【潔西家】Past Perfect 過去完成式

2020/09/19

有求必應的潔西又來了。昨天有人問潔西有沒有過去完成式的影片,有寫一篇沒有錄影片的,很長,另外有一篇是比較過去簡單,過去進行,過去完成,然後第一支影片就五十五分,第二隻還有題目講解更長,好吧。今天做了短版的。影片十三分,翻譯講解九分,應該是比較正常人想看的吧?

昨天早上在備課的時候,想說,哇,又一個星期過去沒有好好休息了。週末要上課,星期一二備課,星期三四上課,星期五又在備課,都沒休息耶,人,真的不能隨便亂想。才這麼想後來就頭痛了。偏頭痛嚴重到就是躺在床上乖乖地休息,什麼都不能做,連滑手機都沒力氣,躺在床上看日本綜藝節目,一邊看,一邊單邊眼睛掉眼淚。有人可以自主單邊流淚嗎?我是不行,應該很少有人可以的吧?但是呢偏頭痛的時候通常通哪邊就會哪邊流淚,真是非常奇妙啊,就躺著一邊痛到流淚,因為睡了又醒,醒了又睡,躺太久沒事做,所以看一下電視,就是躺了一個下午跟晚上啊。能看到潔西發廢文真的是好事,表示沒生病啊!

剛剛整理一下,錄了個影片,失敗,又再錄一次,但是也太耗時了吧,中間洗了個澡,其他時間就是改改講義,整理一下,錄個影片,這樣子就四個小時過去了,明天早上又要上課,好累了,要儲備體力去了,晚安晚安!

過去完成式例子與解說

翻譯練習解說

past———x———————now ————————future  

               1    

1 過去簡單式     I lived in Keelung. 

past———x———x————now————————future

              1          2

1 過去完成式     I had lived in Keelung

2 過去簡單式     before I moved to Taipei last year.

I live in Keelung. 我現在住基隆。

I lived in Keelung. 我先前住基隆。

I have lived in Keelung for five years. 我住在基隆五年了。(現在還是住基隆)

A 過去完成式的句型:主詞+had+V3

a 肯定句句型為 S + had  + V3 (V3指的是動詞的第三態,過去分詞)

   肯定句  S  + had  + V3

I  had lived in Keelung before I moved to Taipei last year. 我去年搬到台北之前住基隆。

My family   had    already had dinner when I got home. 當我到家時,我的家人已經吃晚餐了。

b 否定與問句需要有 had 這個助動詞來幫忙。否定句在助動詞後面加 not

   否定句   S   + had +  not   + V3

He had not slept for 24 hours by then.  在那之前,他已經二十四小時沒睡了。

It had not rained for weeks before the typhoon came. 在颱風來之前,已經好幾個星期沒下雨了。

c Yes/No 問句把助動詞 had 放在主詞前面造問句

     Had + S  +  V3

Had you surfed the Net before you left home this morning? 你早上離家前有上網嗎?

Had they left when you got there? 當你到那裡的時候他們離開了嗎?

d WH 問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞、主詞、動詞

     WH       had +  S  + V3

How long had you known your wife before you got married? 你結婚前你認識你老婆多久了?

Where had she been? 她去了哪裡?

B 使用時機

a

過去完成式是用來表達比過去的某段時間在更早一些。也就是當在談論過去發生的事情時,要表達比那個時間還更早的時間發生的事。讓時間順序清楚地表達。

1 During our conversation, I realized that we had met before. 在我們講話的時候,我發現我們見過面。. 

2 When I arrived at the party, Lucy had already gone home. 當我抵達派對時,Lucy 已經回家了。

3 They never found where he had hidden the gold. 他們從來都沒找到他藏的金子。

b

過去完成式也常用在表達過去的想法或意見如有 said, talked, thought, wondered 等句子中所陳述的發生事情,這些事件是發生在表達想法或意見之前。

4 I told her that I had finished. 我跟他說我完成了。

5 I wondered who had left the door open. 我在想是誰讓門開著。

6 I thought I had sent the mail a week before. 我以為我在一個星期前寄了郵件。

c

過去完成式會用在假設語氣中跟過去事實相反的假設。假設語氣可以分跟現在或未來可能成真的假設,跟現在事實相反的假設,還有一個就是跟過去事實相反,沒有發生的假設,多半有那種早知如此,當初應該怎麼怎麼做的那種意思。這個句型 if 帶領的假設子句 會用 if + S + had + V3 (if+主詞+had+過去分詞),而主要子句會用 S + would/could/should + have + V3 (主詞+would/could/should+have+過去分詞)

7 If he had gone to university, he would have studied medicine. 假如他去念大學的話,他會是念醫藥學。(實際上他過去沒有念大學,他過去也沒有念醫藥學)

8 I wish you had told me the truth. 我但願你有跟我說實話。

9 We wouldn’t have been late if we had caught the train. 我們假如搭上火車的話就不會遲到了。(實際上我們過去沒有趕上火車,我們遲到了)

d

過去完成式跟 it was the first/second/only … that … 連用。跟現在完成式的用法雷同,不過說的是過去第一次/第二次/唯一一次等什麼事情發生,that 後面用的是過去完成式。

10 It was the first time that I had seen the movie. 那是我第一次看到這部電影。

11 It was only the second opera I had seen in my life. 那是我這輩子第二次看歌劇。

12 That was the only time he had fired a gun. 那是他唯一一次開槍。

This is the best movie I’ve ever seen. 這是我看過最棒的電影。(看完的當下說)

That was the best movie I had ever seen. 那是我看過最棒的電影。(先前看的)

翻譯練習

1 沒人來那個派對因為潔西忘記跟大家說關於這件事。

2 當他進來的時候,我們都知道他去過哪裡。

3 因為他很久沒檢查汽油,車子壞掉了。

4 當我到家的時候,比賽已經開始了。

5 在我寫下我的感受後,我覺得好多了。

6 在她不再試著減肥後,她看起來健康多了。

7 我昨天晚上看了音樂劇。那是我第一次看音樂劇。

8 我沒有等你是因為我以為你已經離開了。

9 當我到公車站的時候,我發現我把口罩放在家裡了。

10 假如我沒有吃那麼多的話,我就不會肚子痛了。

翻譯練習 答案

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.

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1 沒人來那個派對因為潔西忘記跟大家說關於這件事。

1 Nobody came to the party because Jessie had forgotten to tell people about it. 

2 當他進來的時候,我們都知道他去過哪裡。

2 When he came in, we all knew where he had been. 

3 因為他很久沒檢查汽油,車子壞掉了。

3 Because he hadn’t checked the gas for a long time, the car broken down. 

4 當我到家的時候,比賽已經開始了。

4 When I got home, the game had already started. 

5 在我寫下我的感受後,我覺得好多了。

5 After I had written down my feelings, I felt much better. 

6 在她不再試著減肥後,她看起來健康多了。

6 After she had stopped trying to lose weight, she looked much healthier. 

7 我昨天晚上看了音樂劇。那是我第一次看音樂劇。

7 I watched a musical last night. It was the first time I had watched a musical. 

8 我沒有等你是因為我以為你已經離開了。

8 I didn’t wait for you because I thought you had left. 

9 當我到公車站的時候,我發現我把口罩放在家裡了。

9 When I got to the bus station, I found out that I had left my mask home. 

10 假如我沒有吃那麼多的話,我就不會肚子痛了。

10 If I hadn’t eaten that much, I wouldn’t have had a stomachache. 

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級14 過去完成式 Past Perfect

前幾天上完課後,一邊聊天一邊走路去坐公車的時候,學生突然說,老師,過去完成的事情就用過去完成式,對吧?不對不對,用過去簡單式就好了,過去完成式會出現一定是要有一個過去簡單式的時間點出現才會要用過去完成式。超級常被用錯的時態,找了找先前寫的講義,天啊,寫得還蠻糟糕的,明明當下花了很多時間寫的,現在看了卻意外嫌棄自己寫的東西,嗚嗚。

所以想要寫一篇簡單清楚又容易明瞭的講義,今天寫了很久,造句最難,寫到一半跑出去游泳,下午兩點多這個時間人不多,游完四點多走路回家的時候路上車子也不多,挺悠哉的。回到家繼續寫,六點多煮個麻油雞來吃,看個相捧,然後又繼續寫,寫完之後就開始錄影片,剛剛發現,啊現在居然快要十二點了,我也太會摸了。不過這個星期寫過去完成式的心願完成,開心。而且晚上開始下雨了,本來打算明天去游泳的,今天去了真好,明天一定會偷懶的。

耳朵進水有東西卡在那裡超不舒服的,游完之後脖子後面好緊,超不舒服的,啊,忘了,難怪時間那麼快,吃飽飯之後寫了一下的時候躺在床上休息一下就睡著了,睡了兩個小時左右吧?最近其實肩頸痛得超厲害的,開始去復健診所做電療,效果有限,所以想說運動不知道會不會有用,試著游泳看看,能順便減肥當然是最好的囉,哈哈。另外眼睛最近也很不舒服,啊,又忘記換眼鏡了。配了一副看近專用的眼鏡,但是常常忘記換,醫生說會造成眼睛肌肉疲勞,沒有換的話,最近眼睛真的痠痛的很厲害,所以很多廢話想說也不太能寫。再來就是也有點嚴重的脘隧道症候群。今天打字已經上限了,開始痛了。心理學有個詞叫做 flow ,現在有人翻心流,就是進入某個專注的狀態的時候時間過得超快,不知不覺忘了其他該注意的事,潔西很容易會連續寫個兩三個小時,連上廁所都忘記啊。現在全身都不舒服,所以要睡覺去了,耳朵不舒服,眼睛不舒服,手不舒服,肩頸背都不舒服,想做的事也要有健康的身體才能好好的做啊,肚子餓了,真糟糕,還是乖乖睡覺去吧,晚安!

想要說的很簡單,實在有點難,因為是個很容易被誤解的時態,所以從頭把現在簡單式,過去簡單式跟現在完成式先複習一下。希望會是個容易懂的影片,講到後面的練習例子時,又把過去進行式加進去了,所以呢,假如前面幾個時態還不是很清楚的話,最好先複習一下再來看會比較清楚喔!有問題或還是不清楚的地方再留言!對了,講義用看的很能比較沒有那麼容易懂,有空的時候看影片會比較清楚喔,雖然不知不覺講了三十分鐘…

 

 

 

a 現在簡單式: past ———X——X——X——— nXw ———X——X——X—— future

主詞 S + 動詞原型 V1                        

I work every day. / I eat an egg every day.

 

d 過去簡單式:past —————X—————— now ——————————— future

主詞 S + 過去式動詞 V2

I worked yesterday. / I ate an egg yesterday.

 

c 現在完成式:past ————————XXXXXX now ——————————— future

主詞 S + have/has + 過去分詞 V3    

I have worked all day. / I have eaten six eggs today.

 

d 過去完成式:past ———X1——X2———— now ——————————— future

主詞 S + had + 過去分詞 V3

When I arrived at the party, my ex-boyfriend left.

             X1                                             X2

When I arrived at the party, my ex-boyfriend had left.

            X2                                                 X1

 

ㄧ 過去完成式句型

1 肯定句:主詞(S)+had+過去分詞(V3)   

                  I         had     eaten too much.

          The plane     had     left.

 

2 否定句:主詞(S)+had+not +過去分詞(V3)

              She         had   not    eaten anything all day.

                He         had   not    slept for 24 hours.

 

3 Yes/No 問句:Had +主詞 (S) +過去分詞 (V3)

                       Had     you          eaten anything?

                       Had      he           lived in Tokyo?

 

4 WH 問句:WH 疑問詞 + had +主詞 (S) +過去分詞 (V3)

                     Where       had      you          been?

                     How long   had      you          waited?

 

二 過去完成式用法

1 單純地表達過去發生的事情的時候,用的是過去簡單式(主詞 S+過去式動詞 V2),而要表達比過去的某個時間點更早發生的事的時候,用的是過去完成式。也就是當要表達過去發生了兩件事情,一件事在另外一件事之前發生,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

I felt sick last night because I had eaten too much.

   2                                        1

When he arrived at the airport, the plane had left.

               2                                           1

She fainted because she had not eaten anything all day.

        2                            1

He hadn’t slept for 24 hours when the accident happened.

             1                                                      2

Had you eaten anything before you came here?

            1                                   2

Had he lived in Tokyo before he moved to Taipei?

            1                                 2

Where had you been before you came home?

                      1                    2

How long had you waited before you left?

                           1                     2

 

2 當兩件過去的事情的連接詞為 before, after, as soon as 等可以很清楚地表達時間的關係時,兩件事都可以用過去簡單式表達。

Before I went to work, I had eaten breakfast.

Before I went to work, I ate breakfast.

I took a shower after I had washed my hair.

I took a shower after I washed my hair.

As soon as I had gotten home, I changed clothes.

As soon as I got home, I changed clothes.

 

3 過去完成式會用在表達過去某個時間開始持續到過去的一個時間點為止的狀態。這種時候不可以用過去簡單式。

When I saw the doctor, I had been sick for a week.

When I saw the doctor, I was sick for a week. (X)

When they got married, they had known each other for ten years.

When they got married, they knew each other for ten years. (X)

When he left the job, he had worked in the company for twenty years.

 

翻譯練習

1 我們聊了一下後我發現我先前遇過他。

2 我到公車站的時候,公車已經走了。

3 Dean 打開電視的時候,節目已經開始了。

4 他們離婚的時候,已經結婚二十年。

5 我聽說他上星期辭職了。

6 她一寫完作業就上床睡覺。

7 郵局人很多。我等了三十分鐘才寄包裹。

8 今天開會的時候我的電話響了,超丟臉的,因為我忘記關手機了。

9 我十月去日本的時候寄了明信片回家。當我到家的時候明信片比我還早到。

10 我從捷運站走路回家的路上,停下來買麵包。我要付錢的時候發現我把錢包忘放在辦公室了。

 

答案:

翻譯練習

1 我們聊了一下後我發現我先前遇過他。

1 After we talked for a while, I realized that I had met him before.

 

2 我到公車站的時候,公車已經走了。

2 When I got to the bus station, the bus had already left.

 

3 Dean 打開電視的時候,節目已經開始了。

3 When Dean turned on the TV, the program had already started.

 

4 他們離婚的時候,已經結婚二十年。

4 When they got divorced, they had been married for twenty years.

 

5 我聽說他上星期辭職了。

5 I heard he had quit last week.

 

6 她一寫完作業就上床睡覺。

6 As soon as she had finished homework, she went to bed.

6 As soon as she finished homework, she went to bed.

 

7 郵局人很多。我等了三十分鐘才寄包裹。

7 The post office was busy. I had waited for thirty minutes before I sent the package.

7 The post office was busy. I waited for thirty minutes before I sent the package.

 

8 今天開會的時候我的電話響了,超丟臉的,因為我忘記關手機了。

8 My phone rang while I was having a meeting today. It was embarrassing because I had forgotten to turn off my cell phone.

8 My phone rang while I was having a meeting today. I was embarrassed because I hadn’t turned off my cell phone.

 

9 我十月去日本的時候寄了明信片回家。當我到家的時候明信片比我還早到。

9 When I went to Japan in October, I sent a postcard home. When I got home, the postcard had arrived earlier than me.

 

10 我從捷運站走路回家的路上,停下來買麵包。我要付錢的時候發現我把錢包忘放在辦公室了。

10 While I was walking home from the MRT station, I stopped to buy bread. When I wanted to pay, I found that I had left the wallet in the office.