【潔西家】Participle Clause 分詞構句 定義,種類,例句,講解影片

副詞子句縮減成分詞構句的影片

形容詞子句縮減成分詞構句的影片

Walking home, Jessie lost her key.

Shocked by the thunder and lightning, the baby started to cry.

Having seen the movie before, he didn’t want to go to the theater.

上面的分詞構句看得懂寫得出來嗎?

肚子好餓,寫講義跟做影片花了一個早上,突然間就一點半多多了,暈倒。因為剛好被問到 Having had 的用法,昨天的新聞裡面德國總理第一劑先打 AZ 第二劑再打莫德納,其實就是一件事情發生在另外一件事情前面,說簡單很簡單,但是其實分詞構句是比較進階的文法,很常被學生用錯,尤其在寫作的時候。

潔西先前有寫了現在分詞構句,過去分詞構句,好像沒特別寫過這個完成分詞構句,反正現在也是很閒,就先躺在床上找了一些網頁有比較好的說明的覺得是 British Council 跟 BBC Learning English ,然後就起來整理,整理完錄影片,希望有講得讓大家比較清楚。

但是呢其實因為分詞構句常常是從副詞子句跟形容詞子句縮減而來的,影片中只能簡單介紹,對於副詞子句跟形容詞子句縮減不熟悉的建議先看完再來看完最上面兩個連結中的影片,再來看這隻影片會更清楚。總之,潔西已經盡力了,希望大家看完有比較好的理解。有問題再留言,啊,超級餓,早餐也沒吃,做早午餐去了,祝大家有美好的一天!

解說例句出處

British Council

BBC Learning English

A 什麼是分詞構句

分詞構句是一個用動詞的分詞帶領的非獨立子句,多半用在寫作,讓句子不要太複雜,可以簡短表達。

分詞構句的主詞跟主要子句的主詞會是相同的(特殊情形下有例外)

分詞構句可以分為主動與被動

分詞構句可以分為現在分詞構句,過去分詞構句,跟完成分詞構句

分詞構句沒有特定的時態,時態會依據主要子句來決定

分詞構句可能是副詞子句,形容詞子句的縮減,或者是兩個句子的合併

.

B 現在分詞構句 present participle clauses 

現在分詞構句有類似主動的意思

a 給行為的結果

1 The bomb exploded, destroying the building. = The bomb exploded. The bomb destroyed the building. 炸彈爆炸,摧毀了那棟建築物。

.

b 給行為的原因,這時通常分詞構句會放在前面

2 Knowing she loved reading, Roy bought her a book. = Roy bought her a book because he knew she loved reading. 羅伊知道她喜歡閱讀,買了一本書給她。

3 Being exhausted I fell asleep on the MRT. = I fell asleep on the MRT because I was exhausted. 因為我太累了,我在捷運上睡著了。

4 Seeing the bus come round the corner he started to run. = He started to run because he saw the bus come round the corner. 因為他看到公車從轉角過來,他跑了起來。

.

c 說明一個行為在另外一個行為發生時同時發生

5 Standing in the queue, I realized I didn’t have any money. = While I was standing in the queue, I realized I didn’t have any money. 當我站在隊伍當中,我發現我沒有任何錢。

6 I was sitting on the sofa watching TV. = I was sitting on the sofa. I was watching TV. 我坐在沙發上看電視。

.

d 說明一個動作被另外一個動作打短

7 I fell over running for the bus. = I was running for the bus. I fell over. = While I was running for the bus, I fell over. 我跑著追公車時跌倒了。

.

e 說明一個動作在另外一個動作前發生

8 Opening the envelope, I found two concert tickets. = I opened the envelope and I found two concert tickets.  我打開信封發現兩張演唱會的票。

.

f 給予主要子句的主詞額外的資訊

9 Starting in the new year, the new policy bans cars in the city center. = The new policy bans cars in the city center. The new policy starts in the new year. 從新年開始新的政策禁止車子在市中心。

.

g 形容詞子句的縮減

10 Is that someone knocking at the door? = Is that someone who is knocking at the door? 有人在門口敲門嗎?

11 Do you know the man talking to your mother? = Do you know the man who is talking to your mother? 你認識那個在跟你母親說話的人嗎?

.

C 過去分詞構句 past participle clauses

過去分詞構句通常有被動的意思

a 類似於 if 假設句的意思

12 Used in this way, participle can make your writing more concise. = If you use participle in this way, participles can make your writing more concise.

Participle can make your writing more concise if it was used in this way. 分詞讓你的寫作跟精準假如它被這樣用的話。

.

b 給行為的原因

13 Worried by the news, she called the hospital. = She called the hospital because she was worried by the news. 她打電話給醫院因為新聞而擔心的原因。

.

c 給予主要子句的主詞額外的資訊

14 Filled with pride, he walked towards the stage. = He was filled with pride. He walked toward the stage. 他充滿著驕傲。他走向舞台。

.

d 形容詞子句的縮減

15 The dog hit by the car wasn’t hurt. = The dog that was hit by the car was’t hurt. 那隻被車子撞到的口沒有受傷。

16 The gold stolen in the robbery was never recovered. = The gold that was stolen in the robbery was never recovered. 在搶劫中被偷走的金子一直沒被找回來。

.

D 完成分詞構句 perfect participle clauses

完成分詞構句是用來表示描述的行為在主要子句的行為前發生。完成分詞構句可以是有主動或被動的意思

17 Having finished their training, they will be fully qualified doctors. = They finished their training. The will be fully qualified doctors. 他們完成訓練後將會成為有完整資格的醫生。

18 Having been made redundant, she started looking for a new job. = She was made redundant. She started looking for a new job. 她被解雇了。她開始找新工作。

19 Having missed the bus, we decided to drive into town. = We missed the bus. We decided to drive into town. 錯過公車,我們決定開車進城。

20 Having finished the cake, we started on the cheese. = We finished the cake. We started on the cheese. 吃完了蛋糕我們開始吃起士。

21 After missing the bus we decided to drive into town. After we missed the bus, we decided to drive into down. 我們錯過公車後,決定開車進城。

22 After finishing the cake, we started on the cheese. = After we finished the cake, we started on the cheese. 我們吃完蛋糕後,開始吃起士。

23 Having tried the coffee, I don’t recommend it. = Because I tried/have tried the coffee, I don’t recommend it. 因為我試了那咖啡,我不推薦。

24 Having discussed it with my teacher, I decided to take the exam a year early. = Because I had discussed it with my teacher I decided to take the exam a year early. 因為我先跟我的老師討論了,我決定要早一年參加考試。

分詞構句常常在連接詞跟介系詞後面

25 Before cooking, you should wash your hands. 在做菜前,你應該洗你的受。

26 Instead of complaining about it, they should try doing something positive. 與其抱怨這件事,他們應該試著做一些積極的事。

27 On arriving at the hotel, he went to get changed. 在抵達飯店後,他去換衣服。

28 While packing her things, she thought about the last two years. 當她在打包她的東西時,她想著過去兩年。

29 In spite of having read the instructions twice, I still couldn’t understand how to use it. 儘管有看過輛次說明,我還是不了解如何使用它。

翻譯練習題

1 因為他很有名,餐廳給他折扣。

2 當我搭捷運的時候,我遇到了我的老師。

3 被聲音嚇到,他開了燈。

4 你認識那個在跟我爸爸說的話男人嗎?

5 行李放著沒人看得將會被警察拿走。

6 她結婚前環遊世界。

7 說了那些,我不是要讓你不愉快。

.

.

.

.

.

翻譯練習解答:

1 因為他很有名,餐廳給他折扣。

1 Because he was famous, the restaurant give him a discount. 

1 Being famous, he got a discount. 

.

2 當我搭捷運的時候,我遇到了我的老師。

2 While I was taking the MRT, I ran into my teacher.

2 Taking the MRT, I ran into my teacher.

.

3 被聲音嚇到,他開了燈。

3 Because he was frightened by the noise, he turned on the light.

3 Frighted by the noise, he turned on the light.

.

4 你認識那個在跟我爸爸說的話男人嗎?

4 Do you know the person who is talking to my father?

4 Do you know the person talking to my father?

.

5 行李放著沒人看得將會被警察拿走。

5 Luggage which was left unattended will be take away by police. 

5 Luggage left unattended will be take away by police. 

.

6 她結婚前環遊世界。

6 She had traveled abroad before she got married.

6 Having traveled abroad, she got married.