【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級14 過去完成式 Past Perfect

前幾天上完課後,一邊聊天一邊走路去坐公車的時候,學生突然說,老師,過去完成的事情就用過去完成式,對吧?不對不對,用過去簡單式就好了,過去完成式會出現一定是要有一個過去簡單式的時間點出現才會要用過去完成式。超級常被用錯的時態,找了找先前寫的講義,天啊,寫得還蠻糟糕的,明明當下花了很多時間寫的,現在看了卻意外嫌棄自己寫的東西,嗚嗚。

所以想要寫一篇簡單清楚又容易明瞭的講義,今天寫了很久,造句最難,寫到一半跑出去游泳,下午兩點多這個時間人不多,游完四點多走路回家的時候路上車子也不多,挺悠哉的。回到家繼續寫,六點多煮個麻油雞來吃,看個相捧,然後又繼續寫,寫完之後就開始錄影片,剛剛發現,啊現在居然快要十二點了,我也太會摸了。不過這個星期寫過去完成式的心願完成,開心。而且晚上開始下雨了,本來打算明天去游泳的,今天去了真好,明天一定會偷懶的。

耳朵進水有東西卡在那裡超不舒服的,游完之後脖子後面好緊,超不舒服的,啊,忘了,難怪時間那麼快,吃飽飯之後寫了一下的時候躺在床上休息一下就睡著了,睡了兩個小時左右吧?最近其實肩頸痛得超厲害的,開始去復健診所做電療,效果有限,所以想說運動不知道會不會有用,試著游泳看看,能順便減肥當然是最好的囉,哈哈。另外眼睛最近也很不舒服,啊,又忘記換眼鏡了。配了一副看近專用的眼鏡,但是常常忘記換,醫生說會造成眼睛肌肉疲勞,沒有換的話,最近眼睛真的痠痛的很厲害,所以很多廢話想說也不太能寫。再來就是也有點嚴重的脘隧道症候群。今天打字已經上限了,開始痛了。心理學有個詞叫做 flow ,現在有人翻心流,就是進入某個專注的狀態的時候時間過得超快,不知不覺忘了其他該注意的事,潔西很容易會連續寫個兩三個小時,連上廁所都忘記啊。現在全身都不舒服,所以要睡覺去了,耳朵不舒服,眼睛不舒服,手不舒服,肩頸背都不舒服,想做的事也要有健康的身體才能好好的做啊,肚子餓了,真糟糕,還是乖乖睡覺去吧,晚安!

想要說的很簡單,實在有點難,因為是個很容易被誤解的時態,所以從頭把現在簡單式,過去簡單式跟現在完成式先複習一下。希望會是個容易懂的影片,講到後面的練習例子時,又把過去進行式加進去了,所以呢,假如前面幾個時態還不是很清楚的話,最好先複習一下再來看會比較清楚喔!有問題或還是不清楚的地方再留言!對了,講義用看的很能比較沒有那麼容易懂,有空的時候看影片會比較清楚喔,雖然不知不覺講了三十分鐘…

 

 

 

a 現在簡單式: past ———X——X——X——— nXw ———X——X——X—— future

主詞 S + 動詞原型 V1                        

I work every day. / I eat an egg every day.

 

d 過去簡單式:past —————X—————— now ——————————— future

主詞 S + 過去式動詞 V2

I worked yesterday. / I ate an egg yesterday.

 

c 現在完成式:past ————————XXXXXX now ——————————— future

主詞 S + have/has + 過去分詞 V3    

I have worked all day. / I have eaten six eggs today.

 

d 過去完成式:past ———X1——X2———— now ——————————— future

主詞 S + had + 過去分詞 V3

When I arrived at the party, my ex-boyfriend left.

             X1                                             X2

When I arrived at the party, my ex-boyfriend had left.

            X2                                                 X1

 

ㄧ 過去完成式句型

1 肯定句:主詞(S)+had+過去分詞(V3)   

                  I         had     eaten too much.

          The plane     had     left.

 

2 否定句:主詞(S)+had+not +過去分詞(V3)

              She         had   not    eaten anything all day.

                He         had   not    slept for 24 hours.

 

3 Yes/No 問句:Had +主詞 (S) +過去分詞 (V3)

                       Had     you          eaten anything?

                       Had      he           lived in Tokyo?

 

4 WH 問句:WH 疑問詞 + had +主詞 (S) +過去分詞 (V3)

                     Where       had      you          been?

                     How long   had      you          waited?

 

二 過去完成式用法

1 單純地表達過去發生的事情的時候,用的是過去簡單式(主詞 S+過去式動詞 V2),而要表達比過去的某個時間點更早發生的事的時候,用的是過去完成式。也就是當要表達過去發生了兩件事情,一件事在另外一件事之前發生,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

I felt sick last night because I had eaten too much.

   2                                        1

When he arrived at the airport, the plane had left.

               2                                           1

She fainted because she had not eaten anything all day.

        2                            1

He hadn’t slept for 24 hours when the accident happened.

             1                                                      2

Had you eaten anything before you came here?

            1                                   2

Had he lived in Tokyo before he moved to Taipei?

            1                                 2

Where had you been before you came home?

                      1                    2

How long had you waited before you left?

                           1                     2

 

2 當兩件過去的事情的連接詞為 before, after, as soon as 等可以很清楚地表達時間的關係時,兩件事都可以用過去簡單式表達。

Before I went to work, I had eaten breakfast.

Before I went to work, I ate breakfast.

I took a shower after I had washed my hair.

I took a shower after I washed my hair.

As soon as I had gotten home, I changed clothes.

As soon as I got home, I changed clothes.

 

3 過去完成式會用在表達過去某個時間開始持續到過去的一個時間點為止的狀態。這種時候不可以用過去簡單式。

When I saw the doctor, I had been sick for a week.

When I saw the doctor, I was sick for a week. (X)

When they got married, they had known each other for ten years.

When they got married, they knew each other for ten years. (X)

When he left the job, he had worked in the company for twenty years.

 

翻譯練習

1 我們聊了一下後我發現我先前遇過他。

2 我到公車站的時候,公車已經走了。

3 Dean 打開電視的時候,節目已經開始了。

4 他們離婚的時候,已經結婚二十年。

5 我聽說他上星期辭職了。

6 她一寫完作業就上床睡覺。

7 郵局人很多。我等了三十分鐘才寄包裹。

8 今天開會的時候我的電話響了,超丟臉的,因為我忘記關手機了。

9 我十月去日本的時候寄了明信片回家。當我到家的時候明信片比我還早到。

10 我從捷運站走路回家的路上,停下來買麵包。我要付錢的時候發現我把錢包忘放在辦公室了。

 

答案:

翻譯練習

1 我們聊了一下後我發現我先前遇過他。

1 After we talked for a while, I realized that I had met him before.

 

2 我到公車站的時候,公車已經走了。

2 When I got to the bus station, the bus had already left.

 

3 Dean 打開電視的時候,節目已經開始了。

3 When Dean turned on the TV, the program had already started.

 

4 他們離婚的時候,已經結婚二十年。

4 When they got divorced, they had been married for twenty years.

 

5 我聽說他上星期辭職了。

5 I heard he had quit last week.

 

6 她一寫完作業就上床睡覺。

6 As soon as she had finished homework, she went to bed.

6 As soon as she finished homework, she went to bed.

 

7 郵局人很多。我等了三十分鐘才寄包裹。

7 The post office was busy. I had waited for thirty minutes before I sent the package.

7 The post office was busy. I waited for thirty minutes before I sent the package.

 

8 今天開會的時候我的電話響了,超丟臉的,因為我忘記關手機了。

8 My phone rang while I was having a meeting today. It was embarrassing because I had forgotten to turn off my cell phone.

8 My phone rang while I was having a meeting today. I was embarrassed because I hadn’t turned off my cell phone.

 

9 我十月去日本的時候寄了明信片回家。當我到家的時候明信片比我還早到。

9 When I went to Japan in October, I sent a postcard home. When I got home, the postcard had arrived earlier than me.

 

10 我從捷運站走路回家的路上,停下來買麵包。我要付錢的時候發現我把錢包忘放在辦公室了。

10 While I was walking home from the MRT station, I stopped to buy bread. When I wanted to pay, I found that I had left the wallet in the office.

過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式的用法與區別

 

過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式的用法與區別

 

 

練習題解答

 

 

 

潔西家進階文法教室              Jessie

下面有先前的過去完成式跟現在完成式與過去簡單式的文,更多的例子跟練習:)

 

Past Perfect 過去完成式詳解,與過去簡單式用法的區別

 

現在完成式與過去簡單式用法的區別 Present Perfect and Past Simple

 

參考書籍:

American English File 3, Oxford Practice Grammar, Grammar Express

 

這裡因為做比較跟區別,所以最前面放例句,然後是句型,接下來是使用的時機。再來是混合的練習題。題目做多了真的會比較有概念。

 

另外潔西自己在動詞的不同形態方面比較偷懶

V1:原形動詞 base form 也就是動詞的第一態,現在簡單式,不定詞後面

I go to bed at 2 a.m. /  My brother takes the MRT to work.

V2:過去動詞 paste tense 也就是動詞的第二態,過去簡單式

I went to bed at 2 a.m.   / My brother took the MRT to work today..

V3:過去分詞 past participle 也就是動詞的第三態,現在完成,過去完成,未

來完成,被動:

I have eaten breakfast. / I hit him. — He was hit by me.

V-ing:現在分詞 present participle 也就現在分詞,進行式

 

work, worked, worked, working

eat, ate, eaten, eating

 

潔西自己這樣用蠻久了,主流的文法書不會這樣用,網路上倒是最近也有看到類似的用法,主要是覺得比較好記,看得時候知道就好了。

 

 

A 過去簡單式Past Simple:

主要就是在描述過去發生的某件事情。記得用主詞跟動詞的過去式。說過去的事情最常用的就是過去簡單式。

 

It all happened very quickly. The car came straight out of the side road, and the van went into the back of it. The van driver didn’t have a chance. It was the car driver’s fault.

一切發生的非常快。那台汽車直接從旁邊衝出來,而那台貨車撞到汽車的後面。貨車司機完全沒有機會(閃避)。是汽車司機的錯。

 

這上面有幾個過去式的動詞呢?數數看。詞性要記住才分辨得出來喔。

 

It was all my fault.  / My bad.

 

一共有五個,算對了嗎?

 

記句型的時候要把肯定句,否定句跟疑問句的用法都一起記喔

get married, get engaged, get divorced.

 

1 句型 Forms:主詞+動詞的過去式(S + V2):

肯定:They got married last year.    My dog ate my homework.

否定:I didn’t have time to do homework.

疑問:What time did you get up this morning?

past——————x——————–now——————–future

 

2 使用時機Use:

在什麼時候用非常重要,通常用在一個在過去完成的動作,常跟過去時間連用

a 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

I ate a bread and coffee for breakfast. (x)

I ate bread and drank coffee for breakfast.

I had bread and coffee for breakfast.

 

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when they crashed.

While I was taking a shower, someone called.

c 過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的動作。

We arrived at the beach.

 

 

 

B 過去進行式Past Continuous

用來說明過去某個時間正在進行的動作,持續的動作。句型用主詞加上was/were再加上動詞加ing。S + was/were + V-ing

 

I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting in a park. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. Children were playing and laughing. It was very peaceful. I didn’t want to wake up.

我做天晚上做了個美夢。我在公園坐著。太陽閃耀地照著,鳥兒在唱歌。小孩們說說笑笑。非常的寧靜。我一點都不想醒來。

 

這裡是把過去簡單式跟過去進行式合併使用。描述活動故事背景的時候常用過去進行式,用過去進行式來表示過去某個時間點發生的事,或持續的動作。時態常會像這樣混合使用喔,先前有學生問說問什麼不全部用過去簡單式,恩,說故事的時候強調的東西不一樣,這裡比較有背景跟主題,強調當時的狀況,所以後面不想起來。有時候真的也很難解釋的清楚,多做題目,多看多聽多運用就會比較有概念。

 

1 句型Forms:主詞+Be動詞的過去式(was/were)+動詞-ing (S + Be2 + V-ing)

A: What were you doing at six o’clock last night?

B: I was watching TV. I wasn’t studying. My parents were watching

TV with me.

 

 

 

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間持續進行的動作。強調動作的過程。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

multi-tasking

 

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

I was crossing the street when the driver honked his horn.

 

c 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景

The sun was shining.

所以說故事的時候,故事的背景會用過去進行式,描述內容的時候會用過去

簡單式。

 

 

C 過去完成式Past Perfect

描述過去的兩件事情中先發生的第一件事,或是用來說過去某個時間點前發生的事。完成式都是用來表示一件事情發生在另外一件事情之前,所以假如只有單純的描述過去發生的某件事就只要用過去簡單式就可以,這時候不需要用過去完成式。也就是說當描述過去發生了兩件事時,先發生的事會用過去完成式,後發生的會用過去簡單式來表達。

 

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. We hadn’t gone to bed until after one. I hadn’t been on the train long when I had a bit of shock. I suddenly realized that I had left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn’t remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.

我昨天搭火車上班的時候覺得很累因為莎拉跟我前一個晚上去了一個派對。我們到一點鐘才上床睡覺。我上火車沒多久就嚇到。我突然發現我把錢包忘在家裡。然後我開始懷疑。我是前一天忘在辦公室了嗎?我就是記不起來。我很想回床上睡覺。我覺得糟透了。

hangover  醉後大丈夫

1 句型Forms:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished.

(比賽在打開電視前就開始了)

They hadn’t gone home until late.

Where had he put his wallet?   Where did I put my wallet?

 

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生在

過去某個時間點前。

By 1933 Oprah Winfrey had become famous.

By November 9th Donald Trump had won the election.

 

b 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

 

c 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連接

句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The man had arrived at the store before it opened.

The man arrived at the store before it opened.

 

特別注意句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1 When John arrived, they had diner.

1                                              2

當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.)

約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2 When John arrived, they were having dinner.

當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3 When John arrived, they had had/had eaten dinner.

2                                          1

當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.)

在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4 When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

1                                                          2

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。(我先開電視,節目才開始)

5 When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I missed the

beginning.    2                                               1

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開頭。(節目先開始,我才開電視)

When I turned on the TV, the singer was singing.

 

 

D 翻譯練習:用過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式來翻譯下面的句子。

(翻譯其實會有很多不同的答案,但是主要時態跟句型要對)

 

這邊先放問題,可以練習的,下面接著是在影片中講解的,最後是可以直接對答案的

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

 

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

 

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

 

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

 

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

 

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

 

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

 

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

 

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

 

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

 

 

E Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous

or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

 

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

 

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

mid term, final exam,

 

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

 

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

 

 

 

 

F Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the

parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I

was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的

時態完成句子。

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

 

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

 

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

 

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

 

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

 

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

 

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

 

 

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

 

 

影片的解說答案

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

(strange-looking)的男人。

I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

While I was waiting at the checkout, I noticed a strange-looking man.

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

I was really pleased to see Rachel again. I had seen her for a long time.

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

I was sleeping when you called last night.

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter

everywhere.

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

The bill wasn’t right. They had made a mistake.

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

The match was over. United had won.

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

When I was waiting for the bus, you drove past me.

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

When Laura was sitting in the park, it suddenly began to rain.

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

 

E Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous

or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

When I arrived, they were watching TV.

 

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

When she called him, he had left the office.

 

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

mid term, final exam,

The test didn’t go well although I had studied for the test the night

before.

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

When he was driving to work this morning, he had an accident.

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

When he passed his driving test, he only had had five lessons.

 

 

 

F Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the

parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I

was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的

時態完成句子。

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

I was waiting to play tennis yesterday when my partner called me to say that he couldn’t come because his car had broken down.

 

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

Chicago beat Boston yesterday. Boston was winning 44-39 in the first half, but Chicago scored 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

 

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

We were late. When we arrived, everyone had finished their lunch and they were sitting in the living room having coffee.

 

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

I ran to the station, but the six o’clock train had already left. The train station was empty except for three people who were waiting for the next train.

 

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

It started raining when he was walking to work. He stopped a taxi because he wasn’t wearing a coat and he didn’t have an umbrella.

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

They were driving to the airport when they suddenly remembered that hadn’t turned off the lights.

 

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

I didn’t recognize many people at my old school reunion because everyone had changed a lot in 20 years.

 

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

The game had already started when we turned on the TV. Costa Rica

was losing 1:0 and they were playing very badly.

 

 

 

答案在下面,不要偷看啊。可以一個大題一個大題的做。做完一大題對答案,確定懂後再往下做。

 

 

 

 

D 翻譯

1       I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

2      I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday. I hadn’t seen her for ages.

3      I was sleeping when you called last night.

4      After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter everywhere.

5      This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

6      The match was over. United had won.

7      You drove right past me when I was waiting for the bus.

8      The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

9      When Laura was sitting in the garden, it suddenly began to rain.

10    I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

 

 

E

1 were watching

2 had left

3 had studied

4 was driving

5 had only had

 

F

1 was waiting, called, had broken down

2 beat, was winning, scored

3 arrived, had finished, were sitting

4 ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5 started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6 were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7 didn’t recognize, had changed

8 had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing

現在完成式與過去完成式

現在完成式 連結是把這一篇的現在完成式解說,內容跟這篇差不多,排列順序不同,自己覺得比較清楚。順便附上影片連結。

 

 

 

這是配合Azar文法中級課本的第四章,內容有現在完成式,現在完成進行式,現在完成式與過去簡單式的區別,過去完成式。完成式一直是很多人永遠弄不清楚或永遠不會用或永遠都用錯的時態。要弄清楚一定要先懂,然後多做題目,了解什麼時候用,多觀察,然後再用出來。加油囉。潔西重新整理,不過有點倉促,有發現不對的地方或錯誤再麻煩跟潔西說,大大感激:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.1

jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect                      

英文有十二個時態。在學每一個時態時要記住四點:使用時機、句型、動詞變化以及搭配的副詞。最重要是理解跟多做練習,才能靈活運用、得心應手。

一、現在完成式的使用時機

1. 現在完成式可以用來表達在過去發生的事情,這個事情或狀態從過去開始一直延續到現在,在未來也可能繼續持續下去。表達這種情形時,多跟sincefor連用。

He has been a pro-gamer for three years.

She has worked at HTC since 2010.

I have lived in Taipei since I was born.

They have become successful since they have been in Taiwan.

  for + 一段時間 (for twenty minutes, for three hours, for two weeks, for three months, for years, for a long time) 表示這個事件持續了多久

 since + 一個過去時間點 (since 7:00, since Monday, since 1998, since two days ago, since this morning) 表示這個事件開始的時間

since + S + V2 (since I was a child) 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中的活動已經在過去結束。

since + S + have + V3 (since I have worked at IBM) 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中在過去開始持續到現在。

a. Fill in the blanks with for or since 空格中填入for或since

  1. She has been married _______ ten years.
  2. They have worked at the factory ________ they were 18 years old.
  3. We have lived in Japan _______ 2010.
  4. He hasn’t played basketball _______ over two years.
  5. I have known Tom _________ high school.
  6. They have won every game _______ they have played.

b. Answer the questions 回答下列問題

1. How long have you studied at this school?

2. How long have you known your best friend?

3. How long have your parents been married?

4. How long have you had your current hairstyle? (現在的髮型維持多久了?)

5. How long have you had your cell phone?

6. How long have you been up today? (今天醒來多久了?)

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.2

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

2. 現在完成式常用來表達在過去某個不特定時間發生的事情,發生的時間不確

定或不重要,重要的是結果,而且結果是跟現在有關的。

I have seen this movie before. I don’t want to see it again now.

He has left the company. He doesn’t work here now.

現在完成是用來當表示剛剛最近不久前發生的事情時,常與just, recently,

   lately連用。

We’ve just gotten back from Tokyo.

I’ve recently signed a contract to write a book.

He hasn’t had time lately.

(美式英語常用過去簡單式來表示: We just got back from Tokyo.)

(在這個用法中不會有過去時間: We’ve just got back from Tokyo yesterday.)

現在完成式用來表達過去的經驗時常與ever(in your life time)曾經(從你這

輩子出生到現在),never(=at no time) 從不(從來沒有)連用。注意ever在

這個句型多放在疑問句,不用在肯定句。never用在否定句就不能再有not。

Have you ever met a famous person?

Yes, I have met a famous person. /Yes, I have ever met a famous person.

No, I have not met a famous person. / No, I have never met a famous person.

No, I have not never met a famous person.

現在完成式強調已發生的事或發生的比預期早的時,常與already連用。

already的位置多放在have/has與V3間,也可放句尾。

Do you want something to eat? No, thanks. I’ve already eaten.

Are you going to see that movie? No. I’ve already seen it.

現在完成式常用not yet來表達還沒有發生的事,但我們認為未來會發生。

yet的位置多放在句尾,也可以放在haven’t跟V3間。

I haven’t finished this work yet. (but I will finish it.)

They haven’t replied to my letter yet. (but they will reply.)

現在完成式用yet在問句中表達我們預期會發生的事情是否已經發生。

有時後我們用already在問句中,這通常表示訝異某事比預期還早的發生。

Have you paid the bill yet?

Have you found a job yet?

Has he already gotten his flu shot? The flu season hasn’t begun yet.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.3

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

2.

a. Make sentences using the Present Perfect with already or yet.

根據提示,用already或yet造句

(I/not/read/today’s newspaper) yet.

I haven’t read today’s newspaper yet.

1. (you/decide/which one to buy) yet?

_________________________________________________

2. (I/explain/this to you three times) already.

_________________________________________________

3. (Their baby son/start/talking) already.

_________________________________________________

4. (you/phone/Jane) yet?

_________________________________________________

5. (The game/not/finish) yet.

_________________________________________________

6. (I/have/lunch) already.

_________________________________________________

7. (He/spend/all his money) already.

_________________________________________________

b. Complete the sentences using the Preset Perfect form of the verbs words in brackets ( ). 根據括號裡的動詞提示,用現在完成式完成句子

Don’t take my plate away. I haven’t finished (not/finish) my meal.

  1. A: What’s that book about? B: I don’t know. I _________ (not/read) it.
  2. I __________ (lose) my pen. Can I borrow yours, please?
  3. A: I __________ (book) a room here for tonight. B: Yes, madam, what’s your name, please?
  4. I’m not sure what the problem with the car is. It _______(not/happen) before.
  5. A: ____________ (you/reply) to that letter from the bank? B: No, I haven’t, but I’ll do it soon.
  6. A: What’s happening in this program? B: I don’t know. _____________. (It/just/start)
  7. A: How’s Lucy?  B: She’s very happy. ________________ (She/just/finish) her exams.
  8. Could I have a copy of Next Magazine, please?  B: Sorry. __________________ (I/just/sell) the last copy.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.4

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

Gone and been

S + has/have been to + place. 現在完成式用這個句型表達去過某個地方,

但是現在回來了,不在哪個地方了。

S + has/have gone to + place. 現在完成式用這個句型表人去了某個地方,

人還在那裡,還沒有回來。所以表達自己去過某個地方絕對不要用這個句型。

He’s been to Paris. (He is now at home again.) 他去過巴黎(現在回來了)

He’s gone to Paris. (He is in Paris now.) 他去了巴黎(人現在在巴黎)

I’ve been to Paris. (I am now at home again.) 我去過巴黎(現在回來了)

 I’ve gone to Paris. 我人去了巴黎(錯誤的句子,因為說話時人在說話處)

3. 現在完成式也用來表達過去到現在一段時間內重複的活動,實際發生的時間

並不重要,強調的是次數。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。後面可以加時間,但是時間一定要是到目前為止today, this morning, this month, this year,不能是過去時間。

We have had three tests so far this semester.

We have done quite a lot of work today.

He hasn’t had a holiday this year.

I have had five cups of coffee today.

I have had five cups of coffee yesterday.

Answer the questions

How many times have you shopped this week?

I’ve shopped twice this week.  / I haven’t shopped at all this week.

  1. How many times have you been to a KTV this year?
  2. How many cups of coffee have you had today?
  3. How many phone calls have you made today?
  4. How many times have you eaten Japanese food this month?
  5. How many times have you done laundry this week?
  6. How many times have you cleaned the house this month?

4. 現在完成式常跟第一次,第二次,最高級等連用。

This is the first time I’ve been so Canada, so it’s all new to me.

He loves this movie. This is the fifth time he’s seen it.

Paris is the most beautiful place I’ve ever been.

This is the best book I’ve ever read.

(ever在這樣的句型可以放在肯定句,表這輩子到目前為止)

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.5

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   

二、現在完成式的句型為主詞+have/has+過去分詞(V3)

1. 肯定句句型為S + have/has + V3 (V3指的是動詞的第三態,過去分詞)

S   +    have/has + V3

I        have been to Australia.

They     have  eaten dinner.

She      has earned millions of dollars since 1995.

2. 否定句在助動詞have/has後面加not

S  +   haven’t/hasn’t + V3

We     haven’t seen the movie.

You     haven’t traveled in Taiwan.

He      hasn’t made much money in his life.

3. Yes/No 問句把助動詞have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has + S + V3

Have       you cooked Thai food?

Have       they arrived?

Has        she finished the report?

4.WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH       have/has    +   S    +   V3

Where      have          you       been?

What       have          they      done?

How long    has           May       studied English?

三、現在完成式的副詞如:never, ever, already, yet, lately, recently, just, this week, today, 也常跟介系詞for與since連用…等。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.6

四、現在完成式規則動詞過去分詞的拼字與發音變化的規則

規則動詞的過去分詞拼字變化與過去簡單式的動詞過去式變化相同如下:

1. 大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ed。

work-worked, help-helped, call-called, wash-washed

2. 動詞字尾已經有e時,只要加d即可。

live-lived, die-died, dance-danced, smile-smiled

3. 動詞字尾為子音加y時,必須去y加ied。

study-studied, cry-cried, worry-worried, copy-copied.

4. 只有一個音節的動詞字尾發音為短母音加子音時,重複字尾再加ed。

shop-shopped, plan-planned, tap-tapped, hop-hopped

5. 兩個音節以上且重音在最後一個音節的動詞,字尾發音為短母音加子音時,也需重複字尾加ed。

admit-admitted, prefer-preferred, omit-omitted, occur-occurred

規則動詞的過去分詞發音的變化也與過去簡單式的過去變化相同如下:

1. 動詞字尾是無聲子音時,加ed後讀/ t /。無聲子音指的是除了/ t /之外的

/ k /, / f /, / s /, / ʃ/, / tʃ/, /θ / 等。

cook-cooked, laugh-laughed, kiss-kissed, wash-washed, watch-watched

2. 動詞字尾是有聲子音或母音時,加ed後讀/d/。有聲子音指的是除了/ d /之外的/ b /, / g /, / r /, / l /, / m /, / n /, / v / 等。

call-called, rain-rained, love-loved, play-played, try-tried

3. 動詞字尾的發音是/ t /, / d /的發音時,加ed後讀/ɪd /。

want-wanted, need-needed, visit-visited, wait-waited

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/, / aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

把下列動詞改成過去式,並放入正確的字尾ed發音的欄位。

1. clean 打掃  2. cook 做菜  3. want想要 4. invite 邀請 5. listen 聽

6. need 需要  7. relax 放鬆  8. shop 購物   9. study 用功  10. talk 說話

11. visit 拜訪  12. wait  等待 13. play玩  14. watch 看  15. cry 哭泣

/t/
/d/
/ɪd/

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.7

原型V1 過去式V2 過去分詞V3 現在分詞V-ing
1. be 是2. buy 買

3. come 來

4. do 做

5. drink 喝

6. drive 開車

7. eat 吃

8. find 找

9. fly 飛

10. forget忘記

11. get 拿

12. give 給

13. go 去

14. have 有

15. know 知道

16. leave 離開

17. lose 輸,遺失

18. make  做

19. meet 碰面

20. quit戒,辭職

21. read 閱讀

22. ride 騎

23. run 跑

24. see 看

25. sell 賣

26. sing 唱歌

27. sit 坐

28. sleep 睡

29. speak 說

30. spend 花費

31. swim 游泳

32. take 拿

33. think 想

34. wear 穿

35. win 贏

36. write 寫

was/werebought

came

did

drank

drove

ate

found

flew

forgot

got

gave

went

had

knew

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

rode

ran

saw

sold

sang

sat

slept

spoke

spent

swam

took

thought

wore

won

wrote

beenbought

come

done

drunk

driven

eaten

found

flown

forgotten

gotten

given

gone

had

known

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

ridden

run

seen

sold

sung

sat

slept

spoken

spent

swum

taken

thought

worn

won

written

beingbuying

coming

doing

drinking

driving

eating

finding

flying

forgetting

getting

giving

going

having

knowing

leaving

losing

making

meeting

quitting

reading

riding

running

seeing

selling

singing

sitting

sleeping

speaking

spending

swimming

taking

thinking

wearing

winning

writing

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.8

B.  現在完成式與過去簡單式的不同

a. 比較

現在完成式Present Perfect 過去簡單式Simple Pas
  1. 用來表達過去某個時間開始的事情,持續到現在,可能持續到未來。

I have lived in Taipei for 20 years.

2. 用來表達發生在過去不特定時間發生的事情。強調與現在之間的關係。

They have decided to get married.

He has been to Japan twice.

3. 用來表達事情發生在一段期間內,而這期間還沒有結束。

I have read two books today.

  1. 用來表達過去發生的某件事情,在過去已經結束了。

I lived in Sydney for 2 years.

2. 用來表達過去特定時間發生的事情。強調過去的時間。

They decided to get married last night.

He was in Japan last year.

3. 用來表達事情發生在一段期間內,而這期間已經結束。

I read two books last night.

b . 使用

我們常用現在完成式來表達生活中的經驗。

I have been to Japan three times.

用過去簡單式來說明某件事發生確切時間。

I went to Japan last year.

所以我們問經驗的時候會先用現在完成式來問,回答也用現在完成式。但是接下來的問題會用過去式來得到其他更詳盡的資料,而回答時也用過去式。

A: Have you been to Japan?

B: Yes, I’ve been to Japan twice.

A: Really. When was the last time you went to Japan?

B: I went there last May. I went to Hokkaido.

A: How did you like it?

B: I loved it. It was beautiful and people are very friendly.

 

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.9

C.  現在完成式與過去簡單式的不同

b. 根據括號內提示的動詞,用現在完成式或過去簡單式完成句子

1

A: _______ you ever _________ anyone famous? (meet)

B: Yes, I ______, actually.  When I ______ in Mexico on vacation. (be)

A: Really? Who _____ you ______ ? (meet)

B: Michael Jackson. He _____ in the same restaurant as me. (be)

2.

A: ________ you ever ________ a diary? (write)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ one when I was a teenager. (write)

A: ________ you ________ it every day? (write)

B: No, I _________. Only when I ______ on holiday. (be)

3.

A: ________ you ever _______ to France? (go)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ there six years ago. (go)

A: Where ______ you _______ ? (stay)

B: I _______ an apartment near Bordeaux. (rent)

4.

A: ______ your mother ever _____ to a rock concert? (go)

B: Yes, she _____. She _______to one or two when she was young. (go)

A: Who _____ she _______? (see)

B: Well, I know she _____ David Bowie before he ______famous. (see,

become)

5.

A: ______ you ever _____ to play an instrument? (learn)

B: No, I ________. What about you?

A: Well, I _____ to learn the piano at school. (try)

B: ______ you any good? (be)

A: No, I ______ no idea what I was doing! (have)

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.10

D.  現在完成進行式

一、現在完成進行式的使用時機

1. 我們用現在完成進行式來表達某件事情或某個動作在過去開始,持續了一段

時間到現在,這個狀況還沒結束,很可能會持續到未來。

I have been waiting here for thirty minutes.

They have been sitting in class since 8 o’clock.

2. 我們用現在完成進行事來表達某件事情或動作剛剛結束,現在沒有發生,但

是可以看到一些動作的結果。

The kids have been playing here. Their toys are all over the room.

It’s been raining. The streets are still wet.

 

二、現在完成進行式的句型為:主詞+have/has+been+現在分詞(V-ing)

1. 肯定句S + have/has + been + V-ing

S   +  have/has  +  been  + V-ing

I      have been living here since I was born.

They   have been swimming.

She    has been working all day.

2. 否定句在助動詞have/has後面加not

S  +  haven’t/hasn’t + been + V-ing

I      haven’t been studying.

You     haven’t been making any progress.

He      hasn’t been waiting.

3. Yes/No 問句把助動詞have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has + S + been + V-ing

Have      you  been running?

Have      they been touring the U.S.?

Has        he  been writing his essay?

4.WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH            have/has    +   S    +   been + V-ing

How long         have          you       been waiting?

Who             has           she       been talking to?

How many people  have                     been standing in line?

三、現在完成進行式的副詞如:all day, all morning, today 等。也常跟介系詞for與since連用…等。

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.11

E.  現在完成式與現在完成進行式的不同

現在完成式Present Perfect 現在完成進行式Present Perfect Progressive
  1. 用來表達過去不特定期間發生的事情,動作已經結束,但是結果跟現在有關。強調結果。

I’ve read a book.

(I finished the book.)

She’s written an article.

(She finished the article.)

2. 用來表達完成了多少how much,做過多少次how many times,做了多少事情how many things。

I’ve read a lot about it.

I’ve been to Africa twice.

She’s written three articles.

3. 某些動詞用現在完成式與現在完成進行式表達的意義基本上是相同的。這些動詞是用來表達常態性,習慣性的活動,如:live, work, teach, study, smoke, play, wear glasses, read等等。

She’s studied pandas for two years.

I have lived here for ten years.

  1. 用來表達過去發生的事情,這動作還沒有結束,可能持續到未來。強調的是動作的持續。

I’ve been reading a book.

(I’m still reading it.)

She’s been writing an article. (She’s still writing it.)

2. 用來表達某件事情發生了多久

I’ve been reading books on pandas for two months.

3. 某些動詞用現在完成式與現在完成進行式表達的意義基本上是相同的。這些動詞是用來表達常態性,習慣性的活動,如:live, work, teach, study, smoke, play, wear glasses, read等等。

She’s been studying pandas for two years.

I’ve been living here for ten years.

Complete the conversations. 用現在完成式或現在完成進行式來完成句子

A: What are you doing, Trevor? (1) ___________ (you/be) in here for ages.

You’re making an awful mess.

B: (2) _________________ (I/clean) out this cupboard most of the afternoon.

There’s a lot of old stuff in here. (3) ______________ (I/find) these, look.

A: (4) ________________ (you/sit) there staring at those old boots for the

last five minutes. (5) _____________ (I/watch) you. (6) _____________

(you/be) in a dream.

A: They’re football boots. (7) _____________ (I/have) them since I was about

sixteen. (8) ________________ (they/be) in here for years.

A: Well, throw them away. And what about that tennis racket? Is that yours?

B: No, it must be yours. (9) ________________ (I/never/have) a tennis racket.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.12

F.  過去完成式

一、過去完成式的使用時機

1. 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生

在過去某個時間點前。

By 1960 most of Britain’s old colonies had become independent.

2. 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

I went to the box office at lunch-time, but they had already sold al the

tickets.

3. 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連

句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The bus had left before he got there.

The bus left before he got there.

二、過去完成式的句型為:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

1. 肯定句句型:S + had + V3

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished.

2. 否定句句型:S + had + not + V3

They hadn’t gone home until late.

3. Yes/No 問句句型:Had + S + V3?

Had he enjoyed the party?

4. WH 問句句型: WH + had + S + V3?

Where had he put his wallet?

G. 時態比較

句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1. When John arrived, they had diner. 當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.) 約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2. When John arrived, they were having dinner.當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3. When John arrived, they had had dinner. 當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.) 在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4. When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。

5. When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I miss the beginning.

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開始。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.13

G.  Add a sentence with the Past Perfect using the notes.

Claire looked very suntanned when I saw her last week.

She had just been on holiday. (just/be on holiday)

1. We rushed to the station, but we were too late.

______________________________ (the train/just/go)

2. I didn’t have an umbrella, but that didn’t matter.

______________________________ (the rain/stop)

3. When I got to the concert hall, they wouldn’t let me in.

______________________________ (forget/my ticket)

4. Someone got the number of the car the raiders used.

______________________________ (steal/it/a week before)

5. I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday.

______________________________ (not see/her/for ages)

6. Luckily the flat didn’t look too bad when my parents called in.

______________________________ (just/clean/it)

7. The boss invited me to lunch yesterday, but I had to refuse the invitation.

______________________________ (already/eat/my sandwiches)

H. 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的時態完成句子。

  1. I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).
  2. Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.
  3. We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.
  4. I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.
  5. It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.
  6. They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.
  7. I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ a lot in 20 years.
  8. The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.14

Answer Key

A. 一、

1.

a.

1. for  2. since  3. since  4. for  5. since  6. since

b.

1. I have studied at this school for three months.

2. I have know my best friend since college.

3. They have been married for over 30 years.

4. I have had my current hairstyle since this spring.

5. I have had my cell phone since last September.

6. I have been up for 12 hours.

2.

a.

1. Have you decided which one to buy yet?

2. I have already explained this to you three times.

3. Their baby son has already started talking.

4. Have you phoned Jane yet?

5. The game has not finished yet.

6. I have already had lunch.

7. He has already spent all his money.

b.

1. haven’t read

2. have lost

3. have booked

4. has not happened

5. Have you replied

6. It has just started

7. She has just finished

8. I have just sold

四、

/t/ cooked, relaxed, shopped, talked, watched
/d/ cleaned, listened, studied, played, cried
/ɪd/ wanted, invited, needed, visited, waited

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.15

C.

b.

1. Have, met, have, was, did, meet, was

2. Have, written, have, wrote, Did, write, didn’t, was

3. Have, been, have, went, did, stay, rented

4. Has, been, has, went, did, see, saw, became

5. Have, learned, haven’t, tried, Were, had

E.

(1) You have been

(2) I have been cleaning

(3) I have found

(4) You have been sitting

(5) I have been watching

(6) You have been

(7) I have had

(8) They have been

(9) I have never had

G.

  1. The train had just gone.
  2. The rain had stopped.
  3. I had forgotten my ticket.
  4. They had stolen it a week before.
  5. I hadn’t seen her in ages.
  6. I had just cleaned it.
  7. I had already eaten my sandwiches.

 

H.

1. called, had broken down

2. beat, was winning, scored

3. arrived, had finished, were sitting

4. ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5. started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6. were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7. didn’t recognize, had changed

8. had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing

過去時態:過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式 用法與區別

2016/04/16

下面有新寫的過去完成式跟現在完成式與過去簡單式的文,更多的例子跟練習:)

 

Past Perfect 過去完成式詳解,與過去簡單式用法的區別

 

現在完成式與過去簡單式用法的區別 Present Perfect and Past Simple

 

2016/11/17 YouTube 影片版

用法與區別

 

 

練習題解答

潔西家進階文法教室              Jessie

 

過去時態:過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式 用法與區別

American English File 3, Oxford Practice Grammar, Grammar Express

 

這裡因為做比較跟區別,所以最前面放例句,然後是句型,接下來是使用的時機。再來是混合的練習題。題目做多了真的會比較有概念。

 

另外潔西自己在動詞的不同形態方面比較偷懶

V1:原形動詞 base form 也就是動詞的第一態,現在簡單式,不定詞後面

I go to bed at 2 a.m. /  My brother takes the MRT to work.

V2:過去動詞 paste tense 也就是動詞的第二態,過去簡單式

I went to bed at 2 a.m.   / My brother took the MRT to work today..

V3:過去分詞 past participle 也就是動詞的第三態,現在完成,過去完成,未

來完成,被動:

I have eaten breakfast. / I hit him. — He was hit by me.

V-ing:現在分詞 present participle 也就現在分詞,進行式

 

work, worked, worked, working

eat, ate, eaten, eating

A 過去簡單式Past Simple:

主要就是在描述過去發生的某件事情。記得用主詞跟動詞的過去式。說過去的事情最常用的就是過去簡單式。

 

It all happened very quickly. The car came straight out of the side road, and the van went into the back of it. The van driver didn’t have a chance. It was the car driver’s fault.

一切發生的非常快。那台汽車直接從旁邊衝出來,而那台貨車撞到汽車的後面。貨車司機完全沒有機會(閃避)。是汽車司機的錯。

 

這上面有幾個過去式的動詞呢?數數看。詞性要記住才分辨得出來喔。

 

It was all my fault.  / My bad.

 

一共有五個,算對了嗎?

 

記句型的時候要把肯定句,否定句跟疑問句的用法都一起記喔

get married, get engaged, get divorced.

 

1 句型 Forms:主詞+動詞的過去式(S + V2):

肯定:They got married last year.    My dog ate my homework.

否定:I didn’t have time to do homework.

疑問:What time did you get up this morning?

past——————x———————now——————–future 2

2 使用時機Use:

在什麼時候用非常重要,通常用在一個在過去完成的動作,常跟過去時間連用

a 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

I ate a bread and coffee for breakfast. (x)

I ate bread and drank coffee for breakfast.

I had bread and coffee for breakfast.

 

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when they crashed.

While I was taking a shower, someone called.

c 過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的動作。

We arrived at the beach.

 

 

 

B 過去進行式Past Continuous

用來說明過去某個時間正在進行的動作,持續的動作。句型用主詞加上was/were再加上動詞加ing。S + was/were + V-ing

 

I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting in a park. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. Children were playing and laughing. It was very peaceful. I didn’t want to wake up.

我做天晚上做了個美夢。我在公園坐著。太陽閃耀地照著,鳥兒在唱歌。小孩們說說笑笑。非常的寧靜。我一點都不想醒來。

 

這裡是把過去簡單式跟過去進行式合併使用。描述活動故事背景的時候常用過去進行式,用過去進行式來表示過去某個時間點發生的事,或持續的動作。時態常會像這樣混合使用喔,先前有學生問說問什麼不全部用過去簡單式,恩,說故事的時候強調的東西不一樣,這裡比較有背景跟主題,強調當時的狀況,所以後面不想起來。有時候真的也很難解釋的清楚,多做題目,多看多聽多運用就會比較有概念。

 

1 句型Forms:主詞+Be動詞的過去式(was/were)+動詞-ing (S + Be2 + V-ing)

A: What were you doing at six o’clock last night?

B: I was watching TV. I wasn’t studying. My parents were watching

TV with me.

 

 

 

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間持續進行的動作。強調動作的過程。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

multi-tasking

 

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

I was crossing the street when the driver honked his horn.

 

c 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景

The sun was shining.

所以說故事的時候,故事的背景會用過去進行式,描述內容的時候會用過去

簡單式。

 

 

C 過去完成式Past Perfect

描述過去的兩件事情中先發生的第一件事,或是用來說過去某個時間點前發生的事。完成式都是用來表示一件事情發生在另外一件事情之前,所以假如只有單純的描述過去發生的某件事就只要用過去簡單式就可以,這時候不需要用過去完成式。也就是說當描述過去發生了兩件事時,先發生的事會用過去完成式,後發生的會用過去簡單式來表達。

 

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. We hadn’t gone to bed until after one. I hadn’t been on the train long when I had a bit of shock. I suddenly realized that I had left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn’t remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.

我昨天搭火車上班的時候覺得很累因為莎拉跟我前一個晚上去了一個派對。我們到一點鐘才上床睡覺。我上火車沒多久就嚇到。我突然發現我把錢包忘在家裡。然後我開始懷疑。我是前一天忘在辦公室了嗎?我就是記不起來。我很想回床上睡覺。我覺得糟透了。

hangover  醉後大丈夫

1 句型Forms:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished.

(比賽在打開電視前就開始了)

They hadn’t gone home until late.

Where had he put his wallet?   Where did I put my wallet?

 

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生在

過去某個時間點前。

By 1933 Oprah Winfrey had become famous.

By November 9th Donald Trump had won the election.

 

b 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

 

c 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連接

句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The man had arrived at the store before it opened.

The man arrived at the store before it opened.

 

特別注意句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1 When John arrived, they had diner.

1                                      2

當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.)

約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2 When John arrived, they were having dinner.

當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3 When John arrived, they had had/had eaten dinner.

2                                      1

當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.)

在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4 When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

1                              2

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。(我先開電視,節目才開始)

5 When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I missed the

beginning.  2                                1

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開頭。(節目先開始,我才開電視)

When I turned on the TV, the singer was singing.

 

 

D 翻譯練習:用過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式來翻譯下面的句子。

(翻譯其實會有很多不同的答案,但是主要時態跟句型要對)

 

這邊先放問題,可以練習的,下面接著是在影片中講解的,最後是可以直接對答案的

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

 

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

 

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

 

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

 

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

 

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

 

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

 

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

 

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

 

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

 

 

E Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous

or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

 

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

 

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

mid term, final exam,

 

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

 

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

 

 

 

 

F Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the

parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I

was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的

時態完成句子。

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

 

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

 

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

 

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

 

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

 

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

 

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

 

 

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

 

 

影片的解說答案

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

(strange-looking)的男人。

I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

While I was waiting at the checkout, I noticed a strange-looking man.

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

I was really pleased to see Rachel again. I had seen her for a long time.

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

I was sleeping when you called last night.

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter

everywhere.

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

The bill wasn’t right. They had made a mistake.

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

The match was over. United had won.

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

When I was waiting for the bus, you drove past me.

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

When Laura was sitting in the park, it suddenly began to rain.

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

 

E Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous

or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

When I arrived, they were watching TV.

 

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

When she called him, he had left the office.

 

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

mid term, final exam,

The test didn’t go well although I had studied for the test the night

before.

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

When he was driving to work this morning, he had an accident.

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

When he passed his driving test, he only had had five lessons.

 

 

 

F Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the

parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I

was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的

時態完成句子。

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

I was waiting to play tennis yesterday when my partner called me to say that he couldn’t come because his car had broken down.

 

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

Chicago beat Boston yesterday. Boston was winning 44-39 in the first half, but Chicago scored 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

 

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

We were late. When we arrived, everyone had finished their lunch and they were sitting in the living room having coffee.

 

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

I ran to the station, but the six o’clock train had already left. The train station was empty except for three people who were waiting for the next train.

 

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

It started raining when he was walking to work. He stopped a taxi because he wasn’t wearing a coat and he didn’t have an umbrella.

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

They were driving to the airport when they suddenly remembered that hadn’t turned off the lights.

 

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

I didn’t recognize many people at my old school reunion because everyone had changed a lot in 20 years.

 

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

The game had already started when we turned on the TV. Costa Rica

was losing 1:0 and they were playing very badly.

 

 

 

答案在下面,不要偷看啊。可以一個大題一個大題的做。做完一大題對答案,確定懂後再往下做。

 

 

 

 

D 翻譯

1       I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

2      I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday. I hadn’t seen her for ages.

3      I was sleeping when you called last night.

4      After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter everywhere.

5      This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

6      The match was over. United had won.

7      You drove right past me when I was waiting for the bus.

8      The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

9      When Laura was sitting in the garden, it suddenly began to rain.

10    I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

 

 

E

1 were watching

2 had left

3 had studied

4 was driving

5 had only had

 

F

1 was waiting, called, had broken down

2 beat, was winning, scored

3 arrived, had finished, were sitting

4 ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5 started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6 were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7 didn’t recognize, had changed

8 had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing

2015/10/30 一早五點二十起床,發現昨天改到一半的文章居然不見了,唉呀。再重新寫囉。不知為何這篇的點閱率目前最高,不過呢,學生在國外還有上過會話班的同學都有提到 Google 到這一篇。時態實在有點難,不過花點時間還是可以大致上弄得清楚的。有再修了一下,希望可以表達得更清楚:)

過去完成式大概是同學使用錯誤頻率最高的之一,另外再加上過去簡單式,過去進行式,大概可以把人弄瘋。通通用在說過去,為什麼要這麼麻煩,對不起,英文不是潔西發明的,約定俗成,中文更難學,這樣想應該心情會好一點。

不過說真的這幾個過去的時態挺容易讓人弄不清楚的,而且假如用錯時態的話,意思可能會完全不同。所以是值得花點時間好好弄懂。不過因為中文實在沒有類似的時態用法,所以要弄懂真的需要花一點時間跟心血。這是明天要上課剛好講到的部分,所以花了一點時間整理,上次講到時態同學整個就說聽不懂,所以呢希望做個講義能夠比較有點概念。這個部分真的不容易,初學者的話可以先跳過,因為實在有點複雜。

想弄懂也不是很難真的就是先理解,多看例子,比較清楚在什麼樣的狀態下要用什麼時態,不要死背,理解後多做例子,所以潔西後面放了很多練習題,也有答案。最重要是把句型跟什麼時候用分清楚,然後多觀察看到的句子聽到的句子是使用什麼樣的時態,最後自己再多練習把他們用出來,那就真的學會了。假如看一遍做了一遍還是不懂不要擔心,潔西也是做了很多遍,看了很多書才懂得,所以慢慢來,一遍不懂再看第二遍,還是不懂在看第三遍,總有一天一定會懂得,加油!上課要來不及了,衝啊!

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:)

參考書籍:American English File 3, Oxford Practice Grammar, Grammar Express

這裡因為做比較跟區別,所以最前面放例句,然後是句型,接下來是使用的時機。再來是混合的練習題。題目做多了真的會比較有概念。另外潔西自己在動詞的不同形態方面比較偷懶,原形動詞用 V1 表示,過去式動詞 past tense,也就是動詞的第二態用 V2 表示,動詞的第三態也就是過去分詞 past participle 則用 V3 來表示,而現在分詞 present participle 則用 V-ing 來表示。應該只有潔西自己這樣用,覺得比較好記,看得時候知道就好了。

 

這下面是原本的,跟上面一樣,只是上面有說明,所以就多放一次

 

A. 過去簡單式Past Simple: 主要就是在描述過去發生的某件事情。記得用主詞跟動詞的過去式。說過去的事情最常用的就是過去簡單式。

It all happened very quickly. The car came straight out of the side road, and the van went into the back of it. The Van driver didn’t have a chance. It was the car driver’s fault. 一切發生的非常快。那台汽車直接從旁邊衝出來,而那台貨車撞到汽車的後面。貨車司機完全沒有機會(閃避)。是汽車司機的錯。

這上面有幾個過去式的動詞呢?數數看。詞性要記住才分辨得出來喔。一共有五個,算對了嗎?

1. 句型Forms:主詞+動詞的過去式(S + V2):記句型的時候要把肯定句,否定句跟疑問句的用法都一起記喔

They got married last year.

I didn’t have time to do homework.

What time did you get up this morning.

2. 使用時機Use:在什麼時候用非常重要,通常用在一個在過去完成的動作,常跟過去時間連用

a. 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

b. 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when they crashed.

c. 過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的動作。

We arrived at the beach.

B. 過去進行式Past Continuous:用來說明過去某個時間正在進行的動作,持續的動作。句型用主詞加上was/were再加上動詞加ing。S + was/were + V-ing

I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting in a park. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. Children were playing and laughing. It was very peaceful. I didn’t want to wake up. 我做天晚上做了個美夢。我在公園坐著。太陽閃耀地照著,鳥兒在唱歌。小孩們說說笑笑。非常的寧靜。我一點都不想醒來。

這裡是把過去簡單式跟過去進行式合併使用。描述活動故事背景的時候常用過去進行式,用過去進行式來表示過去某個時間點發生的事,或持續的動作。時態常會像這樣混合使用喔,先前有學生問說問什麼不全部用過去簡單式,恩,說故事的時候強調的東西不一樣,這裡比較有背景跟主題,強調當時的狀況,所以後面不想起來。有時候真的也很難解釋的清楚,多做題目,多看多聽多運用就會比較有概念。

1. 句型Forms:主詞+Be動詞的過去式(was/were)+動詞-ing (S + Be2 + V-ing)

A: What were you doing at six o’clock last night?

B: I was watching TV. I wasn’t studying. My parents were watching TV with me.

2. 使用時機Use:

a. 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間持續進行的動作。強調動作的過程。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

b. 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

I was crossing the street when the driver honked his horn.

c. 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景

The sun was shining.

所以說故事的時候,故事的背景會用過去進行式,描述內容的時候會用過去簡單式。

C. 過去完成式Past Perfect:描述過去的兩件事情中先發生的第一件事,或是用來說過去某個時間點前發生的事。完成式都是用來表示一件事情發生在另外一件事情之前,所以假如只有單純的描述過去發生的某件事就只要用過去簡單式就可以,這時候不需要用過去完成式。也就是說當描述過去發生了兩件事時,先發生的事會用過去完成式,後發生的會用過去簡單式來表達。

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. We hadn’t gone to bed until after one. I hadn’t been on the train long when I had a bit of shock. I suddenly realized that I had left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn’t remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful. 我昨天搭火車上班的時候覺得很累因為莎拉跟我前一個晚上去了一個派對。我們到一點鐘才上床睡覺。我上火車沒多久就嚇到。我突然發現我把錢包忘在家裡。然後我開始懷疑。我是前一天忘在辦公室了嗎?我就是記不起來。我很想回床上睡覺。我覺得糟透了。

1. 句型Forms:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished. (比賽在打開電視前就開始了)

They hadn’t gone home until late.

Where had he put his wallet?

2. 使用時機Use:

a. 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生在過去某個時間點前。

By 1933 Oprah Winfrey had become famous.

b. 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

c. 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連接句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The man had arrived at the store before it opened.

The man arrived at the store before it opened.

特別注意句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1. When John arrived, they had diner. 當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.) 約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2. When John arrived, they were having dinner.當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3. When John arrived, they had had dinner. 當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.) 在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4. When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。(我先開電視,節目才開始)

5. When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I missed the beginning.

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開頭。(節目先開始,我才開電視)

D. 翻譯練習:用過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式來翻譯下面的句子。

(翻譯其實會有很多不同的答案,但是主要時態跟句型要對)

1. 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長得很奇怪(strange-looking)的男人。

2. 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

3. 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

4. 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

5. 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

6. 比賽結束。United贏了。

7. 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

8. 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

9. 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

10. 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

E. Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1. They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

2. He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

3. I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

4. He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

5. He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

6. I ______________ (wait) to paly tennis yesterday when

F. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的時態完成句子。

  1. I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).
  2. Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.
  3. We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.
  4. I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.
  5. It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.
  6. They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.
  7. I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ a lot in 20 years.
  8. The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

答案在下面,不要偷看啊。可以一個大題一個大題的做。做完一大題對答案,確定懂後再往下做。

D. 翻譯

  1. I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.
  2. I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday. I hadn’t seen her for ages.
  3. I was sleeping when you called last night.
  4. After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter everywhere.
  5. This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.
  6. The match was over. United had won.
  7. You drove right past me when I was waiting for the bus.
  8. The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.
  9. When Laura was sitting in the garden, it suddenly began to rain.
  10. I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

E.

1. were watching

2. had left

3. had studied

4. was driving

5. had only had

F.

1. was waiting, called, had broken down

2. beat, was winning, scored

3. arrived, had finished, were sitting

4. ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5. started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6. were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7. didn’t recognize, had changed

8. had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing