的助動詞

附加問句中使用的助動詞依主要子句的時態不同,會使用不同的助動詞。

  1. be動詞:當本身句子有be動詞如am, is, are, was, were時,就直接用這些be動詞來造出適當附加問句。

They are late again, aren’t they?

She is cooking, isn’t she?

He wasn’t at home, was he?

They weren’t studying, were they?

  1. do, does, did:表達現在簡單式,過去簡單式時,肯定句不會出現助動詞,否定會用don’t, doesn’t, didn’t,這時需依時態造出適當的附加問句。

You like to drink coffee, don’t you?

She gets up early, doesn’t she?

They didn’t pay, did they?

You didn’t make it, did you?

  1. have, has, had:表達現在完成式,過去完成式時,分別用have, has, had, haven’t, hasn’t, hadn’t來造附加問句。

You have eaten Thai food, haven’t you?

He hasn’t had the time, has he?

She had lived in New York before she died, hadn’t she?

  1. will:表達未來的時候,可以用will, won’t來造出適當附加問句。

You will tell him, won’t you?

They won’t come, will they?

  1. can, could, should…等情態助動詞也可以依表達的情態,造出適當的富家問句。

Nancy can swim, can’t she?

They shouldn’t do that, should they?

6. 附加問句的代名詞

附加問句只可以用代名詞來表示前面主要子句的名詞。假如主詞是this, that時,附加子句的主詞只可以用it。假如主要子句中是I am的句型時,附加問句要用aren’t I?  I’m next, aren’t I?

Tom works here, doesn’t he?   Tom works here, doesn’t Tom?

That’s good news, isn’t it?    That’s good news, isn’t that?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.12

M.附加問句 Tag Questions

7. 附加問句的語調

  1. 下降:當附加問句用來確認資訊,給予評論時,假如說話的人覺得聽的人應該是會認同他的想法時,語調會往下。與其說在問對方,不如是說尋求對方的認同,告訴他這個想法。

A: It’s getting warmer, isn’t it?  B: Yeah. Seems more like summer.

  1. 上揚:附加問句可以像yes/no問句一樣用來問對方問題,在句尾語調往上,說話的人會期待回答的人給一個yes或no的答案。也可以用在說話者心中有個想法,但想要確認是否正確。

A: You’re not moving, are you? B: Yes. We’re returning to L.A.

or  B: No. We’re staying here.

N. Too, so, either, neither

中文表達對肯定句的贊同與否定句的同樣不贊同都是用“也”,英文的用法卻有不同,同為肯定時用too, so, 兩者皆為否定時用either, neither。

   We can use so or too to agree with a positive statement.

表達對一個肯定句有相同的看法,贊同時可用下列句型。

S=subject 主詞  A= Auxiliary Verb 助動詞

Me too. = S + A, too. = So + A + S.

A: I love Taiwanese food.

B: Me too. / I do, too. / So do I.

A; I have eaten Mexican food.

B: Me too. / I have, too. / So have I.

We can use either or neither to disagree with a negative statement.

表達對一個否定句有同樣否定看法,不贊同時可用下列句型。

Me neither. = S+ A + not either. = Neither + A + S.

A: I’m not in the mood for Japanese food.

B: Me neither. / I’m not either. / Neither am I.

A: I can’t eat spicy food.

B: Me neither. / I can’t either. / Neither can I.

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.13

O. 句子的種類 types of sentences   

D. 文章的元素

letter    字母   b             英文有二十六個"字母"

word     單字   book          一個或一個以上的字母組合就形成單字

phrase   片語   English book   兩個以上的單字可形成片語,有動詞、名詞、

形容詞與副詞片語。

clause    子句   Because I love English

一個句子有一組主詞與動詞與其他必要部分就叫一個子句,

子句的語意不完整時叫非獨立子句。

sentence  句子  This is an English book.

一個子句的語意完整時叫獨立子句,可以自己成為一個句子。

Because I love English, I became an English teacher.

一個非獨立子句可以跟一個獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

三種子句

1. noun clause 名詞子句        Everyone knows that I love beef.

2. adjective clause 形容詞子句 My sister who lives in Canada loves beef.

3. adverb clause 副詞子句     Although I love beef, I hate pork.

paragraph 段落  幾個句子就形成一個段落。每個段落都有一個主旨,短的段落可能只有一句,長的可以到十句或更多。常見的段落模式如下

topic sentence       主題句,用來說明段落大意

supporting sentences 支持句,用來闡述說明主題

concluding sentence  結論句,用來結尾

essay     文章   幾個有組織的段落就形成一篇文章

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.14

O. 句子的種類 types of sentences   

E. 四個句子的種類

1. simple sentences 簡單句

I love beef.

2. compound sentences 並和句

I love beef, but I hate pork.

3. complex sentences 複合句

Although I love beef, I hate pork.

4.compound-complex sentences 混合句

My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a day.

1. 簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,

但整體視為一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

2. 並合句是由對等連接詞(and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet)將兩個獨立子句連接

而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.

3. 複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(如because, although, when,

before等)所帶領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。可能包

含了一個名詞子句,或形容詞子句,或副詞子句。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

I can’t believe she is only 17.

4. 混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句而形

成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did

nothing.

 

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.15

轉折語Transitional signals                                     

  1. 1.  對等詞 coordinators
  2. 對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個,可用fanboys來記:  and, but, so, or, nor, for, yet
  3. b.  配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 有五個:

both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor,

whether … or。

這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

Would you rather take a written or an oral exam?

The system is not only complicated but also inefficient.

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句, 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

S + V, CC S + V.

I was feeling hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

  1. 2.  從屬詞subordinator

從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction 是帶領副詞子句的連接詞,如although, when, while, before, after, because, if, as, 等。

它會放在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

SC + S + V, S + V.     or    S + V + SC + S + V.

Because I was feeling hungry, I made myself a sandwich.

I made myself a sandwich because I was hungry.

  1. 3.  轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

S + V; CA, S + V.       or    S + V. CA, S + V.

I was feeling hungry; therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. Therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. I made myself a sandwich, therefore.

I was feeling hungry. I, therefore, made myself a sandwich.

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.18

Answer Key 解答

P.16 Worksheet 37A: What’s the question 2?

  1. What did John watch?
  2. Where did Mary study?
  3. Who(m) was she talking to?
  4. When did the move begin?
  5. Why did Ali go to the dentist?
  6. How much did your watch cost?
  7. What did you buy?
  8. Why did they miss the party?
  9. When are you going to the zoo?
  10. What did Akiko see last night?

P.17 Worksheet 37B: What’s the questions 2?

1. What did Jeremy play?

2. Where did Jose ride his bike?

3. Who were you writing a letter to?

4. When does class begin?

5. Why did Ken stay home last night.

6. How many sisters does Kenji have?

7. How much did you spend on gifts for your family?

8. Why were your parents angry?

9. When is Mohammed going to visit you?

10. What did Yuko buy at the mall?

 

P.18 Worksheet 36: Board Game 造出格子中的答案的問句。也就是想想怎麼樣的狀況問題,對方會回答格子中的句子。可以好好回答,也可以發揮想象力,潔西有幾個搞笑一下,可以寫很正常的啦,答案可能有不同的,每題只列一個。

2. When is your rent due?

3. What happened?

4. Why did you walk home?

5. Where does your sister live?

基礎文法L4 發問與連接詞                      Jessie Lin    P.19

P.18 Worksheet 36: Board Game

6. What did you do last weekend?

7. Where were you this morning?

8. Why are you looking at me like that?

9. Why are you going to Disneyland?

10. What do you do in your free time?

11. What are you going to do tomorrow?

12. What’s the matter?

13. How many pets do you have?

14. What’s your best friend’s name?

15. Why aren’t you happy?

16. Why is the little boy crying?

17. What are you worried about?

18. Why don’t you live with your family?

19. What animals do you like best?

20. What did she do?

21. Who is she?

22. Is that your brother? Why does he look like your father?

23. Who do you look like in your family?

24. Why didn’t he go on the ski trip?

25. Why did you buy new shoes?

26. What did the man do to you?

27. What’s that sound?

28. Why is the floor wet?

29. When will you graduate?

30. When are you free?

31. What did you buy?

32. What’s wrong with you?

33. Whose book is this?

34. Why did you go out with that playboy?