【潔西家】過去進行式與過去完成進行式的不同

留言有過去進行式跟過去完成進行式的差別

為什麼會有在美國的學生想上潔西的文法課,在美國上不就得了,學生問?

大家會覺得奇怪嗎?潔西一點都不會覺得哪裡怪,因為很多年前就有過了啊,先前還有學生在美國念語言學校,寒假回來台灣,一個星期排五天衝刺文法。

通常是比較需要進階文法的學生,比較難的文法,用中文講學生可能都弄不太清楚了,想想看,在美國,老師用英文解釋英文文法,程度不夠好的聽不懂,程度好的有時候也可能會有點吃力,遇到比較難的文法或者解釋得沒有那麼清楚的時候就腦袋都打結了啊!

潔西的學生出國唸書,遇到不懂的,上網查,有時候就會查到潔西的網站,來打一下招呼,哈哈哈。所以潔西都奉勸要出去唸書的先在台灣把文法學好啦。沒學好,再給潔西一年,潔西把文法影片看能不能生出來,生小孩是沒望了啦,影片就難說了喔,超冷今天。

文法不重要,聽得懂就好了,寫信可以溝通就好了?

這要看你是工作求學用的英文還是移民過去日常生活會話,後者的話,的確聽得懂就好了,工作的話溝通是重點,簡潔易懂,不影響語意的錯誤其實都還是可以接受的,因為畢竟我們不是母語使用者。求學你的文法不好,寫作不太容易拿高分,因為老師看不懂的時候分數自然就給低了,跟改手寫一樣,潔西每次都跟學生說寫慢一點字跡工整,你想想,改作文的老師要改幾十篇幾百篇,看到字很亂很醜的,看了就煩,看到工整的字跡,很容易錯誤的地方就忽略了,潔西自己改作文的經驗。

有學生跟潔西說他在家長會用英文發言前會先用英文道歉說不好意思,我的英文不好,潔西跟學生說真的不必要,因為我們不是母語使用者,說得不好是正常的,其他母語使用者應該可以諒解,假如同是非母語的話就更可以能理解了。剛剛剛好看到一個 Ted 演講,也是說要非母語使用者用英文發表演說前不需要為自己的英文不好道歉。大家想想,當你聽到一個外國人可以用中文寫電子郵件給你講工作上的是,甚至發表報告,很厲害了吧,你不會去挑他錯誤啦。

誰會找台灣人的英文的麻煩?台灣人。很遺憾地。學生面試外商公司時,台灣的主管面試時,用英文,學生聽不懂時,主管很不耐煩,也不重複,就說算了,會讓面試的人很受挫。但是遇到主管是外國人聽不懂時,他們會解釋或換字來表達他們想要問的問題,會想要積極弟跟你溝通。今天假如是面試一個外國人他工作能力很好,有工作熱忱,中文差一點大家會很計較嗎?或許也可能要看工作性質,不過可以接受範圍的就可以了啦,不然全世界工程師都沒飯吃了啦!(工程師同學不樣打潔西)

也有學生跟潔西提到他在外商公司,有個從台灣在國中左右就去美國的同事,時態沒學好,待美國超過二十年了吧?有時候在說話的時候時態還是亂用一通,所以有時候大家會聽不懂他在講什麼,大家也知道他時態都亂用,所以時態真的很重要啦,用錯有時候意思會完全不一樣的,會誤解的。

今天學生跟潔西說上星期他們公司找了外師來幫他們上一整天的英文課,主要都是在改錯,有一封電子郵件讓他們改錯,有三十幾個錯誤,說最少要找出二十個錯誤,學生沒找出來,覺得很挫敗,好像自己是個笨蛋。同學不要這麼想啦,其實同學的英文已經算很不錯了,我也可以來寫一封中文信,啊,不用啦,用我發的廢文給外國人改錯,我就不相信他們能改得出來多少,「沒事的,不要太當心。你心太粗了,又寫錯了。他這個花心紅蘿蔔,女朋友一堆。過馬路不要太大心,要右左看。」拜託誰拿給中文好的外國人,看他能改得出幾個。要刁人老師其實都很會的啦,哈哈,不過潔西很善良都有上下文,不像那個老師的句子都是單句,所以根本很難理解。潔西有時候做文法書的改錯題也不知道究竟作者要表達的是什麼啊!

不過那個老師的用意其實潔西可以理解,母語使用者應該是看很多台灣人中式英文或積非成是的錯誤英文,所以想要提醒大家把錯誤的地方改過來。比方說。I am agree you. (X) 這種就是 be 動詞兩千輩子都不會跟動詞原型或過去式一起出現的常犯錯誤。還有介系詞常常多出來或漏掉。I agree with you. 我同意你。agree 後面要介系詞。

這有多重要?其實這種不會影響句子的意思的潔西覺得還好,但是呢因為講師講了很多,所以呢學生也沒法全部記住,也沒給答案,因為想說我都講了吧。潔西的話大概會舉幾個例子,然後教大家要查字典,帶看字典的例句跟如何搭配介系詞。介系詞就是很難的東西啊。給答案,幫大家整理正確的句子。潔西很任性喔,都會去想,恩,這個課我來上的話我要怎麼上,我又不是他們老師啦。

改錯是雙刀刃,不糾正學生的錯誤不行,一直糾正學生會講不出來,因為太挫敗了,所以要拿捏不容易。學了文法之後要用才是最難的,但是首先要先知道才會用對啦。

最近有學生去美國,上過潔西的基礎跟進階文法,當然學生自己很用功,去念語言學校的考試,33題,只錯了一題,可以上最高的一級。好感動,感到非常欣慰。不過潔西一月要開進階文法的課,五個人都招不滿,嗚嗚嗚。

這星期在補習班上完蠻難的完成跟完成進行式後,學生跑來問過去進行式跟過去完成進行式的差別,潔西從來沒想過耶,其實過去完成進行式比較少用,解釋了一下,但是呢因為上到十點了,潔西要去趕末班車了,所以只能大概說一下。

學生很可愛,上完課才跟潔西說,老師這個地方有問題,啊,潔西說錯了,暈倒。下次要上課時說啦,謝謝同學。然後又跟潔西說,老師你講得好快,喔喔,暈倒,難怪上星期問大家都有回應,這星期大家都很安靜,還沒來得及反應過來?這個學生要考雅思出去工作,他上了幾個其他老師的課,他說講文法時沒有人像潔西講這麼快,這麼多「但是你講得比較好,很有條理。」哇,超級感動的。人還是喜歡聽好聽話的,哈哈哈。

吃了糖總是要給點好處,當天回到家累翻睡覺,隔天起床一早就開始研究了好久,看了好幾個網站,把潔西自己覺得比較能接受,覺得有理的一些觀念匯總整理了一下。潔西整理文法重點多半是看文法書這樣整理出來的,看幾本書,弄懂後,用自己的話,有時候借文法書的句子,腦子太笨想不出例子來時。然後大家要記住啦,網路上的網站不能隨便通通相信啦,要看來源,有些潔西也是有點質疑,總之呢自己寫了跟借了一些覺得解釋起來大家比較會懂的例子做了比較,燒了很多腦細胞啊。

這個比較實在有點難,過去進行式比較常用,記清楚,過去完成進行式相對比較少用,但是不是不會用到。沒有考試目的的人,不像潔西這樣愛好文法或是個好奇寶寶的人其實可以不用知道。勇於挑戰的人歡迎參考,有翻譯題目,可以練習一下。

然後,重點來了,這個月因為聖誕節,各式各樣的活動,下個月又過年,所以學生請假比較多,也有請一個月半個月的,潔西覺得都沒問題啦,因為總是家教的話就彼此方便,可以配合的話,但是呢也剛好有幾個一對一結束,突然間覺得,也不是突然,只是更深刻感受到這份工作的不安定性。昨天記帳仔細看了一,發現今年有時候一個月收入只有另外一個月的三分之一,這個月三萬元,下個月可能只有一萬元。很恐怖吧?這麼不穩定的工作。

小月又要到了,過年補習班放兩個星期,潔西也要在家睡大覺,兼職老師也沒有年終,所以過年常常都是支出大於收入。抱怨可,一句起,三句止。其實是要解釋,剛剛潔西突然決定,不知道能教幾年,可能要把講義拿出來賣課程比較實際?所以從此新聞是取於各大新聞網站,所以呢還是會把翻譯的很爛的中英文跟單字一起放上來。

但是呢,以後的文法通通不會在放文字稿在部落格或臉書了,先前有被拿去別人用的潔西都懶得計較了,但是未來覺得因為不知道能活多久,也不知道能教到什麼時候,總是要把自己花辛辛苦苦的時間整理的東西想辦法換錢才是當今世代的生存之道,剛剛在外面寒風吹著,還冷到臨時買暖暖包悟出來的道理,請大家見諒。

對了,星期六的多益閱讀確定開課了,想一起來上課的歡迎報名,1/14開課。接下來進階文法班沒開成剛好把時間會用來製作影片(理想,現實可能是睡午覺,哈哈),想把 Azar 進階文法的課程跟基礎的都做成影片,搭配講義賣課程。其實先前也有人問過,是該做的時候了。

內容會跟潔西在劍橋活用英語文法中的講義初級的一樣嗎?本質是一樣的,重複的地方有,但是沒有很多,進階的話有些東西是完全沒講過的,基本上會補充不同的東西,潔西有編了不少新的講義喔,還在繼續加強補充中,這次補習班開班新的文法又繼續編改,潔西就是個愛改講義的老師,雖然不一定越改越好,有時候還越改越難,哈哈哈。

明年吧?應該不會再開文法班的課了。劍橋活用英語文法中級也暫時不會再出影片了吧,明年可能就專心把 Azar這兩本基礎黑色跟進階藍色的文法課程做成影片,這樣有很愛錢嗎?沒辦法,得個新冠真的也蠻多體悟的,體力就是大不如前了,工作又真的太不穩定了。雖然做成影片可能也沒有人要買,總是一條不同的出路。

對了,那個潔西的家教學生假如有請假的同學有看到這裡的話,潔西絕對沒有怪你們的意思喔!大家都會有事,潔西明年或許也可能出國去玩,也可能會請假,先前確診也請假。說來家教這個工作性質本身就是比較自由所以呢不穩定性也相對高,是潔西自己做這份工作需要有的認知跟需要負擔的風險,所以有人可能覺得費用高,但這就是彼此所承擔的責任與義務。上課的同學不要覺得潔西是在抱怨說你們請假喔,真的沒有這個意思,大家互相配合,真的非常感激大家來上課讓潔西有飯吃啦。

今天聽到最近最好的讚美之一是學生說每個星期都很期待上英文課,好開心喔。今天早上還在想說學生上星期說要給學生看他的手錶,不知道記得嗎,有時候有些學生只是說說,像那個說贏了運動彩卷要請潔西喝飲料的學生,根本是欺騙潔西感情,從此失蹤,為了一杯飲料改上線上課程嗎?沒有,他只是個偷懶,想在家一邊寫寫作業的高中生,不要浪費你爸媽辛苦賺的錢啦,好好上,不然要請顧問打電話通知家長了,潔西下了最後通牒。

不過還是有對於自己說的話是很認真的學生,分享給潔西看他收藏美美的手錶,開心。還跟潔西說在蝦皮買東西的技巧,真的是學到好多,教學相長,從學生身上常常可以學到很多東西。上課也大部分都非常的開心,想到明天要上課是很開心的,雖然是星期天早上的課,恩,該睡了吧?今天說太多了。

有時候學生講的話真的不知道要聽幾成,哈哈哈,今天才又在聽如何判斷一個人是不是在說謊,大家都會說謊啦,潔西是儘量不說,尤其是沒必要的時候。潔西看影片時除非超明顯,不然潔西完全看不出來哪一個是說謊的,雖然講者說要看這裡看那裡,啊,放棄啦。

潔西總之就是當個笨蛋比較開心,反正人家講什麼我信什麼,除非是太誇張的馬上可以知道是謊言的,不然就通通相信照單全收,潔西認真覺得要去一一懷疑別人說的話實在太辛苦太累了,等發現被騙時再來生氣不開心就好了,沒發現就算了,發現就認清這個人,也就是這樣,一個人是好人是壞人是他的行為決定的,不是潔西單方面認定的啊!這個歪理有通嗎?

明天要上課,話說哪一天不用上課的,有,下個月很多天都不用上課,其實昨天也只才上一個小時而已啦。總之就是早點睡覺明天不用喝太多咖啡,最近胃潰瘍好蠻多的樣子,比較少不舒服,但是呢喝咖啡大概中杯半杯可以,超過半杯就不舒服了,但是上課沒精神又不行,所以呢就是那天教學生的單字:地雷馬 dilemma。I’m in a dilemma. 或者更口語我們會偷 To be or not to be, that is the question. 的莎翁名言:To dirnk or not to drink, that is the question. 喝還是不喝呢?不能喝啦,快十二點了,睡覺去,晚安晚安!

影片在留言。

講解影片

翻譯練習

【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 中級 Unit 6 過去進行式

過去進行式先很多人會用錯地方,稍微注意一下該什麼時候用,不要忘記be動詞,不要忘記用現在分詞,多做一些練習就會比較知道該什麼時候用喔。

講解

翻譯

【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 中級 Unit 6  過去進行式

潔西製作的上課用講義,請勿重製與分享,謝謝合作!

過去進行式 Past Continuous/Past Progressive

一、使用時機

1 過去進行式用來表達一個活動在某個過去的時間點正在進行當中

Where were you doing at 11:00 last night? 

I was sleeping. I went to bed at 10:00. 

2 用 while 連接兩個過去進行式的句子可以用來表示兩個動作在過去的相同時間同時進行

While my father was watching TV, my mother was cooking. 

3 過去進行式強調動作的持續的期間,而非完成。過去簡單式強調動作的完成

I was reading a novel last night. 

I read a novel last night. 

4 過去進行式跟過去簡單式連用時可以用來表示一個正在進行的動作被另外一個動作打斷

a 過去進行式是先發生的,比較長的背景的動作或狀況

b 過去簡單式是比較短的動作,打斷過去進行式或發生在過去進行式的當中

c when 用來帶領過去簡單式,或用 while 來帶領過去進行式

At 7:00 this morning I was having a wonderful dream, but then the alarm clock went off. 

I saw Mike while I was walking to the bus station yesterday. He was walking his dog. 

I was crossing the street when the driver honked his horn.

He was speeding when the light turned red.

While he was speeding, the light turned red.

5 假如要表示一件事情發生,另外一件事接著發生,兩件事都用過去簡單式,假如是用 when 連接兩個過去簡單式的句子時,when 帶領的句子是先發生的動作。

When the light changed, I crossed the street. 

When the light changed, I was crossing the street. 

The light changed while I was crossing the street. 

6 非行為動詞不用在過去進行式

I tried the cake and see how it tasted. 

I didn’t know what it was. 

二、句型

1 肯定句:主詞+was/were+現在分詞

I was working./He was working./They were working.

2 否定句:主詞+was/were+not+現在分詞

I was not working./He was not working./They were not working.

3 Yes/No 問句:Was/Were+主詞+現在分詞?

Was he working?/Were they working?

4 WH 問句:WH 疑問詞+was/were+主詞+現在分詞?

What was he doing?/What were you doing?

三、翻譯練習題

1 我看向窗戶外面看到我們正在飛在山的上方。

2 她一邊講電話一邊開車。

3 當我在等公車的時候我看到一場車禍。

4 我們正在開下山坡當一個奇怪的物體出現在天空時。

5 當我們看到太空船時,我們停下車來。

6 我正在看電視上的紀錄片當突然我們失去我們的所有電力時。但是它大概十分鐘後又回來了。

7 我弟弟正在洗澡當停電時。

8 當我在公園散步時,突然開始下雨了。

9 昨天晚上我打給你時你正在做什麼?

10 他沒有在注意老師在說的話。他在看他的手機。

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四、翻譯練習題答案

1 我看向窗戶外面看到我們正飛在山的上方。(飛機上)

1 I looked out the window and saw that we were flying over the mountains.

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2 她一邊講電話一邊開車。

2 She was driving while she was talking on the phone. 

3 當我在等公車的時候我看到一場車禍。

3 While I was waiting for the bus, I saw a car accident. 

3 I saw a car accident while I was waiting for a bus. 

3 I was waiting for the bus when I saw a car accident. 

.

4 我們正在開(車)下山坡當一個奇怪的物體出現在天空時。

4 We were driving down the hill when a strange object appeared in the sky.

5 當我們看到太空船時,我們停下車來。

5 When we saw the spaceship, we stopped the car.

.

6 我正在看電視上的紀錄片當突然我們失去所有電力時。但是它大概十分鐘後又回來了。

6 I was watching a documentary on TV when suddenly we lost all the power. But it came on again after about ten minutes. 

.

7 我弟弟正在洗澡當燈光熄滅時(停電時)。

7 My brother was taking a shower when the lights went out. 

.

8 當我在公園散步時,突然開始下雨了。

8 While I was taking a walk in the park, it suddenly began to rain. 

.

9 昨天晚上我打給你時你正在做什麼?

9 What were you doing when I called you last night? 

.

10 他沒有在注意老師在說的話。他在看他的手機。

10 He wasn’t paying attention to what the teacher was saying. He was checking his phone. 

四、翻譯練習題 答案

1 我看向窗戶外面看到我們正在飛在山的上方。

1 I looked out of the window and saw that we were flying over the mountains. 

2 她一邊講電話一邊開車。

2 She was talking on the phone while she was driving. 

3 當我在等公車的時候我看到一場車禍。

3 I saw an accident while I was waiting for the bus. 

4 我們正在開下山坡當一個奇怪的物體出現在天空時。

4 We were driving down the hill when a strange object appeared in the sky.

5 當我們看到太空船時,我們停下車來。

5 When we saw the spaceship, we stopped the car.

6 我正在看電視上的紀錄片當突然我們失去我們的所有電力時。但是它大概十分鐘後又回來了。

6 I was watching a documentary on TV when suddenly we lost all the power. But it came on again after about ten minutes.

7 我弟弟正在洗澡當停電時。

7 My brother was taking a shower when the lights went out. 

8 當我在公園散步時,突然開始下雨了。

8 While I was taking a walk in the park, it suddenly began to rain. 

9 昨天晚上我打給你時你正在做什麼?

9 What were you doing when I called you last night? 

10 他沒有在注意老師在說的話。他在看他的手機。

10 He wasn’t paying attention to what the teacher was saying. He was checking his phone. 

【潔西家】基礎第五課,第一部分 打掃,過去進行式,自然發音 oo, ou, ow, oi, oy, au, aw, al,在禮品店 + Merry Christmas! 聖誕節快樂!

連續幾天聖誕轟炸一直偷懶的潔西趕在聖誕節跑掉前派大寶跟小寶出來應景,祝大家佳節愉快!

本來想開直播講解的基礎第五課只翻了中文改寫完,其實沒翻完,但頭一直痛起來,先睡比較實在,頭痛到都快吐了,厚,聖誕節霸凌潔西啦!爛用霸凌,大家不要學。先放講義,頭不痛再來做影片,睡覺去,晚安:)

 

家事,過去進行式,自然發音,禮品店

My life is a mess. 我的生活一團亂。

My room is messy. My room is a mess. 我的房間很亂。

Let’s go. 我們走吧!

I’m full. 我飽了。

Could you pass the salt, please? 你可以遞鹽給我嗎?

Would you/Will you/Can you turn off the light, please? 可以幫我關燈嗎?

A Let’s clean it up! 我們來打掃吧!

A: This place is a mess. Let’s clean it up.

A: 這地方一團亂。我們來打掃吧!

B: Sure. What do you want me to do?

B: 好啊。你要我做什麼?

A: Well, you can vacuum the floor and do the dishes.

A: 恩,你可以吸地跟洗碗。

B: OK. No problem.

B: 好。沒問題。

A: And the garbage is full. Could you take it out?

A: 垃圾也滿了。你可以拿去倒嗎?

B: Yeah, I guess.

B: 好啊,我覺得。

A: And your bedroom is a mess, too. Your clothes are all over the floor. Could you pick

    them up and put them in the washing machine, please?

A: 你的房間也一團亂。你的衣服滿地。你可以把他們撿起來放到洗衣機嗎?

B: Wow. That’s a bit too much. What are you going to do then?

B: 哇!有點太多了吧。那你要做什麼。

A: Well, I’m going to do the laundry and mop the floor.

A: 恩,我會洗衣服跟拖地。

B. housework 家事 and chores 家務事

housework: the work of keeping a house clean and tidy

chore: a job or piece of work that is often boring or unpleasant but needs to be done regularly

bedroom 臥室,living room 客廳  dining room 飯廳  kitchen 廚房,spring cleaning 春季大掃除

spring clearance 春季大拍賣

do yoga 做瑜伽,do aerobics 做有氧運動,come out of the closet 出櫃

LGBT: lesbians, gay, bisexual, transgender 女同志,男同志,雙性戀,跨性別者

1 clean up 打掃  2 clean the bathroom 打掃浴室    3 clean out the closet 打掃衣櫃

4 sweep the floor 掃地  5 vacuum the floor 吸地    6 mop the floor 拖地   

7 wipe the windows 擦窗戶  8 wipe the table off 擦桌子

9 put the dishes away  把盤子收走   10 do the dishes 洗盤子 

11 dry the dishes 擦乾盤子  12 do the laundry 洗衣服  13 fold the laundry 摺衣服

14 hang up your clothes 把你的衣服掛起來 15 do gardening 整理花圃   

16 go/do grocery shopping 買菜(日常用品) 17 cook 做飯  18 make dinner 煮晚餐

19 dust the furniture 擦拭家具的灰塵    20 take out the garbage 倒垃圾

21 pay my electricity bill 繳我的電費帳單  22 pay my water bill 繳我的水費帳單

23 feed the dog 餵狗    24 walk the dog 遛狗    

Don’t wipe your nose on your sleeve!

1 What chores do you usually do? 

1 你通常都做什麼家務?

I wash the dishes, do the laundry, and clean the bathroom

我洗盤子,洗衣服,打掃浴室。

2 Which chores don’t you like to do?

2 你喜歡做哪些家務事?

I hate to take out the garbage.

我討厭倒垃圾。

3 How often do you do chores?

3 你多常做家務事?

I wash the dishes and do the laundry every day, and I clean the bathroom once a week.

我每天洗盤子跟洗衣服,我一個星期掃浴室一次。

4 Who does most of the chores in your family?

4 你家大部分的家務事都是誰在做?

My mother does most of the chores because she is a housewife.

我媽媽做大部分的家務事因為她是家庭主婦。

5 How old should children start to do chores?

5 小孩子幾歲應該開始做家事?

I think children should start do chores when they are 10 years old.

我覺得小孩子應該十歲的時候開始做家事。

6 Do you think women should do more housework than men? Why? Why not?

6 你覺得女人應該比男人做更多的家事嗎?為什麼?為什麼不用?

Yes, I think so. Because women are good at doing housework.

是的,我這麼認為。因為女生很會做家事。

No, I don’t think so.  Because it’s not fair.  stereotype 刻板印象,老派的觀念

ladyboy 人妖   PC politically correct 政治正確   guilty 罪惡感  taboo 禁忌

costume party  妝扮派對/化裝舞會 

C 過去進行式

May

I was cooking noodles when suddenly everything went dark. Luckily, I had some candles. No one else was at home. I was a bit scared, but I finished cooking my meal. I had a not so romantic candlelight dinner.

我在煮麵的時候突然間一切都暗下來了。幸運地是,我有蠟燭。沒有其他人在家。我有點怕,但是我還是煮完我的晚餐。我吃了一頓不太浪漫的燭光晚餐。

fortunately 幸運地 unfortunately 不幸地

Sam

While my girlfriend and I were watching a movie at home, the lights went out. It was really hot and boring, so we left home and took a walk in the moonlight. It was kind of romantic. 

山姆

當我的女朋友跟我在家看電影的時候,燈熄了。真的很熱又無聊,所以我們離開家裡,在月光下散步。還有點浪漫。

I’m a bit hungry. 我有點餓。

I was sleeping at this time yesterday. 昨天的這個時候我正在睡覺。

past —————x———————now ————————— future

I was cooking noodles.   My girlfriend and I were watching a movie.

Everything went dark.  The lights went out.

I was cooking noodles when everything went dark.

While I was cooking noodles, everything went dark.

My girlfriend and I were watching a movie when the lights went out.

While my girlfriend and I were watching movie, the lights went out.

While I was sleeping, he called.  當我在睡覺的時候,他打電話來。

When he got home, his family was having dinner.  當他到家的時候,他的家人在吃晚餐。

1 過去進行式的使用時機

a

過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間持續進行的動作。強調動作過程,而非動作的完成。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

十二點半的時候在吃午餐。

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

我在吃午餐的時候他在看書。

b

過去進行式用來描述過去某時正在進行中的事情。所描述的活動或情況已經開始,而在

當時仍未結束。

I saw you last night. You were waiting for a bus.

我昨天晚上有看到你。你正在等公車。

c

當描述過去發生的事時,假如要描述一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷時,用過去進行式來表達持續進行的動作,用過去簡單式來表達短暫打斷的動作。

When I got home, my parents were having dinner.

我到家時,爸媽正在吃飯

We were walking in the park when it started to rain.

我們在公園散步到一半時,雨開始下起來了

    

但是,要描述某事件在另一事件之後發生,則兩者都需使用過去簡單式。

When I got home, my parents and I had dinner.

當我到家後,我跟爸媽一起吃飯。

We stood under a tree when it started to rain.

當雨開始下了起來後,我們站到樹下去。

  

2 常與過去進行式連用的副詞at that time, at five o’clock yesterday, at seven o’clock, last night, in 2001 還有其他表達過去時間的副詞。

3 過去進行式的句型

I/he/she/it: was , wasn’t   we/you/they: were, weren’t

a

過去進行式肯定句  S + was/were + V-ing

I was eating brunch at 3:00.

我在三點的時候吃早午餐。 

He was reading a book last night.

他昨天晚上在看一本書。

marketing 行銷

old fashioned 觀念老舊  renovated 創新的

b

過去進行式否定句  S + wasn’t/weren’t + V-ing

I wasn’t looking.

我沒有在看。 

He wasn’t listening.

他沒有在聽。

They weren’t studying.

他們沒有在唸書。

I work in a bank. / I don’t work in a bank.

He works in a bank. / He doesn’t work in a bank.

I worked in a bank.  / I didn’t work in a bank.

He worked in a bank. / He didn’t work in a bank.

do, does, did 後加原型

c

過去進行式 Yes/No問句  Was/Were + S + V-ing?

Were you sleeping when I called?

我打電話給你的時候你在睡覺嗎?

Was he cooking? 

他在做菜嗎?

d

過去進行式WH 問句  WH Questions Words + was/were + S + V-ing?

What were you doing at this time yesterday?

你昨天的這個時候在做什麼?

Where were you going when I saw you last night?

我昨天看到你的時候你要去哪裡?

D Exercise 練習題

a Complete with a verb in the past continuous.

用動詞完成進行式。

1 He met his wife when he _______________ in Australia. (work)

2 They _______________ for us when we arrived. (wait)

3 _______________ she _______________ a jacket when she went out? (wear)

4 What _______________ you _______________ at 10.00 pm last night? (do)

5 I _______________ when you gave the instruction. (not listen)

6 I _______________ when you called me. (drive)

7 It _______________ when I woke up this morning. (not rain)

1 He met his wife when he was working in Australia.

2 They were waiting for us when we arrived.

3 Was she wearing a jacket when she went out?

4 What were you doing at 10.00 pm last night?

5 I wasn’t listening when you gave the instruction.

b Put the verbs into the simple past or past continuous.

用過去簡單式或過去進行式來完成句子

She arrived when we were having dinner. (arrive, have)

1 I _______________ my arm when I _______________ soccer. (break, play)

2 ____________ you ______ fast when the police _______________ you? (drive, stop)

3 It _______________ when we _______________ the theater. (snow, leave)

4 I _______________ the game because I _______________ . (not watch, work)

5 When you _______________ me, I _______________ to my boss. (call, talk)

1 I broke my arm when I was playing soccer.

2 Were you driving fast when the police stopped?

3 It was snowing when we left the theater.

4 I didn’t watch the game because I was working.

5 When you called me, I was talking to my boss.

 

 

 

 

 

 

過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式的用法與區別

過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式的用法與區別的影片,有點長

練習題解答

潔西家進階文法教室              Jessie

下面有先前的過去完成式跟現在完成式與過去簡單式的文,更多的例子跟練習:)

Past Perfect 過去完成式詳解,與過去簡單式用法的區別

現在完成式與過去簡單式用法的區別 Present Perfect and Past Simple

參考書籍:

American English File 3, Oxford Practice Grammar, Grammar Express

這裡因為做比較跟區別,所以最前面放例句,然後是句型,接下來是使用的時機。再來是混合的練習題。題目做多了真的會比較有概念。

另外潔西自己在動詞的不同形態方面比較偷懶

V1:原形動詞 base form 也就是動詞的第一態,現在簡單式,不定詞後面

I go to bed at 2 a.m. /  My brother takes the MRT to work.

.

V2:過去動詞 paste tense 也就是動詞的第二態,過去簡單式

I went to bed at 2 a.m.   / My brother took the MRT to work today.

.

V3:過去分詞 past participle 也就是動詞的第三態,現在完成,過去完成,未

來完成,被動:

I have eaten breakfast. / I hit him. — He was hit by me.

.

V-ing:現在分詞 present participle 也就現在分詞,進行式

.

work, worked, worked, working

eat, ate, eaten, eating

潔西自己這樣用蠻久了,主流的文法書不會這樣用,網路上倒是最近也有看到類似的用法,主要是覺得比較好記,看得時候知道就好了。

A 過去簡單式 Past Simple:

主要就是在描述過去發生的某件事情。記得用主詞跟動詞的過去式。說過去的事情最常用的就是過去簡單式。

It all happened very quickly. The car came straight out of the side road, and the van went into the back of it. The van driver didn’t have a chance. It was the car driver’s fault.

一切發生的非常快。那台汽車直接從旁邊衝出來,而那台貨車撞到汽車的後面。貨車司機完全沒有機會(閃避)。是汽車司機的錯。

這上面有幾個過去式的動詞呢?數數看。詞性要記住才分辨得出來喔。

一共有五個,算對了嗎?

記句型的時候要把肯定句,否定句跟疑問句的用法都一起記喔

1 句型 Forms:主詞+動詞的過去式(S + V2):

肯定:They got married last year.    My dog ate my homework.

否定:I didn’t have time to do homework.

疑問:What time did you get up this morning?

past——————x——————–now——————–future

.

2 使用時機Use:

在什麼時候用非常重要,通常用在一個在過去完成的動作,常跟過去時間連用

a 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

I ate a bread and coffee for breakfast. (x)

I ate bread and drank coffee for breakfast.

I had bread and coffee for breakfast.

.

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when they crashed.

While I was taking a shower, someone called.

.

c 過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的動作。

We arrived at the beach.

.

B 過去進行式Past Continuous

用來說明過去某個時間正在進行的動作,持續的動作。句型用主詞加上was/were再加上動詞加ing。S + was/were + V-ing

I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting in a park. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. Children were playing and laughing. It was very peaceful. I didn’t want to wake up.

我做天晚上做了個美夢。我在公園坐著。太陽閃耀地照著,鳥兒在唱歌。小孩們說說笑笑。非常的寧靜。我一點都不想醒來。

這裡是把過去簡單式跟過去進行式合併使用。描述活動故事背景的時候常用過去進行式,用過去進行式來表示過去某個時間點發生的事,或持續的動作。時態常會像這樣混合使用喔,先前有學生問說問什麼不全部用過去簡單式,恩,說故事的時候強調的東西不一樣,這裡比較有背景跟主題,強調當時的狀況,所以後面不想起來。有時候真的也很難解釋的清楚,多做題目,多看多聽多運用就會比較有概念。

1 句型Forms:主詞+Be動詞的過去式(was/were)+動詞-ing (S + Be2 + V-ing)

A: What were you doing at six o’clock last night?

B: I was watching TV. I wasn’t studying. My parents were watching

TV with me.

.

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間持續進行的動作。強調動作的過程。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

multi-tasking

.

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

I was crossing the street when the driver honked his horn.

.

c 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景

The sun was shining.

所以說故事的時候,故事的背景會用過去進行式,描述內容的時候會用過去

簡單式。

.

C 過去完成式Past Perfect

描述過去的兩件事情中先發生的第一件事,或是用來說過去某個時間點前發生的事。完成式都是用來表示一件事情發生在另外一件事情之前,所以假如只有單純的描述過去發生的某件事就只要用過去簡單式就可以,這時候不需要用過去完成式。也就是說當描述過去發生了兩件事時,先發生的事會用過去完成式,後發生的會用過去簡單式來表達。

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. We hadn’t gone to bed until after one. I hadn’t been on the train long when I had a bit of shock. I suddenly realized that I had left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn’t remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.

我昨天搭火車上班的時候覺得很累因為莎拉跟我前一個晚上去了一個派對。我們到一點鐘才上床睡覺。我上火車沒多久就嚇到。我突然發現我把錢包忘在家裡。然後我開始懷疑。我是前一天忘在辦公室了嗎?我就是記不起來。我很想回床上睡覺。我覺得糟透了。

1 句型Forms:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished.

(比賽在打開電視前就開始了)

They hadn’t gone home until late.

Where had he put his wallet?

.

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生在

過去某個時間點前。

By 1933 Oprah Winfrey had become famous.

By November 9th Donald Trump had won the election.

.

b 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

.

c 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連接

句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The man had arrived at the store before it opened.

The man arrived at the store before it opened.

.

特別注意句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1 When John arrived, they had diner.

        1                               2

當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.)

約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

.

2 When John arrived, they were having dinner.

當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

.

3 When John arrived, they had had/had eaten dinner.

                  2                                1

當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.)

在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

.

4 When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

                 1                                            2

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。(我先開電視,節目才開始)

.

5 When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I missed the beginning.

                  2                                               1

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開頭。(節目先開始,我才開電視)

When I turned on the TV, the singer was singing.

.

D 翻譯練習:用過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式來翻譯下面的句子。

(翻譯其實會有很多不同的答案,但是主要時態跟句型要對)

這邊先放問題,可以練習的,下面接著是在影片中講解的,最後最下面 是可以直接對答案的

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

.

練習題 E 合併句子。粗體字用過去進行式或過去完成式

E Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

.

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

.

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

.

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

.

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

.

練習題 F:把括號裡面的動詞用正確的時態完成句子。

F Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the

parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I

was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone).

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

.

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

.

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

.

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

.

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

.

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

.

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

.

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

影片講解,跟題目一起的答案,最後面有只有答案的部分

翻譯練習影片的解說答案

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

(strange-looking)的男人。

I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

While I was waiting at the checkout, I noticed a strange-looking man.

.

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

I was really pleased to see Rachel again. I had seen her for a long time.

.

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

I was sleeping when you called last night.

.

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter everywhere.

.

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

The bill wasn’t right. They had made a mistake.

.

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

The match was over. United had won.

.

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

When I was waiting for the bus, you drove past me.

.

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

.

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

When Laura was sitting in the park, it suddenly began to rain.

.

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

.

練習題 E 答案

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

When I arrived, they were watching TV.

.

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

When she called him, he had left the office.

.

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

The test didn’t go well although I had studied for the test the night

before.

.

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

When he was driving to work this morning, he had an accident.

.

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

When he passed his driving test, he only had had five lessons.

.

練習題 F 答案

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

I was waiting to play tennis yesterday when my partner called me to say that he couldn’t come because his car had broken down.

.

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

Chicago beat Boston yesterday. Boston was winning 44-39 in the first half, but Chicago scored 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

.

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

We were late. When we arrived, everyone had finished their lunch and they were sitting in the living room having coffee.

.

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

I ran to the station, but the six o’clock train had already left. The train station was empty except for three people who were waiting for the next train.

.

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

It started raining when he was walking to work. He stopped a taxi because he wasn’t wearing a coat and he didn’t have an umbrella.

.

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

They were driving to the airport when they suddenly remembered that hadn’t turned off the lights.

.

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

I didn’t recognize many people at my old school reunion because everyone had changed a lot in 20 years.

.

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

The game had already started when we turned on the TV. Costa Rica was losing 1:0 and they were playing very badly.

.

沒有題目,只有答案的在下面。可以一個大題一個大題的做。做完一大題對答案,確定懂後再往下做。

D 翻譯

1       I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

2      I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday. I hadn’t seen her for ages.

3      I was sleeping when you called last night.

4      After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter everywhere.

5      This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

6      The match was over. United had won.

7      You drove right past me when I was waiting for the bus.

8      The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

9      When Laura was sitting in the garden, it suddenly began to rain.

10    I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

E 練習題

1 were watching

2 had left

3 had studied

4 was driving

5 had only had

F 練習題

1 was waiting, called, had broken down

2 beat, was winning, scored

3 arrived, had finished, were sitting

4 ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5 started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6 were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7 didn’t recognize, had changed

8 had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式

時態真的是不容易,潔西真的覺得文法是很難說得清楚的東西。不是先有文法才有語言,文法是把我們所說的話,所寫的東西的大規則整理出來,死背是學不好的。對於時態真的是一定要先理解,知道什麼時候用,記他的句型,多閱讀多觀察多看多聽母語使用者怎麼樣用,多做練習題,然後用出來,才算真正學到。

潔西把時態盡量說明清楚,被質疑為什麼要講義跟課本跳著上,但是老實說,潔西真的覺得自己整理得比課本還清楚。或許是自己自以為是,但是呢就盡力了,希望對同學有點幫助。多做練習,才比較可以理解。這是配合Azar中級課本的第二第三章,有買這本書的也可以配合著做練習。加油囉:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.1

 jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A. 過去簡單式Simple Past                       

英文有十二個時態。在學每一個時態時要記住四點:使用時機、句型、動詞變化以及搭配的副詞。最重要是理解跟多做練習,才能靈活運用、得心應手。

一、過去簡單式的使用時機

1. 英文用過去簡單式用來表達發生在過去的事件。

I went home late last night.

He had a great time at his birthday party.

2. 過去簡單式也用來表達在過去重複進行的活動、習慣。

We lived in America for five years when I was a child.

My grandmother went to church every Sunday morning.

二、過去簡單式的句型

(一)過去簡單式一般動詞的句型為S + V2(V2指的是動詞的過去式)

1. 肯定句     S    +    V2

I           ate a big dinner last night.

Tina          got married when she was 18.

2. 否定與問句需要用did這個助動詞來幫忙。

否定句在助動詞後面加not, 記得助動詞後動詞要改回原型動詞。

否定句     S   +    did not    +   V1

They        didn’t         do their homework.

He          didn’t         sing at the KTV last weekend.

3. Yes/No問句把助動詞did放在主詞前面造問句,助動詞後的動詞用原型動詞。

Did   +   S    +  V1

Did       you       sleep well last night?

Did       Tom       have a good time?

4. WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞、主詞、原型動詞。

因為what 跟who 可以當主詞,當主詞時則不須助動詞,動詞用過去式。

WH             did   +   S    +   V1

What time    did        you         get up this morning?

Where         did        Linda       go last weekend?

Who         did     you       go shopping with?

Who/What   +  V2

Who            took my umbrella?

What           happened last night?

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.2

二、過去簡單式的句型

(二)、過去簡單式Be動詞的句型

主詞+過去式Be動詞   +名詞/形容詞/介係詞片語

S  + was/were       +noun/ adjective /preposition phrase

肯定句     S +    was/were +noun/ adjective /preposition phrase

I          was          a housewife.

You         were        happy earlier.

My father   was          at home this morning.

否定與問句用本身的be動詞來改否定與造問句。

否定句只要在Be動詞後面加not

否定句    S + was/were + not +  noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

I              was     not     a teacher last year.

You           were    not     sad this morning.

My father     was     not     at work yesterday.

Yes/No 問句 把Be動詞放在主詞前面造問句

Was/Were +    S  +      noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

Was            I                   loud earlier?

Were         you                 in the office this morning?

Was       your mother         away last week?

WH問句則將WH疑問詞放在最前面再依序放Be動詞、主詞與其他部分

WH  word+ was/were +   S  +   noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

When             were         you            born?

Where           were         you           last night?

How               was        your day?

切記在過去簡單式中,一般動詞與Be動詞絕對不會同時出現。

三、過去簡單式的副詞如:this morning, this afternoon, this evening, tonight, yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon, yesterday evening, last night, this Monday, last weekend, this January, last April, yesterday, the day before yesterday, three days ago, five years ago, in 2005…等。

 

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.3

四、過去簡單式規則動詞過去式的拼字與發音變化的規則

規則動詞的過去式拼字變化如下:

1. 大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ed。

work-worked, help-helped, call-called, wash-washed

2. 動詞字尾已經有e時,只要加d即可。

live-lived, die-died, dance-danced, smile-smiled

3. 動詞字尾為子音加y時,必須去y加ied。

study-studied, cry-cried, worry-worried, copy-copied.

4. 只有一個音節的動詞字尾發音為短母音加子音時,重複字尾再加ed。

shop-shopped, plan-planned, tap-tapped, hop-hopped

5. 兩個音節以上且重音在最後一個音節的動詞,字尾發音為短母音加子音時,也需重複字尾加ed。

admit-admitted, prefer-preferred, omit-omitted, occur-occurred

規則動詞的過去式發音的變化如下:

1. 動詞字尾是無聲子音時,加ed後讀/ t /。無聲子音指的是除了/ t /之外的

/ k /, / f /, / s /, / ʃ/, / tʃ/, /θ / 等。

cook-cooked, laugh-laughed, kiss-kissed, wash-washed, watch-watched

2. 動詞字尾是有聲子音或母音時,加ed後讀/d/。有聲子音指的是除了/ d /之外的/ b /, / g /, / r /, / l /, / m /, / n /, / v / 等。

call-called, rain-rained, love-loved, play-played, try-tried

3. 動詞字尾的發音是/ t /, / d /的發音時,加ed後讀/ɪd /。

want-wanted, need-needed, visit-visited, wait-waited

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/,

/ aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

把下列動詞改成過去式,並放入正確的字尾ed發音的欄位。

1. clean 打掃  2. cook 做菜  3. want想要 4. invite 邀請 5. listen 聽

6. need 需要  7. relax 放鬆  8. shop 購物   9. study 用功  10. talk 說話

11. visit 拜訪  12. wait  等待 13. play玩  14. watch 看  15. cry 哭泣

/t/
/d/
/ɪd/

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.4

五、動詞的變化: 所有的動詞都有四種主要的變化four principal parts

1. 動詞原形V1,如work, eat。(the present)

a. 原形是動詞的第一個形態,在字典中查到的基本形,不加ed或ing或s。

b. 原形主要用在現在簡式,但是現在簡單式第三人稱單數的現在簡單式要加

s,如works, eats。

c. 另外在不定詞to,助動詞如can, may, will後面也加原形。

I work from 9 to 5. / She works from 9 to 5.

I eat a sandwich for breakfast. / She eats a sandwich for breakfast.

I want to work at Google. / She wants to work at Google.

I can swim. / She can swim.

2. 過去式動詞V2,如worked, ate。(the past)

a. 過去式是動詞的第二個形態。動詞可分規則動詞與不規則動詞,規則動詞

加ed,如worker, cooked,不規則則需牢記,如ate, drank。

b. 過去式動詞只用在過去簡單式。

I worked late last night. / She worked late last night.

I ate a sandwich this morning. / She ate a sandwich this morning.

3. 過去分詞V3,如worked, eaten。(the past participle)

  1. 過去分詞是動詞的第三個形態。跟過去式一樣分規則變化與不規則變化兩種。規則變化則加ed,如worked, cooked。不規則則須牢記,如eaten, drunk。
  2. 過去分詞用在完成式與被動語態。
  3. 過去分詞動詞也可以當形容詞用。

I have worked for IBM for 5 years. / She has worked for IBM for 5 years.

I have eaten Greek food. / She has never eaten Thai food.

Romeo and Juliet was written by William Shakespeare.

She is excited about the wedding.

4. 現在分詞V-ing,如working, eating。(the present participle)

1. 現在分詞是在動詞的原形後面加ing,如working, eating。

2. 現在分詞用在進行式。

3. 現在分詞可以當做名詞跟形容詞用。

I am working now. / She is working now.

I was working while she was watching TV.

My hobbies are cooking and swimming.

I’m so happy to hear this exciting news.

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.5

原型V1 過去式V2 過去分詞V3 現在分詞V-ing
1. be 是2. buy 買

3. come 來

4. do 做

5. drink 喝

6. drive 開車

7. eat 吃

8. find 找

9. fly 飛

10. forget忘記

11. get 拿

12. give 給

13. go 去

14. have 有

15. know 知道

16. leave 離開

17. lose 輸,遺失

18. make  做

19. meet 碰面

20. quit戒,辭職

21. read 閱讀

22. ride 騎

23. run 跑

24. see 看

25. sell 賣

26. sing 唱歌

27. sit 坐

28. sleep 睡

29. speak 說

30. spend 花費

31. swim 游泳

32. take 拿

33. think 想

34. wear 穿

35. win 贏

36. write 寫

was/werebought

came

did

drank

drove

ate

found

flew

forgot

got

gave

went

had

knew

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

rode

ran

saw

sold

sang

sat

slept

spoke

spent

swam

took

thought

wore

won

wrote

beenbought

come

done

drunk

driven

eaten

found

flown

forgotten

gotten

given

gone

had

known

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

ridden

run

seen

sold

sung

sat

slept

spoken

spent

swum

taken

thought

worn

won

written

beingbuying

coming

doing

drinking

driving

eating

finding

flying

forgetting

getting

giving

going

having

knowing

leaving

losing

making

meeting

quitting

reading

riding

running

seeing

selling

singing

sitting

sleeping

speaking

spending

swimming

taking

thinking

wearing

winning

writing

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.6

B. Yesterday

1. Did you get up early yesterday?

Yes, I did. I got up early. / No, I didn’t. I didn’t get up early.

2. What time did you get up yesterday?     I got up at 7.30.

3. What did you eat for breakfast?         I ate a sandwich.

4. How did you go to work/school?               I rode a motorcycle.

5. What time did you start work?         I started work at 9.00.

6. Where did you have lunch?             I had lunch in a noodle shop.

7. Did you drink coffee yesterday?

Yes, I did. I drank two cups of coffee. / No, I didn’t. I didn’t drink coffee.

8. How much money did you spend?        I spent NT$1,000.

9. What time did you finish work?          I finished work at 6 P.M.

10. What did you do after work?

I went home, took a shower, watched TV, and then I surfed the Net.

11. What time did you go to bed?           I went to bed at 1 A.M.

12. Did you have a good day yesterday?

Yes, I did. I had a great day. / No, I didn’t. I had a bad day.

C. Vacation

  1. Where did you go?        I went to Japan.
  2. When did you go there?   I went there last May.
  3. Who did you go with?     I went there by myself.
  4. How did you travel?     I took a plane there.  In Tokyo, I took the subway.
  5. Where did you stay?      I stayed in a hostel.
  6. How was the hostel?      It was not big, but it’s very clean.
  7. How long were you stay there for?   I was in Tokyo for five days.
  8. How was the weather?   It was cold and rainy most of the time.
  9. What did you buy?      I bought some chocolate and souvenirs. 紀念品.
  10. Where did you visit?   I visited some museums, temples and shopping malls.
  11. What did you eat?      I ate some sushi and noodles.
  12. How was the food?      It was delicious.
  13. What did you do in the evening?   I went to the pubs and clubs in the evening.
  14. How were the people?   They were very friendly and hospitable. 好客的
  15. What did you enjoy the most? The streets were very clean and the air was fresh.
  16. What didn’t you like?    Everything was so expensive! I was broke!

 

 

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.7

D. 過去時間說法:下面這些用法前面都不要家介系詞at, on, in

yesterday昨天 today今天 tomorrow明天
yesterday morning昨天早上 this morning今天早上 tomorrow morning明天早上
yesterday afternoon昨天下午 this afternoon今天下午 tomorrow afternoon明天下午
yesterday evening昨天傍晚 this evening今天傍晚 tomorrow evening明天傍晚
last night昨天晚上 tonight今天晚上 tomorrow night明天晚上
last Friday上週五 this Friday這星期五 next Friday下星期五
last week上星期 this week這星期 next week下星期
last January去年一月 this January今年一月 next January明年一月
last month上個月 this month這個月 next month下個月
last year去年 this year今年 next year明年

a few minutes ago幾分鐘前, three hours ago三個小時前, two days ago兩天前, four months ago四個月前, five years ago五年前, at 8.30在八點半, on Monday在星期一, in February在二月, in 1989在一九八九年

E. 翻譯練習

1. 我昨天八點起床。

2. 他昨天早上沒有喝咖啡。

3. 她上週末有看電影嗎?

4. 你昨天晚上做了什麼?

5. 誰拿了我的手機?

6. 昨天很熱又悶濕(humid)。

7. 我昨天晚上不在家。

8. 你今天上課有遲到嗎?

9. 你的週末過得如何?

10. 上星期有幾個學生在班上?

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.8

F.  Travel Experiences (P.112 Four Corners)

1. Now I ____ here in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Yesterday, I ____ (go) on a short elephant trip. There _____ (be) a man on the elephant in front of me. His name ______ (be) Alan Johnson. My name ____ (be) Alan Johnson, too! I can’t believe we _____ (have) the same name!

2. My sister and I are in Paris, France. It’s our first trip overseas. We _____ (go) to an outdoor café the other day, and Johnny Depp _________ (be) at the next table. How exciting! He _______ (be) nice to us, and I have a cool photo now.

3. I’m here with my parents at a hotel in Miami, Florida. We _______(come) to visit our relatives. We all ______ (go) to bed last night at about midnight. At 3:00 in the morning, we __________ (hear)  a fire alarm. We _______ (run) down to the street and ________ (be) fine.

G. 過去簡單式的一般動詞與be動詞

英文的句子一定要有主詞跟動詞。

過去式的句型如下

1. 肯定句:有一般動詞時用動詞的過去式V2             I came to class late.

沒有一般動詞的句子,要有Be2 (was, were)   I was late for class.

2. 疑問句:有一般動詞用did造問句,動詞改為原型。Did you come to class late?

沒有一般動詞時,則用Be2(was, were)造問句。 Were you late for class?

填入下列問句中的助動詞,已經有一般動詞的用did造問句,沒有一般動詞的話用was/were造問句。

  1. _______ you take the MRT to school today?
  2. _______ you tired when you got up this morning?
  3. _______ you in class last time?
  4. _______ you work over time last week?
  5. _______ you chat online last night.
  6. _______ you good at math when you were a child?
  7. _______ you eat out last night?
  8. _______ you born in Taipei?
  9. _______ you worried last night?
  10. _______ you go to a wedding last month?
  11. _______ post pictures on Facebook last week?
  12. _______ bring more than NT$1,000 with you?
  13. _______ you drink bubble tea yesterday?
  14. _______ you at home this morning?

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.9

H. 過去進行式 Past Progressive

一、過去進行式使用時機

1. 過去進行式用來描述過去某時正在進行中的事情。所描述的活動或情況已經開始,而在當時仍未結束。也可以用來表達兩件事情同時在進行。

I saw you last night. You were waiting for a bus.

He was talking on his cell phone while he was driving his car.

2. 我們經常在同一句子中一起使用過去進行式與過去簡單式。過去進行式描述

過去某時正在進行的持續活動或情況;過去簡單式則描述較短暫的活動,這

短暫的活動在上述持續性的活動中出現,甚至把持續性活動打斷。

We were walking in the park when it started to rain.

但是,要描述某事件在另一事件之後發生,便需使用過去簡單式。

We stood under a tree when it started to rain.

3. 說故事時,過去進行式通常用來描述故事的背景情況,過去簡單式則用來描

述所發生的事。

I was standing outside the bus station. It was getting late and I was feeling

tired. I was waiting for a man called Johnny Mars. Suddenly, a woman came

round the corner and walked right up to me. ‘Are you Mr. Black?’ she asked.

二、過去進行式的副詞

過去進行式用來表達一個行為正在進行或在過去的一段時間內,所以很多過去的時間都可以用來表達,也常常會跟其他子句並用。

at that time, at five o’clock yesterday, at seven o’clock last night, in 2001

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.10

三、過去進行式句型:主詞+過去式be動詞+現在分詞(動詞-ing)

1. 肯定句     S  +  was/were  +  V-ing

I      was         eating lunch at 3:00.

You     were        smiling all the time yesterday.

He      was         studying when I called him.

I           ate a big dinner last night.

Tina          got married when she was 18.

2. 否定句:was/were本身可以當助動詞,所以只要在後面加not,可以縮寫成

wasn’t/weren’t

S   +  wasn’t/weren’t  +   V-ing

I       wasn’t           looking.

They    weren’t          listening.

She      wasn’t          studying.

3.Yes/No問句:was/were是助動詞,只要把was/were放到主詞前面即可

Was/Were  +   S      +    V-ing

Were        you          sleeping when I called?

Was          he          cooking?

4. WH問句:把WH疑問詞放在最前面,接著放was/were,再來放主詞,動名詞即可

WH word +  was/were   +  S   +  V-ing

What        was           he      doing at this time yesterday?

Where       were          you     going when I saw you last night?

what跟who可以當疑問主詞,當what 跟 who當主詞的時候,都當作第三

人稱單數,所以後面的動詞接was

What        was           making that noise?

Who         was           driving at that time?

翻譯練習

  1. 昨天晚上他一邊寫作業,一邊聽音樂。
  2. 史丹利洗澡的時候門鈴響了。
  3. 你在睡覺的時候你的朋友打電話來。
  4. 意外發生的時候,他開車開得很快。
  5. 我今天一回到家就打開電腦。

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.11

I. 過去簡單式與過去進行式的比較

過去簡單式 過去進行式
It all happened very quickly. The car came straight out of the side road, and the van went into the back of it. The Van driver didn’t have a chance. It was the car driver’s fault. I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting in a park. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. Children were playing and laughing. It was very peaceful. I didn’t want to wake up.
句型:主詞+動詞的過去式(S + V2)They got married last year.

I didn’t have time to do homework.

What time did you get up yesterday?

句型:主詞+was/were+動詞-ingA: What were you doing at six o’clock

last night?

B: I was watching TV.

  1. 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事

件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

2. 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when

they crashed.

3. 過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的

動作。

We arrived at the beach.

  1. 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間

持續進行的動作。強調動作的過程。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was

reading.

2. 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

I was crossing the street when

the driver honked his horn.

3. 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景。

The sun was shining.

 

 

 

  

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.12

J. 過去簡單式與過去進行式的練習,根據上下文,用( )中提示的動詞,用過去簡單式或過去進行式來完成句子

Beethoven wrote (write) nine symphonies; he was writing (write) another symphony when he died.

1. Last Saturday Tom wanted to make two salads. He _______ (make) the first one in five minutes. He _________ (make) the second one when his guests ________ (arrive), and they _______ (help) him to finish it.

2. The artist Gaudi _________ (design) several houses in Barcelona, Spain. Later he ________ (start) work on a church. He _________ (work) on the church when he _________ (die).

3. Last month a bank robber __________ (escape) while the police __________ (take) him to prison. Later they ___________ (catch) him again, and this time they __________ (lock) him up without any problem.

4. Philip’s football team were lucky last Saturday. After twenty minutes they _________ (lose), but in the end they __________ (win) the game by four goals to two.

5. John Lennon __________ (sing) and ___________ (play) on many records with the Beatles. After that he _________(record) several songs without the Beatles. He ____________ (prepare) a new record when Mark Chapman __________ (shoot) him.

6. The evening was getting darker; the street lights __________ (come) on. People ___________ (hurry) home after work. I ___________ (stand) in a queue at the bus stop. Suddenly somebody ___________ (grab) my bag.

from Oxford Practice Grammar (Basic) P.27

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.13

K. used to 過去的習慣,跟 be used to 現在習慣於的用法與不同

a. 現在簡單式用來表達現在的狀況或習慣

My sister works as a translator.

Andrew lives in London.

Peter usually wears jeans.

mike doesn’t smoke anymore.

b. 過去簡單式用來表達過去的狀況或習慣

Henry lived in France for many years.

When I was young, I ran three miles every day.

c. used to可以用來表達過去持續一段期間的狀況或習慣,用來強調現在已經沒有這個狀況,跟現在是不同的。

Jill used to live in Ireland. (Jill doesn’t live in Ireland now.)

Many people used to make their own bread. (Nowadays people usually buy bread from a shop)

My husband used to work at home. (My husband doesn’t work at home now.)

d. 過去簡單式與used to的比較

When he was young, he ran three miles every day.

他年輕的時候,每天跑3英里。(現在可能每天跑3英里,也可能沒有跑)

When I was young, I used to run three miles every day. I don’t do that now.我年輕的時候,每天跑3英里。我現在沒有這麼做了。

e. 表達過去習慣的used to 句型

1. 肯定句 S + used to + V1(動詞原型):過去曾經…

表示過去經常性動作或習慣或狀態,現在已經沒有這樣的習慣或狀態。

He used to play basketball five days a week before he hurt his leg.

他腳受傷前,他曾經一個星期打五天籃球。

I used to smoke a lot, but I quit a few years ago.

我從前抽煙很兇,但是我幾年前戒了。

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.14

K. used to 過去的習慣,跟 be used to 現在習慣於的用法與不同

2. 否定句 S + didn’t use to + V1 / S + didn’t used to + V1

I didn’t use to drink coffee at breakfast, but now I always have coffee in the morning.  ( I didn’t used to drink coffee.)

I never used to drink coffee at breakfast, but now I always have coffee in the morning.

我從前不在早餐的時候喝咖啡,但是我現在總是在早上喝咖啡。

(Azar文法書指出didn’t use to 跟 didn’t used to 都可以,但比較常見的是never used to)

3.  疑問句 Did + S + use to + V1? / Did + S + used to + V1?

Did you use to live in Paris?  / Did you used to live in Paris?

你從前住在巴黎嗎?

Did you use to fight with your brother?

你從前常跟你的弟弟打架嗎?

f. 表達現在已經習慣於be + used to 句型

由於經驗的關係,對某件事不再感到驚訝,奇怪或困難,所以已經習慣於某件事。

1. 肯定句:S+ be used to + V-ing

I do the dishes every day, so I’m used to it.

我每天都洗盤子,所以我已經習慣了。

His new job is very busy and he is used to working late until 10 or 11 p.m.

他的新工作非常忙,他已經習慣於工作到十點,十一點。

2. 否定句:S + be + not + used to + V-ing

He isn’t used to driving on the left.

他不習慣開車開左邊。(現在還是不習慣)

He wasn’t used to driving on the left, but now he’s used to it.

他先前不習慣開左邊,但是他現在習慣了。

3. 疑問句: Be + S + used to + V-ing

Are you used to your new school?

你習慣於你的新學校了嗎?

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.15

K. used to 過去的習慣,跟 be used to 現在習慣於的用法與不同

g. used to 跟 be used to 的不同

這兩個片語的用法很多人常常會弄混淆,先看一下下面這段文字:

I used to stay up late until 2 or 3 a.m.  However, I started a new job two months ago, and now I have to get to work at 7 a.m. At first, I had a difficult time getting up early, but now I’m used to getting up early.

我以前都熬夜到凌晨兩三點。然而,在兩個月前我有了個新工作,現在我必須要七點上班。剛開始,我很難早起,但是現在我已經習慣於早起。

S + be used to + V-ing/N:表達現在習慣,某件事不是新事物,也不陌生

S + used to + V1:表達過去的習慣,從前固定做某件事,現在不做了

I’m used to the weather in Australia. 我習慣澳洲的天氣了。

I’m used to driving on the left because I have lived in Australia for a long time. 我很習慣開車開左邊,因為我住澳洲很久了

I used to drive to work every day, but these days I usually go by bike. 我曾經每天開車上班,但是最近我通常都騎腳踏車。

We used to live in a small village, but now we live in Sydney. 我們從前住在一個小村莊,但是我們現在住雪梨。

  1. Jane is used to _____________ (drive) on the left.
  2. He used to ________ (live) in New York, but now he lives in a small town.
  3. Tom used to __________ (drink) a lot of coffee. Now he prefers tea.
  4. I feel very full after that meal. I’m not used to _________ (eat) so much.
  5. I wouldn’t like to share an office. I’m used to _________ (have) my own office.
  6. I used to ________ (have) a car, but I sold it a few months ago.
  7. When we were children, we used to ___________ (go) swimming every day.
  8. There used to __________ (be) a cinema here but it was knocked down a few years ago.
  9. I’m the boss here. I’ not used to ________ (be) told what to do.

from English Grammar in Use  Unit 60 P.121

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.16

L. 表達未來

時態在英語學習中對很多人來說都是怎麼也弄不清楚的東西。因為中文多半是用時間副詞來表達。而英文最大的差別是不同的時態,動詞的變化也不一樣,有時候連時間副詞都不需要就可以表達時態。

我每天早上九點起床。I get up at 9.00 every morning. (現在簡單)

我有兩個哥哥。I have two brothers. (現在簡單)

他住在板橋。He lives in Banqiao. (現在簡單)

她昨天請假。She took a day off yesterday. (過去簡單)

我看過雪。I have seen snow. (現在完成)

我下星期要去巴黎。I’m going to Paris next week. (未來)

其中表達未來因為有各種不同的用法,所以很容易造成混淆。究竟什麼時候用什麼樣的時態呢?要說未來的事究竟要怎麼說呢?有點複雜。因為未來的事還沒有發生,如何看待未來的事件也會影響到時態的運用。是個計劃,打算這麼做,還是不確定的事情等等。

最容易弄混淆的是will 跟 be going to。下面先介紹一下大致上常見的幾種表達未來的方式。

表達未來的用法

a. 表達意圖的be going to: I’m going to spend six weeks in the U.S.

b. 表達中立未來的will: I’ll be free for most of the summer.

c. 表達計劃安排的現在進行式Present Progressive (S+ am/is/are + V-ing): I’m starting work in September.

d. 表達時間表的現在簡單式Present Simple ( S + V1): She finishes college at the same time. (a timetable時間表)

e. 表達正式安排的活動的be to: The museum is to open in summer.

f. 表達非常接近現在的未來的be about to: She is about to win the race. (ve

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.17

L. 表達未來

a.  be going to  用來表達我們對於未來所事先做的計畫,或意圖。

1. 用來預測未來:I think it’s going to rain this afternoon.

2. 用來表示計劃:Tom and Mary are going to spend a year in Australia.

3. 當動詞是go時,常用現在進行式來代替:I’m going home. See you tomorrow.

4. 口語比較常用be going to。

be going to的句型:主詞+am/is/are going to+動詞原型

1. 肯定句:主詞+am/is/are going to+動詞原型

I am going to visit his friend tomorrow.

2. 否定句:主詞+am/is/are+not+going to+動詞原型

They are not going to have lunch today.

3. Yes/No問句:Am/Is/Are+主詞+going to+動詞原型?

Is it going to rain?

4. WH問句:WH疑問詞+am/is/are+主詞+going to+動詞原型?

When are you going to pay the bill?

b. will

will用來表達我們所知道,我們所認為的未來,它是一個中立的字。

1. 用來預測未來:He will be late. They won’t win the game.

2. 用來表示說話當下立即的決定:I won’t have the fish. I’ll have the chicken.

3. 用來許下承諾:I’ll always love you. I won’t tell anyone.

4. 用來提供人家幫助:I’ll open the door for you. I’ll help you.

5. 用來邀請:Will you come to lunch?  Yes, thank you. I’d love to.

6. 不會用來表達先前已經做好的決定或計劃:I’m going to study in the U.S. next year.

7. 在正式寫作比較常用will。

will的句型:主詞+will+動詞原型 (任何主詞都用will。will後面接動詞原型)

1. 肯定句:主詞+will+動詞原型

It will cose $10,000.

2. 否定句:主詞+will+not+動詞原型

It will not be long. I won’t have time for that.

3. Yes/No 問句:Will+主詞+動詞原型?

Will you love me tomorrow?

4. WH問句:WH疑問詞+will+主詞+動詞原型?

What will the weather be like?

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.18

L. 表達未來

be going to will 的比較

A: It’s my birthday soon. I’ll be twenty next Friday.

B: Oh, really? Are you going to have a party?

A: I’m going to have dinner in a restaurant with some friends.

B: That’ll be nice.

1.

will有中立的意義,用來談論未來的事實。I’ll be twenty next Friday.

be going to用來表達意圖,計劃好的事。I’m going to cook tonight.

2.

will不用來表示未來的意圖。

It’s her birthday. She’s going to have dinner with her friends.

She’ll have dinner with her friends.

3.

然而我們經常用be going to來表達意圖,用will來說詳細的內容,或評論。

We’re going to have dinner. There’ll be about five of us. – Oh, that’ll be nice.

4.

will用在當下的決定或同意做某件事

There’s a postbox over there. I’ll post these letters.

You haven’t put those shelves up, Steve. – OK, I’ll do it tomorrow.

be going to用在事先做好的決定

I’m going out. I’m going to post these letters.

You still haven’t put those shelves up, Steve. – I know. I’m going to do it tomorrow.

5.

will可用來預測未來

I think United will win the game. One day people will travel to Mars.

be going to用來預測未來常會用在當已經有看到現在有些狀況會導致未來發生的事情。

There isn’t a cloud in the sky. It’s going to be a lovely day.

This bag isn’t very strong. It’s going to break.

有時候兩者可以通用,下面兩者表達相同意思

I think United are going to win the game.

I think United will win the game.

be going to 比較口語,非正式。

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.19

L. 表達未來

c.  現在進行式 Present Progressive

現在進行式可以用來表示未來的安排。

I’m meeting Henry at six o’clock. David is coming round later on.

We’re having a party tomorrow. Sarah is going to Paris next week.

現在進行式可以用來表示現在發生的事,所以表示未來的時候一定要有前後文或未來的時間

We’re having a party at the moment.

We’re having a party tomorrow.

通常現在進行式用來表示未來跟be going to的意思相似。

I’m meeting Jack at seven o’clock.

I’m going to meet Jack at seven o’clock.

d. 現在簡單式 Present Simple

現在簡單式可以用在未來的時間表timetable,通常用在說公共的時間表如火車時刻表,電影播放時間,電視節目的時間,旅遊的行程等等。只有少數的動詞可以用現在簡單是表達未來。如: arrive, leave, start, begin, end, finish, open, close, be等。

The train leaves at seven thirty tomorrow morning.

The match starts at half past six.

Next Friday is the thirteenth.

I have the tour details. We spend three days in Rome.

時間連接詞跟if帶領的副詞子句中用現在簡單式來表達未來

連接詞如after, as, as soon as, before, by the time, until, when, while跟if帶領的副詞子句表達未來時會用現在簡單式而不用will或be going to

I’m starting a job in sales after I finish college.

As soon as you hear any news, will you let me know?

I must get to the bank before it closes.

If you come in late tonight, please don’t make a noise.

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.20

L. 表達未來

e. be to + V1

be to 可以用來表示未來正式安排好的活動,常用在新聞報導中。

The Queen is to visit Spain in November.

The Student Games are to take place in Melbourne next year.

這裡也可以跟現在進行式通用:The Queen is visiting Spain in November.

f. be about to + V1

be about to用在非常接近現在的未來,可能是接下來的數分鐘或數秒鐘內

The plane is at the end of the runway. It’s about to take off.

Do you want to say goodbye to our visitors? They’re about to leave.

M. Exercise: Use be going to, will, Present Simple, or Present Continuous

1.

A: Have you cleaned your room?

B: Oh, no, I forgot. I ______________ (clean) it now.

2.

Oh, no! It’s starting to rain! I think I _______________(take) a taxi.

3. Look out! The ladder _________________ . (fall)

4. We ___________________ (have) a baby.

5. Don’t touch the knife. You _________________ (cut) yourself.

6. Don’t smoke. You ___________________ (be) sick.

7. It’s raining. Don’t go out now. You __________________ (get) wet.

8. I ____________________ (make) some spaghetti tonight.

9.What time is your flight?  It ___________(leave) at 12.00 p.m.

10.

A: Do you have a ticket for the concert?

B: Yes, I _________________ (see) it on Friday.

11.

A: The alarm’s going. It’s making an awful noise.

B: OK, I _________________ (switch) it off.

12.

  1. Did you buy this book?
  2. No, Emma did. She _________________ (read) it on holiday.

13.

  1. Would you like tea or coffee?
  2. Oh, I _________________ (have) coffee, please.

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.21

Answer Key

 

A. 過去簡單式Simple Past 

/t/ cooked, relaxed, shopped, talked, watched
/d/ cleaned, listened, studied, played, cried
/ɪd/ wanted, invited, needed, visited, waited

E. 翻譯練習

1. I got up at 8 yesterday.

2. He didn’t drink coffee yesterday morning.

3. Did she watch a movie last weekend?

4. What did you do last night?

5. Who took my cell phone?

6. It was hot and humid.

7. I wasn’t at home last night.

8. Were you late for class today?

9. How was your weekend?

10. How many students were there in class last week?

 

F.Travel Experiences (P.112 Four Corners)

  1. am, went, was, was, is, have
  2. went, was, was
  3. came, went, heard, ran, were

G.  過去簡單式的一般動詞與be動詞

1. Did  2. Were  3. Were  4. Did  5. Did  6. Were  7. Did  8. Were

9. Were  10. Did  11. Did  12. Did  13. Did  14. Were

H.  翻譯練習

1. He was doing homework while he was listening to music last night.

2. Stanley was taking a shower when the doorbell rang.

3 .Your friend called when you were sleeping.

4. When the accident happened, he was speeding.

5. I turned on the computer as soon as I came home today.

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.22

Answer Key

J.  過去簡單式與過去進行式的練習

  1. made, was, making, arrived, helped
  2. designed, started, was working, died
  3. escaped, were taking, caught, locked
  4. were losing, won
  5. sang, played, recorded, was preparing, shot
  6. were coming, were hurrying, was standing, grabbed

K. used to 過去的習慣,跟 be used to 現在習慣於的用法與不同

1. driving  2. live  3. drink  4. eating  5. having  6. have  7. go  8. be

9. being

M. Exercise: Use be going to, will, Present Simple, or Present Continuous

  1. will clean
  2. will take
  3. is going to fall
  4. are going to have
  5. will cut
  6. are going to be sick
  7. are going to get
  8. am making/am going to make
  9. leaves
  10. am going to see
  11. will switch
  12. is going to red
  13. will have

 

過去時態:過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式 用法與區別

2016/04/16

下面有新寫的過去完成式跟現在完成式與過去簡單式的文,更多的例子跟練習:)

 

Past Perfect 過去完成式詳解,與過去簡單式用法的區別

 

現在完成式與過去簡單式用法的區別 Present Perfect and Past Simple

 

2016/11/17 YouTube 影片版

用法與區別

 

 

練習題解答

潔西家進階文法教室              Jessie

 

過去時態:過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式 用法與區別

American English File 3, Oxford Practice Grammar, Grammar Express

 

這裡因為做比較跟區別,所以最前面放例句,然後是句型,接下來是使用的時機。再來是混合的練習題。題目做多了真的會比較有概念。

 

另外潔西自己在動詞的不同形態方面比較偷懶

V1:原形動詞 base form 也就是動詞的第一態,現在簡單式,不定詞後面

I go to bed at 2 a.m. /  My brother takes the MRT to work.

V2:過去動詞 paste tense 也就是動詞的第二態,過去簡單式

I went to bed at 2 a.m.   / My brother took the MRT to work today..

V3:過去分詞 past participle 也就是動詞的第三態,現在完成,過去完成,未

來完成,被動:

I have eaten breakfast. / I hit him. — He was hit by me.

V-ing:現在分詞 present participle 也就現在分詞,進行式

 

work, worked, worked, working

eat, ate, eaten, eating

A 過去簡單式Past Simple:

主要就是在描述過去發生的某件事情。記得用主詞跟動詞的過去式。說過去的事情最常用的就是過去簡單式。

 

It all happened very quickly. The car came straight out of the side road, and the van went into the back of it. The van driver didn’t have a chance. It was the car driver’s fault.

一切發生的非常快。那台汽車直接從旁邊衝出來,而那台貨車撞到汽車的後面。貨車司機完全沒有機會(閃避)。是汽車司機的錯。

 

這上面有幾個過去式的動詞呢?數數看。詞性要記住才分辨得出來喔。

 

It was all my fault.  / My bad.

 

一共有五個,算對了嗎?

 

記句型的時候要把肯定句,否定句跟疑問句的用法都一起記喔

get married, get engaged, get divorced.

 

1 句型 Forms:主詞+動詞的過去式(S + V2):

肯定:They got married last year.    My dog ate my homework.

否定:I didn’t have time to do homework.

疑問:What time did you get up this morning?

past——————x———————now——————–future 2

2 使用時機Use:

在什麼時候用非常重要,通常用在一個在過去完成的動作,常跟過去時間連用

a 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

I ate a bread and coffee for breakfast. (x)

I ate bread and drank coffee for breakfast.

I had bread and coffee for breakfast.

 

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when they crashed.

While I was taking a shower, someone called.

c 過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的動作。

We arrived at the beach.

 

 

 

B 過去進行式Past Continuous

用來說明過去某個時間正在進行的動作,持續的動作。句型用主詞加上was/were再加上動詞加ing。S + was/were + V-ing

 

I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting in a park. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. Children were playing and laughing. It was very peaceful. I didn’t want to wake up.

我做天晚上做了個美夢。我在公園坐著。太陽閃耀地照著,鳥兒在唱歌。小孩們說說笑笑。非常的寧靜。我一點都不想醒來。

 

這裡是把過去簡單式跟過去進行式合併使用。描述活動故事背景的時候常用過去進行式,用過去進行式來表示過去某個時間點發生的事,或持續的動作。時態常會像這樣混合使用喔,先前有學生問說問什麼不全部用過去簡單式,恩,說故事的時候強調的東西不一樣,這裡比較有背景跟主題,強調當時的狀況,所以後面不想起來。有時候真的也很難解釋的清楚,多做題目,多看多聽多運用就會比較有概念。

 

1 句型Forms:主詞+Be動詞的過去式(was/were)+動詞-ing (S + Be2 + V-ing)

A: What were you doing at six o’clock last night?

B: I was watching TV. I wasn’t studying. My parents were watching

TV with me.

 

 

 

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間持續進行的動作。強調動作的過程。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

multi-tasking

 

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

I was crossing the street when the driver honked his horn.

 

c 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景

The sun was shining.

所以說故事的時候,故事的背景會用過去進行式,描述內容的時候會用過去

簡單式。

 

 

C 過去完成式Past Perfect

描述過去的兩件事情中先發生的第一件事,或是用來說過去某個時間點前發生的事。完成式都是用來表示一件事情發生在另外一件事情之前,所以假如只有單純的描述過去發生的某件事就只要用過去簡單式就可以,這時候不需要用過去完成式。也就是說當描述過去發生了兩件事時,先發生的事會用過去完成式,後發生的會用過去簡單式來表達。

 

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. We hadn’t gone to bed until after one. I hadn’t been on the train long when I had a bit of shock. I suddenly realized that I had left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn’t remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.

我昨天搭火車上班的時候覺得很累因為莎拉跟我前一個晚上去了一個派對。我們到一點鐘才上床睡覺。我上火車沒多久就嚇到。我突然發現我把錢包忘在家裡。然後我開始懷疑。我是前一天忘在辦公室了嗎?我就是記不起來。我很想回床上睡覺。我覺得糟透了。

hangover  醉後大丈夫

1 句型Forms:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished.

(比賽在打開電視前就開始了)

They hadn’t gone home until late.

Where had he put his wallet?   Where did I put my wallet?

 

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生在

過去某個時間點前。

By 1933 Oprah Winfrey had become famous.

By November 9th Donald Trump had won the election.

 

b 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

 

c 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連接

句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The man had arrived at the store before it opened.

The man arrived at the store before it opened.

 

特別注意句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1 When John arrived, they had diner.

1                                      2

當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.)

約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2 When John arrived, they were having dinner.

當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3 When John arrived, they had had/had eaten dinner.

2                                      1

當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.)

在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4 When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

1                              2

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。(我先開電視,節目才開始)

5 When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I missed the

beginning.  2                                1

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開頭。(節目先開始,我才開電視)

When I turned on the TV, the singer was singing.

 

 

D 翻譯練習:用過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式來翻譯下面的句子。

(翻譯其實會有很多不同的答案,但是主要時態跟句型要對)

 

這邊先放問題,可以練習的,下面接著是在影片中講解的,最後是可以直接對答案的

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

 

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

 

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

 

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

 

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

 

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

 

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

 

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

 

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

 

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

 

 

E Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous

or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

 

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

 

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

mid term, final exam,

 

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

 

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

 

 

 

 

F Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the

parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I

was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的

時態完成句子。

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

 

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

 

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

 

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

 

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

 

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

 

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

 

 

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

 

 

影片的解說答案

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

(strange-looking)的男人。

I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

While I was waiting at the checkout, I noticed a strange-looking man.

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

I was really pleased to see Rachel again. I had seen her for a long time.

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

I was sleeping when you called last night.

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter

everywhere.

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

The bill wasn’t right. They had made a mistake.

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

The match was over. United had won.

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

When I was waiting for the bus, you drove past me.

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

When Laura was sitting in the park, it suddenly began to rain.

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

 

E Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous

or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

When I arrived, they were watching TV.

 

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

When she called him, he had left the office.

 

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

mid term, final exam,

The test didn’t go well although I had studied for the test the night

before.

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

When he was driving to work this morning, he had an accident.

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

When he passed his driving test, he only had had five lessons.

 

 

 

F Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the

parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I

was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的

時態完成句子。

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

I was waiting to play tennis yesterday when my partner called me to say that he couldn’t come because his car had broken down.

 

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

Chicago beat Boston yesterday. Boston was winning 44-39 in the first half, but Chicago scored 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

 

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

We were late. When we arrived, everyone had finished their lunch and they were sitting in the living room having coffee.

 

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

I ran to the station, but the six o’clock train had already left. The train station was empty except for three people who were waiting for the next train.

 

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

It started raining when he was walking to work. He stopped a taxi because he wasn’t wearing a coat and he didn’t have an umbrella.

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

They were driving to the airport when they suddenly remembered that hadn’t turned off the lights.

 

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

I didn’t recognize many people at my old school reunion because everyone had changed a lot in 20 years.

 

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

The game had already started when we turned on the TV. Costa Rica

was losing 1:0 and they were playing very badly.

 

 

 

答案在下面,不要偷看啊。可以一個大題一個大題的做。做完一大題對答案,確定懂後再往下做。

 

 

 

 

D 翻譯

1       I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

2      I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday. I hadn’t seen her for ages.

3      I was sleeping when you called last night.

4      After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter everywhere.

5      This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

6      The match was over. United had won.

7      You drove right past me when I was waiting for the bus.

8      The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

9      When Laura was sitting in the garden, it suddenly began to rain.

10    I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

 

 

E

1 were watching

2 had left

3 had studied

4 was driving

5 had only had

 

F

1 was waiting, called, had broken down

2 beat, was winning, scored

3 arrived, had finished, were sitting

4 ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5 started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6 were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7 didn’t recognize, had changed

8 had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing

2015/10/30 一早五點二十起床,發現昨天改到一半的文章居然不見了,唉呀。再重新寫囉。不知為何這篇的點閱率目前最高,不過呢,學生在國外還有上過會話班的同學都有提到 Google 到這一篇。時態實在有點難,不過花點時間還是可以大致上弄得清楚的。有再修了一下,希望可以表達得更清楚:)

過去完成式大概是同學使用錯誤頻率最高的之一,另外再加上過去簡單式,過去進行式,大概可以把人弄瘋。通通用在說過去,為什麼要這麼麻煩,對不起,英文不是潔西發明的,約定俗成,中文更難學,這樣想應該心情會好一點。

不過說真的這幾個過去的時態挺容易讓人弄不清楚的,而且假如用錯時態的話,意思可能會完全不同。所以是值得花點時間好好弄懂。不過因為中文實在沒有類似的時態用法,所以要弄懂真的需要花一點時間跟心血。這是明天要上課剛好講到的部分,所以花了一點時間整理,上次講到時態同學整個就說聽不懂,所以呢希望做個講義能夠比較有點概念。這個部分真的不容易,初學者的話可以先跳過,因為實在有點複雜。

想弄懂也不是很難真的就是先理解,多看例子,比較清楚在什麼樣的狀態下要用什麼時態,不要死背,理解後多做例子,所以潔西後面放了很多練習題,也有答案。最重要是把句型跟什麼時候用分清楚,然後多觀察看到的句子聽到的句子是使用什麼樣的時態,最後自己再多練習把他們用出來,那就真的學會了。假如看一遍做了一遍還是不懂不要擔心,潔西也是做了很多遍,看了很多書才懂得,所以慢慢來,一遍不懂再看第二遍,還是不懂在看第三遍,總有一天一定會懂得,加油!上課要來不及了,衝啊!

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:)

參考書籍:American English File 3, Oxford Practice Grammar, Grammar Express

這裡因為做比較跟區別,所以最前面放例句,然後是句型,接下來是使用的時機。再來是混合的練習題。題目做多了真的會比較有概念。另外潔西自己在動詞的不同形態方面比較偷懶,原形動詞用 V1 表示,過去式動詞 past tense,也就是動詞的第二態用 V2 表示,動詞的第三態也就是過去分詞 past participle 則用 V3 來表示,而現在分詞 present participle 則用 V-ing 來表示。應該只有潔西自己這樣用,覺得比較好記,看得時候知道就好了。

 

這下面是原本的,跟上面一樣,只是上面有說明,所以就多放一次

 

A. 過去簡單式Past Simple: 主要就是在描述過去發生的某件事情。記得用主詞跟動詞的過去式。說過去的事情最常用的就是過去簡單式。

It all happened very quickly. The car came straight out of the side road, and the van went into the back of it. The Van driver didn’t have a chance. It was the car driver’s fault. 一切發生的非常快。那台汽車直接從旁邊衝出來,而那台貨車撞到汽車的後面。貨車司機完全沒有機會(閃避)。是汽車司機的錯。

這上面有幾個過去式的動詞呢?數數看。詞性要記住才分辨得出來喔。一共有五個,算對了嗎?

1. 句型Forms:主詞+動詞的過去式(S + V2):記句型的時候要把肯定句,否定句跟疑問句的用法都一起記喔

They got married last year.

I didn’t have time to do homework.

What time did you get up this morning.

2. 使用時機Use:在什麼時候用非常重要,通常用在一個在過去完成的動作,常跟過去時間連用

a. 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

b. 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when they crashed.

c. 過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的動作。

We arrived at the beach.

B. 過去進行式Past Continuous:用來說明過去某個時間正在進行的動作,持續的動作。句型用主詞加上was/were再加上動詞加ing。S + was/were + V-ing

I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting in a park. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. Children were playing and laughing. It was very peaceful. I didn’t want to wake up. 我做天晚上做了個美夢。我在公園坐著。太陽閃耀地照著,鳥兒在唱歌。小孩們說說笑笑。非常的寧靜。我一點都不想醒來。

這裡是把過去簡單式跟過去進行式合併使用。描述活動故事背景的時候常用過去進行式,用過去進行式來表示過去某個時間點發生的事,或持續的動作。時態常會像這樣混合使用喔,先前有學生問說問什麼不全部用過去簡單式,恩,說故事的時候強調的東西不一樣,這裡比較有背景跟主題,強調當時的狀況,所以後面不想起來。有時候真的也很難解釋的清楚,多做題目,多看多聽多運用就會比較有概念。

1. 句型Forms:主詞+Be動詞的過去式(was/were)+動詞-ing (S + Be2 + V-ing)

A: What were you doing at six o’clock last night?

B: I was watching TV. I wasn’t studying. My parents were watching TV with me.

2. 使用時機Use:

a. 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間持續進行的動作。強調動作的過程。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

b. 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

I was crossing the street when the driver honked his horn.

c. 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景

The sun was shining.

所以說故事的時候,故事的背景會用過去進行式,描述內容的時候會用過去簡單式。

C. 過去完成式Past Perfect:描述過去的兩件事情中先發生的第一件事,或是用來說過去某個時間點前發生的事。完成式都是用來表示一件事情發生在另外一件事情之前,所以假如只有單純的描述過去發生的某件事就只要用過去簡單式就可以,這時候不需要用過去完成式。也就是說當描述過去發生了兩件事時,先發生的事會用過去完成式,後發生的會用過去簡單式來表達。

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. We hadn’t gone to bed until after one. I hadn’t been on the train long when I had a bit of shock. I suddenly realized that I had left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn’t remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful. 我昨天搭火車上班的時候覺得很累因為莎拉跟我前一個晚上去了一個派對。我們到一點鐘才上床睡覺。我上火車沒多久就嚇到。我突然發現我把錢包忘在家裡。然後我開始懷疑。我是前一天忘在辦公室了嗎?我就是記不起來。我很想回床上睡覺。我覺得糟透了。

1. 句型Forms:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished. (比賽在打開電視前就開始了)

They hadn’t gone home until late.

Where had he put his wallet?

2. 使用時機Use:

a. 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生在過去某個時間點前。

By 1933 Oprah Winfrey had become famous.

b. 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

c. 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連接句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The man had arrived at the store before it opened.

The man arrived at the store before it opened.

特別注意句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1. When John arrived, they had diner. 當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.) 約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2. When John arrived, they were having dinner.當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3. When John arrived, they had had dinner. 當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.) 在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4. When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。(我先開電視,節目才開始)

5. When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I missed the beginning.

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開頭。(節目先開始,我才開電視)

D. 翻譯練習:用過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式來翻譯下面的句子。

(翻譯其實會有很多不同的答案,但是主要時態跟句型要對)

1. 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長得很奇怪(strange-looking)的男人。

2. 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

3. 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

4. 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

5. 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

6. 比賽結束。United贏了。

7. 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

8. 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

9. 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

10. 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

E. Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1. They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

2. He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

3. I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

4. He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

5. He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

6. I ______________ (wait) to paly tennis yesterday when

F. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的時態完成句子。

  1. I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).
  2. Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.
  3. We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.
  4. I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.
  5. It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.
  6. They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.
  7. I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ a lot in 20 years.
  8. The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

答案在下面,不要偷看啊。可以一個大題一個大題的做。做完一大題對答案,確定懂後再往下做。

D. 翻譯

  1. I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.
  2. I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday. I hadn’t seen her for ages.
  3. I was sleeping when you called last night.
  4. After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter everywhere.
  5. This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.
  6. The match was over. United had won.
  7. You drove right past me when I was waiting for the bus.
  8. The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.
  9. When Laura was sitting in the garden, it suddenly began to rain.
  10. I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

E.

1. were watching

2. had left

3. had studied

4. was driving

5. had only had

F.

1. was waiting, called, had broken down

2. beat, was winning, scored

3. arrived, had finished, were sitting

4. ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5. started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6. were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7. didn’t recognize, had changed

8. had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing