【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 91 關係子句/形容詞子句 受格

不知道為什麼這支影片錄了前後起碼三十次吧?上星期五就開始錄,到上課前錄了二十幾分鐘,刪掉,昨天還是前天也試了好幾次,今天也是錄了快二十分又刪掉,不知道為什麼這麼難,真是暈倒。結果剛剛錄完更暈倒,居然快三十分,這誰要看呢?真的想學好形容詞子句的人吧?花了很多時間,盡量一步步給大家看怎麼樣合併句子,然後省略是從哪裡省,希望覺得這部分很難的人可以比較容易地理解。看到居然錄了三十分的時候真的很想重錄個短一點的,不過還是放棄了,因為又快要去上課了。

昨天去看疼痛科門診,醫生意外的年輕,不過解說很詳細,我的肌肉很緊,所以的醫生都這麼說,但是她也舉出了潔西不良的姿勢,不自覺聳肩跟脖子會往前,需要自己注意改進。另外先前頸椎的手術的部分的確有可能造成痠痛,先吃肌肉鬆弛劑跟止痛劑,沒有效的話可以在脖子注射止痛劑,聽起來很恐怖,不過聽說效果會不錯,當然是一個治標不治本。有建議潔西去做一個叫做多面項脊椎運動,訓練上背的核心肌群,可以考慮找物理治療師一對一教適合潔西的運動,因為潔西畢竟是頸椎開過刀,不是什麼運動都可以做,要找專業的治療師比較安心。

為什麼潔西要去看疼痛門診?因為真的痛得很厲害,每天早上起來就痛,大概是三四分的痛,越晚越痛,尤其工作上課後,晚上回到家大概是可以到達七分的痛,回到家真的就只想躺在床上。當然運動是很好,但是痛得不得了的時候是沒有心情跟體力去運動的。最近真的痛得太厲害了。另外很妙的是,醫生叫潔西吃抗憂鬱藥。潔西去年十一月左右停了,醫生有解釋說因為抗憂鬱藥可以緩解大腦中對疼痛的感受,所以其實他們在治療的時候也會開抗憂鬱藥給病人。所以潔西就開始又吃了,先把痛的問題解決比較重要。

要上課去了,想想潔西身體真的是差得不得了。昨天看醫生,十一點多到,兩點多才離開,等醫生跟等拿藥都超久,看完時就全身痠痛的不得了,回到家吃個東西真的累到不行就躺到床上睡了。整個週末也是上課之外,幾乎都在睡。身體跟不上心想做的事。目前就是工作第一,身體第二,所以即使有想做影片的東西也是都要放棄,先把身體養好再說吧!吃了抗憂鬱藥跟止痛藥好像今天真的比較沒有那麼痛。準備出門去上課,順便去四號公園走個一兩圈,順便去喝個E41?加油加油加油!

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

91 關係子句 2: 有與沒有 who / that / which 之關係子句

 

他就是那個偷了我錢包的人。

He is the man. The man stole my wallet.

(He is the man the man stole my wallet)(X)

He is the man who stole my wallet.

先行詞:the man

形容詞子句:who stole my wallet

關係代名詞:who 放在主詞的位置,是主格

 

三 關係代名詞為受格時

關係代名詞在形容詞子句中為主詞時用主格,當受詞時用時用受格,這時候受格為人的時候關係代名詞可以為 whom, who, that, 或省略。主格的關係代名詞一定不可以省略。受格關係代名詞最正式為 whom, 口語時多半省略。受格為事物時關係代名詞用 which, that, 或省略。注意介系詞不要忘了,不可以省略,放在形容詞子句最前面的時候,人要用介系詞+whom,事物要用介系詞+which

1 先行詞是人的時候,關係代名詞受格可以用 whom, who, that, 或省略。

a 他是我欽佩的男人。

He is the man. I admire the man.    

(He is the man the man I admire )(X)

He is the man whom I admire. (最正式)

He is the man who I admire.

He is the man that I admire.

He is the man I admire. (最口語)

 

 b 麗莎在演唱會看到的那個女人是她老闆的女朋友。

Lisa saw the woman at the concert. The woman was Lisa’s boss’s girlfriend.

(The woman Lisa saw the woman at the concert was her boss’ girlfriend.) (X)

The woman whom/who/that Lisa saw at the concert was her boss’s girlfriend.

The woman Lisa saw at the concert was her boss’s girlfriend.

 

c 我喜歡我昨天晚上在派對見到的那個男人。

I like the man. I saw the man at the party last night.

I like the man whom/who/that I saw at the party last night.

I like the man I saw at the party last night.

 

d 那就是那個我在談論的醫生。

That’s the doctor. I was talking about the doctor.

That’s the doctor whom/who/that I was talking about.

That’s the doctor I was talking about.

 

 

2 先行詞是事物的時候,關係代名詞受格可以用 which, that, 或省略。

a 凱特烤的那些餅乾很好吃。

The cookies were delicious. Kate baked the cookies.

(The cookies Kate baked the cookies were delicious) (X)

(The cookies the cookies Kate baked were delicious) (X)

The cookies which Kate baked were delicious. (最正式)

The cookies that Kate baked were delicious.

The cookies Kate baked were delicious. (最口語)

 

b 你有找到你想找的那本書嗎?

Did you find the book? You were looking for the book.

Did you find the book which/that you were looking for?

Did you find the book you were looking for?

 

c 我等的公車遲到了。

The bus is late. I’m waiting for the bus.

The bus which/that I’m waiting for is late.

The bus I’m waiting for is late.

 

d 我不喜歡我們上週末住的那家飯店。

I don’t like the hotel. We stayed in the hotel last weekend.

I don’t like the hotel which/that we stayed in last weekend.

I don’t like the hotel we stayed in last weekend.

 

e 我們昨天晚上聽的音樂很棒。

The music was great. We listened to the music last night.

The music which/that we listened to last night was great.

The music we listened to last night was great.

 

三 關係代名詞受格的練習翻譯

1 你現在穿的這件洋裝很適合你。

2 我們昨天晚上看的那部電影不好看。

3 你剛剛跟他講話的男人是我的老闆。

4 Judy 認識的那個男生是個有名的演員。

5 你現在坐的椅子舒不舒服?

6 John 弄壞了他女朋友買給他的相機。

7 我昨天買的水果在哪裡?

8 我看完你借給我的那本書了。

9 你現在用的杯子是我的。

10 他送給他女朋友的項鍊花了一百萬。

 

翻譯練習答案

三 關係代名詞受格的練習翻譯

1 你現在穿的這件洋裝很適合你。

1 You are wearing a dress. It suits you well.

1 The dress which/that you were wearing now suits you well.

1 The dress you were wearing now suits you well.

 

2 我們昨天晚上看的那部電影不好看。

2 We saw a movie last night. The movie was terrible.

2 The movie which/that we saw last night was terrible.

2 The movie we saw last night was terrible.

 

3 你剛剛跟他講話的男人是我的老闆。

3 You just talked to the man. The man is my boss.

3 The man you whom/who/that just talked to is my boss.

3 The man you just talked to is my boss.

 

4 Judy 認識的那個男生是個有名的演員。

4 Judy knows the man. The man is a famous actor.

4 The man whom/who/that Judy knows is a famous actor.

4 The man Judy knows is a famous actor.

 

5 你現在坐的椅子舒不舒服?

5 Is the chair comfortable? You are sitting on the chair.

5 Is the chair which/that you are sitting on comfortable?

5 Is the chair you are sitting on comfortable?

 

6 John 弄壞了他女朋友買給他的相機。

6 John broke the camera. His girlfriend bought him the camera.

6 John broke the camera which/that his girlfriend bought him.

6 John broke the camera his girlfriend bought him.

 

7 我昨天買的水果在哪裡?

7 I bought the fruit yesterday. Where is the fruit?

7 Where is the fruit which/that I bought yesterday?

7 Where is the fruit I bought yesterday?

 

8 我看完你借給我的那本書了。

8 I’ve finished the book. You lent me the book.

8 I’ve finished the book which/that you lent me.

8 I’ve finished the book you lent me.

 

9 你現在用的杯子是我的。

9 You are using the cup. The cup is mine.

9 The cup which/that you are using is mine.

9 The cup you are using is mine.

 

10 他送給他女朋友的項鍊花了一百萬。

10 He gave his girlfriend a necklace. The necklace cost one million dollars.

10 The necklace which/that he gave his girlfriend cost one million dollars.

10 The necklace he gave his girlfriend cost one million dollars.

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 90 關係子句/形容詞子句 主格

繼續新年快樂!先前有人問到會不會講劍橋活用英語文法的中級,會,潔西今年的新年新希望除了健康外就是想把劍橋活用英語文法的初級跟中級的部分的講義全部寫出來。那幹嘛不自己寫書?因為要找很多例子要想很久,工程太浩大了,等我把所有部分寫完之後說不定就自己編排一下,找影印店印也不是不行,但是可能會太厚。總之再說吧。初級跟中級重複的部分我就不會重複做講義。講義的話也大部分會從我自己原本有的講義部分來改寫。

形容詞子句是有點小難,拆成很多部分的話或許就簡單一點了?今天說的主格真的是不難的,很基礎的,用心看一下,自己多造一些類似的句子,平成看影片的時候多留意,慢慢就能說得出來了也不一定喔。不會說其實也沒關係,拆成兩個句子也是可以理解的,不過人家講的時候要聽得懂就是了。可以自己做做翻譯練習,寫出來的話會很有成就感的喔!

話說剛剛在飲料店看到有人居然穿著睡衣在買飲料,真的是成套那種睡衣。從前穿整套運動服出門有點怪,現在是流行了,不過睡衣整套穿出門是流行嗎?跟流行很不熟的潔西有點嚇到。

等等又要出門上課了,但是我覺得已經有點累了啊,老人一枚今年真的希望能夠把身體照顧好。預約下星期一去看疼痛門診,每個醫生都滿,只有那個醫生沒滿,其實是有一點擔心的,但是呢先去看再說吧。下午去看牙醫弄了一個小時,打麻藥,剛剛做影片還有一點,現在好像退的差不多了,該吃個飯出門上課去了。

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

ㄧ 概論

中文在形容一個名詞的時候多半把形容詞放在名詞前面,比方說他是個很高的人,他是個很帥的人,他是個不說謊的人。在英文像高的,帥的這種形容詞可以放在修飾的名詞的前面。但是不說謊的人這種有包含了動詞在內時,英文多半會用形容詞子句來修飾該名詞。

He is a tall man.

He is a handsome man.

He is a man who doesn’t lie.

中式英文 He is a not lie man.(X) 這樣直譯是不行的,英文的基本句型是一個主詞,一個動詞,當要有另外一個動詞時,要用適當的方式來連結。這種狀況下用的是形容詞子句。

形容詞子句 adjective clause ,或者我們有時候叫做關係子句 relative clause ,是一個有主詞,有動詞,但是語意不完整的子句,用來修飾,定義,或給予額外資訊。形容詞子句可想做是用來形容子句前面的名詞,也就是先行詞,或者可以想做關係子句就是用來表達子句跟前面先行詞之間的關係。每個形容詞子句/關係子句都會有一個關係代名詞用來帶領形容詞子句,比方說 who, which, whom, that, whose 等,這些關係代名詞在特定狀況下會被省略掉。

1 He is the teacher who has changed my life.

   他就是那個改變我的人生的老師。

   teacher 是先行詞

   who has changed my life 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

 

2 Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

   台北是個不夜城。

    city 是先行詞

   which never sleeps 是形容詞子句,其中 which 是關係代名詞

 

3 My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   我爸爸是個牙醫,他不准我們吃糖果。

   father 是先行詞

   who is a dentist 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

包含形容詞子句的句子通常可以拆成兩個句子。也可以看成當兩個句子,有共同的名詞的時候,有時候可以改成形容詞子句。

 

1 He is the teacher. The teacher has changed my life.

   — He is the teacher who has changed my life.

2 Taipei is a city. The city never sleeps.

   — Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

3 My father is a dentist. He doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   — My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時

形容詞子句中的關係代名詞,可以是在子句的句首的主格,可以是放在受詞位置的受格,也可以是修飾子句主句的所有格。而子句修飾的名詞,也就是先行詞,會因人或物而使用不同的關係的代名詞。

先從主格開始看起。先行詞是人的話,主格關係代名詞用 who。先行詞是事物的話,主格關係代名詞用 which。主格的 who 跟 which 都可以用 that 取代。口語的時候主格是人習慣用 who ,主格是事物習慣用 that 。主格的 which 有比較正式的感覺。

1 先行詞是人

I like people who smile a lot.   我喜歡常笑的人。   

I don’t like people who get angry easily.  我不喜歡容易生氣的人。

I have a friend who lives in Switzerland. 我有個住瑞士的朋友。    

I have a friend who works for Facebook. 我有個幫臉書工作的朋友。

形容詞子句可以放在句尾,也可以放在句中

People who have moved a lot have fewer friends. 經常搬家的人有比較少的朋友。

A person who has a lot of friends is lucky.  一個有很多朋友的人很幸運。

 

2 先行詞是事或物

Do you know a shop which sells good coffee? 你知道一間買好咖啡的店嗎?

This is the computer which isn’t working. 這就是壞掉的那台電腦。

The postcard which came this morning was from Italy. 今天早上收到的明信片是從義大利來的。

 

上面的 who 或 which 都可以用 that 取代,在非正式,口語的場合下。

I like people that smile a lot.

Do you know a shop that sells good coffee?

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時 

翻譯練習

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

.

.

.

.

.

翻譯解答

還是覺得有點難度的人可以先分成兩個句子在合併再一起。

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

1 I saw the man. The man stole the wallet.

1 I saw the man/that who stole the wallet.

 

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

2 The driver was polite. The driver took me to the airport.

2 The driver who/that took me to the airport was polite.

 

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

3 I found a shop. The shop sells good chocolate.

3 I found a shop that/which sells good chocolate.

 

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

4 The woman is a lawyer. The woman lives next door.

4 The woman who/that lives next door is a lawyer.

 

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

5 Tom is an engineer. Tom works at Google.

5 Tom, who works at Google, is an engineer.

 

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

6 I found the key. The key was missing.

6 I found the key that/which is missing.

 

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

7 The man was disappointed. The man lost the game.

7 The man who/that lost the game was disappointed.

 

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

8 He has a cat. The cat is blind.

8 He has a cat that/which is blind.    He has a blind cat.

 

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

9 My coworker comes from Canada. My coworker sits next to me.

9 My coworker who/that sits next to me comes from Canada.

 

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

10 I don’t like people who likes to take advantage other people.

【潔西家】形容詞子句解說 如何選擇正確的關係代名詞

史上最長影片,為什麼是潔西八百多年前的泳裝照做封面XD ,發文後又不是,還好,呼!

 

今天剛好下午跟晚上的同學都請假,所以原本應該很忙的潔西就悠哉悠哉混了一天,順便放放在 FB 上的文,超累的,講了兩個小時,上課都沒有這麼累,講得很細,希望很清楚,但是實在太長了,建議可能做家事的時候放著聽,或睡前,睡不著的人應該馬上睡著了,哈哈哈。餓呆了,不知要吃什麼啊,小寶今天沒來陪潔西吃飯,隨便吃吃好了。先這樣,有相關問題可以留言,接下來這幾天應該都會很忙,什麼時候有空回就不知道了,啊,這個星期超忙的,聖誕節快到了,一早帶聖誕帽的潔西,恩,不是,是皮卡丘提醒了潔西。潔西今天收老弟的包裹被郵差問說您是他的?潔西剛睡醒,居然回答弟弟,然後看到偷笑的郵差趕快改口,他是我弟弟,唉,語無倫次了,不行,上課還是要睡飽飽,好好認真清楚的上課。

 

今天其實真的很感動,恩,是昨天,但是潔西很慢,所以回的很慢,潔西大概三不五時會發作一次,冬天頻率偏高,就一整個斷線壞掉,謝謝大家又修好了,哈哈。

 

潔西與聖誕皮卡丘提前祝大家聖誕佳節快樂!謝謝大家這一年來的照顧,往後也請繼續支持與鼓勵。

蝦米?還在玩寶可夢?很久沒玩了,今天心血來潮打開就看到聖誕皮卡丘,早上五點半能讓潔西走出家門的大概也只有他了。潔西跟皮卡丘很無緣,玩了好幾個月只捉到一隻,不過聽說這次量產,到處都是。

冬天到了,情緒相當地不穩定,想做的事太多,但是呢身體狀況卻又沒那麼好,牙齒痛大概是壓垮駱駝的最後一根稻草 the straw that broke the camel’s back ,每天痛每天睡每天想做的事都只能勉強做幾件事,有時候會突然開始自我懷疑,自己究竟在做什麼?雖然也不是做得不開心,不知道耶,人性吧。

真的非常感謝留言分享鼓勵支持的網友們同學們,其實潔西本來就是一直在做自己想做的事,很難做自己不喜歡的是,至於有沒有意義就像潔西昨天放在自己FB上說的,意義是自己給的。假如很多人跳出來說,不要浪費時間錄影片了,反正又沒人看也賺不到錢,哈哈哈,潔西也是笑笑,就繼續錄,因為是自己喜歡做的事,但是人都有惰性,很多時候要給自己充份的理由去做一些即便是自己喜歡想做的事,這樣解釋不知道能不能被理解。應該可以吧,尤其假如是有關注這個專頁一陣子的人。潔西大概每年冬天都會發作幾次,哈哈哈。

躁鬱症的最大缺點之一潔西自己覺得是你可以看到自己的淺力,可以做到看到自己發揮百分百的時候的良好狀況是什麼,在不知不覺中就會對自己的要求越來越高,但是通常百分百發揮大概只有一年365天中的不到5天吧,什麼都不想做的無力感的日子卻可能有兩百天以上,很容易對自己產生不滿,但是又要一邊跟自己拔河,因為知道自己不是懶散什麼都不做的人,但是就是有那種死賴在床上沒法動的時間很多時會有極端的自我厭惡對自己產生懷疑,對所有的事情,人生都產生懷疑,尤其事情不順遂的時候。

其實沒有什麼大問題但是就弄的一個好像世界要毀滅一樣的自我恐慌的 drama queen ,其實定下心來,真的地球一樣繞著太陽轉,北極冰河完全融化時可能潔西也看不到那天,天塌下來都還有很多比潔西高的人頂著,潔西先前教的電競學生一排站出來,每個都比潔西高,給他們頂著就好了,哈哈。

想睡了,昨天吃飽飯九點就昏迷到半夜一點半醒來,摸到早上現在七點多,下午跟晚上都要上課,先去補眠一下,這作息一直調不過來,真害,就做目前所能做得最好的事,想做有空的時候就會發發廢文翻譯歌詞錄錄影片,不想做不能動的時候就躺在床上發呆放空等著心情不好的那段時間過了再來補做想做的事,工作優先,家人優先,健康優先,其他大概就只能放到有空的時候了。睡覺去。下面是昨天突然很傷心的時候在 FB 發的文,再下面是回留言鼓勵的人,因為有些人可能關了通知,所以再發一次,另外分享一下潔西最近喜歡的歌單,有空會挑幾首來翻,有好幾首都蠻想翻的,但是還生不出時間來,加油中,再次謝謝大家:)

Sadness Attacks
夜深人靜的空虛

生存的價值何在?生命的意義何在?

沒有人可以給你答案

為了什麼努力?為了什麼奮鬥?

做自己想做的事就是正確的嗎?

逃避

給自己太多的藉口

終究,在終點來臨時

回首望去

開心地完成許多自己想做的事

還是懊惱許多想做沒做的事

一直任性地按照著自己的腳步做著自己想做的事錯了嗎?

別人的諒解眼光重要嗎?

朝著自己想要的目標一直前進

會不會有一天突然覺醒

這真的是自己想要的嗎?

迷惑,猶豫,傷心,空虛,寂寞,無奈

善意,鼓勵,支持,關懷,分享,安慰

錯綜複雜

人性的真善美與人性的醜陋骯髒無恥是並存的

接受與不接受,喜歡與不喜歡

似乎沒有選擇的餘地

把自己修到空的境界又如何?

虛無渺茫的東西值得追尋嗎?

上天堂下地獄又如何?

與這現世有何差別?

意義是自己定義的,意義是自己追尋的

沒有人能幫你做出最好決定,沒有人能代替你過你的生活

人與人之間的虛情假意真情流露

發生在身上的時候不一定能接受

黑暗的夜晚,黑暗的心情

太陽照射就會消失嗎?

躲到陰影下去了

在人前的面具是不可少的

是面具?是真實的自我?

有時候自己都弄不清了

大家喜歡的是哪一個呢?

大家分得清楚是哪一個嗎?

無所謂

真的無所謂

這年頭自己的事都應付不完了

誰理你啊?

最大的敵人:自己

最好的朋友:自己

潔西酒後的心聲,其實正常的時候都很看得開,斷線時就很鑽牛角尖,但是自己覺得說得很真啊,這人生….

言語難以形容的感激,謝謝大家:) 每個留言我都有仔細看,看了好幾遍,要牢牢記在心中,不過這幾天課比較多,又睡比較多,所以就沒能一一回,請大家諒解,謝謝。然後一直拖著沒回也是因為知道只要開始打字就會像現在這樣撲通撲通的淚水一直流,是很開心的,所以沒關係,哈哈。謝謝大家包容潔西的任性,人多多少少走到某個地方就會開始疑惑,我自己覺得這也不是件壞事,比一直走走走走最後不知道自己究竟在做什麼好得多。謝謝浮上水面給予鼓勵或繼續潛水沒沒支持的網友們,有了滿滿的鼓勵與支持,當然就要更努力地繼續做自己想做的是,繼續努力加油中!Fighting! (大家有沒有出現小寶所謂日本動漫都會有的比賽前大家把手一起碟再一起,大喊 Fighting! 的畫面呢,哈哈,熱血沸騰中有嗎XD)

 

 

 

選擇正確的關係代名詞:

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.

2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.

3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.

4. Ms. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.

5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.

6. I like the people with _______ I work.

7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.

8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.

9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.

10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.

12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.

13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

 

 

形容詞子句  Adjective Clause  / 關係子句 Relative Clause

 

三種子句

1 名詞子句

2 形容詞子句

3 副詞子句

 

形容詞修飾名詞

副詞修飾形容詞,副詞,動詞,整個句子,不能修飾名詞

 

A. 修飾名詞

1 如何修飾名詞

a 形容詞 adjectives

形容詞可以用來修飾(modify)名詞,就是加以說明,描述,做些許的改變,名詞加了形容詞後意思可能大不相同。形容詞多放在名詞前面或連綴動詞後面。

May is a happy girl.  Linda is an unhappy girl.

He is late.  He became angry.

 

b 介系詞片語 preposition phrases

介系詞片語就是由介系詞跟名詞結合成的片語,可以用來說明修飾名詞。放在修飾的名詞的後面。

My brother is the man in the white suit.

My brother is the man wearing the white suit.

Sandy is the tall woman with red hair.

I have a sister with three children.

 

c 形容詞子句adjective clause

形容詞子句跟形容詞一樣,只可以用來修飾名詞,對於名詞加以描述,用來做辨別用或提供一些額外的訊息。當描述的內容無法用一個形容詞,或者包括了動詞時可以用形容詞子句來說明,修飾名詞。形容詞子句永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。

I don’t like people who cut in line. 我不喜歡插隊的人。

people 先行詞,who 關係代名詞

New York is a city that never sleeps. 紐約市個不睡覺的城市。

city 先行詞,that 關係代名詞

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句,也叫做關係子句,是非獨立子句 independent clause 的一種。整個子句當作形容詞,用來修飾名詞或代名詞。用來提供更多有關先前提到的某人,某事的資訊,用來辨識某人某物用來給予額外的資訊,用來給予評論等。常會是兩個句子的合併。

A: I saw Jason the other day. 我前幾天看到傑森。

B: Jason? The guy who plays the guitar? 傑森?那個彈吉他的人嗎?

Is he the guy who plays the guitar?

A: No, that’s Jackson. Jason is the student who dropped out of college, the one

who never did any studying. He’s working at Davidson’s now, the shop that

sells very expensive clothes.

不是,那是傑克森。傑森是那個從大學休學,那個從來都不唸書的人。他現在

在戴維森上班,那間賣很貴的衣服的店。  cheating 作弊

 

a 辨識 identify: 在這個對話中形容子句用來辨別談話的對象是哪一個人或哪一件

事。子句 who plays the guitar 用來告所我們 B 所要表達的人。而 that sells

very expensive clothes 則是用來告訴我們 A 所要表達的店家。

 

b 描述事情 describe: That’s the house where my parents live in.  那就是我爸媽住的房子。

 

c 給予更多資訊 extra information: My friend Andy, who lives in Switzerland, is a

CEO. 我的朋友安迪,住在瑞士,是個總裁。

 

d 給評論 comment:The team won the championship, which shocked the opponent. 那隊贏了比賽,嚇到他的對手。

 

e 合併句子:I have a friend. 我有個朋友。He lives in New York. 他住紐約。可以結合成 I have a friend who lives in New York. 我有個住紐約的朋友。

用關係代名詞來代替前面說過的名詞,而不重複該名詞。

travel around the world 環遊世界  travel by yourself 自助旅行

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句是後衛修飾,永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。中文多是用前衛修飾,把形容詞放在修飾名詞前面。例如說,我住在美國的姊姊有三個小孩。當修飾內容有動詞時,英文不可以直接把形容堆在名詞前面。所以除了前衛也常用後衛修飾,把形容詞或形容詞子句放到所要形容的名詞或代名詞後面。

The bride must wear something old, something new, something borrowed, and something blue. 新娘子必須穿舊的,新的,借的,藍色的東西。

My sister who lives in the U.S. has three children.

I live in the U.S. sister has three children.  (X)

 

 

that the earth is round (X)  名詞子句

The earth is round. 地球是圓的。(o)

That the earth is round is true. (o) 地球是圓的是真的。 

 

形容詞子句 先行詞 that 

I think that he is handsome.  我覺得他很帥。

 

名詞子句 帶領連接詞 that 

 

before I go to bed (x) 副詞子句

I brush my teeth every day. 我每天刷牙。(o) 

I brush my teeth every day before I go to bed. 

我每天上床睡覺前刷牙(o)

 

2 名詞解釋

a 子句: 是由一組的字所組成,其中包括主詞與動詞,可能為獨立或非獨立子句。

 

b 獨立子句: 是一個完整的句子,其中包括主要的主詞與動詞,語意完整,可以

單獨存在。可以最為主要子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

 

c 非獨立子句: 是一個不完整的句子,如名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。由從

屬連接詞,關係代名詞,疑問詞等為首帶領的子句。雖然其中也包括了主詞與

動詞,但是語意不完整,需要與獨立子句結合,才能為一個完整的句子。

 

d 形容詞子句: 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。形容詞子句也叫做關係子句。

 

e 關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有 who, whom,   which, that 跟 whose。關係副詞有 when, where, why。

 

f 先行詞: 形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多緊接在先行詞後面。

My sister has two children. She lives in the U.S. 可以合併為

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children. 而這個句子中

獨立子句/主要子句:My sister has two children.

非獨立子句/形容詞子句:who lives in the U.S.,用來修飾sister

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:sister

 

g 限定性形容詞子句: 用來辨別,限定前面的先行詞所以是必要的,不可省略,子

句前後都不可以有逗點。

 

h 非限定性形容詞子句: 用來修飾前面的先行詞,給與額外的資訊,所以可以省略,必須用逗號把它跟主要子句分開。先行詞為專有名詞時多為非限定性形容詞子句。

限定子句:My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

(我有幾個姊姊其中一個有兩個小孩)

非限定子句:My sister, who lives in the U.S., has two children.

(我只有一個姊姊,她有兩個小孩)

 

H. 學習形容詞子句的重點

第一,注意形容詞子句的位置。應該盡量緊跟著先行詞。先行詞一定是名詞。

第二,選擇正確的關係代名詞。

第三,不要重複關係代名詞與代替的字。 I like the book that she wrote it. (x)

第四,注意形容詞子句中的動詞與主詞須一致。

第五,注意形容詞子句為限定或非限定。標上需要的逗號。

 

1. 關係代名詞的位置

關係代名詞所帶領的形容詞子句應緊接著先行詞,放在先行詞後面。先行詞一定是名詞,名詞片語或代名詞。

a. 形容詞子句可能在句中也可能在句尾。

I have a friend who speaks five languages.

我有個講五種語言的朋友。

I have a friend Andy, who speaks five languages.

我有個朋友安迪,他會講五種語言。

My friend who lives in Switzerland speaks five languages.

My friend Andy, who lives in Switzerland, speaks five languages.

 

b. 形容詞子句假如沒有緊接著先行詞容易造成誤解。

He left the car on the street that he had just bought.

他把車子放在他剛買的那條街上。

He left the car that he had just bought on the street. (比較清楚)

他把他剛買的車子放在街上。

 

c. 形容詞子句有少數不直接跟在先行詞後面。通常是先行詞後有介系詞片語時,為了語意的完整,會放在介系詞片語的後面,但比較少見。

The first thanksgiving feast in the United States, which took place in 1621,

lasted three days.

在美國的第一個感恩節慶典在1621年舉辦,持續了三天

d. 形容詞子句也可以用來修飾整個句子,這時用 which來帶領形容詞子句,一定放在句尾,一定為非限定。

The team won the championship, which shocked the opponents.

那隊贏得冠軍嚇到對手

 

2. 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

選擇關係代名詞。形容詞子句常為兩個句子的結合。關係代名詞應使用主格、所有格或受格是依形容詞子句中與先行詞重複的部分在形容詞子句的位置來決定。可將主要子句與形容詞子句分為兩個句子來看,找出重複的部分。

a. 主格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister has two children.

My sister who has two children lives in Canada. 我有兩個小孩的姊姊住加拿大。

S + V + O

 

b. 受格

My sister lives in Canada. You talked to my sister last night.

My sister whom you talked to last night lives in Canada.

S + V + O

 

c. 所有格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister’s children are doctors.

My sister whose children are doctors lives in Canada.

我的那個小孩是醫生的姊姊住在加拿大

我住在加拿大的姊姊孩子是醫生。

 

2. 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

關係代名詞種類

關係代名詞 :人   who, whom, whose, that  事,物  which, whose, that

關係副詞:    時間 when       地方 where     原因 why

 

關係代名詞種類

主詞(主格) 受詞(受格) 介係詞+受詞 形容詞(所有格)
 

限定

 

 

 

 

 

who

that

 

whom

who

that

X

whom…to

who…to

that… to

X…  to

to whom

whose
事,物 which

that

which

that

X

which …to

that…  to

X…   to

to which

whose
 

非限定

 

who whom whom … to

to whom

whose
事,物 which which which… to

to which

whose

x 表示省略

逗號後面不可以加 that

Excuse me. 失陪一下。

I have to use the bathroom. I have to go to the bathroom. 我必須去洗手間。

rest room  public rest room 公廁

2 broke girls  破產姐妹花

dirty joke 黃色笑話

I have to powder my nose. 我必須去幫我的鼻子上粉。有禮貌的說要去上廁所。

 

選擇正確的關係代名詞解答部分

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.

S        (                                     ) V

The people who moved into town are Italian.

 

2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown  is beautiful but quite expensive.

S        (  which/that/x                  ) V

The lamp is beautiful but quite expensive.

I bought the lamp downtown.

The lamp which/that/x I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.

我在市區買的那盞燈很漂亮但是很貴。

expensive taste 昂貴的品味

 

3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.

Everyone came to the audition. Everyone got a part in the play.

Everyone who came to the audition got a part in the play.

每個來試鏡的人都有拿到劇本中的一個角色。

 

4. Ms. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.

S          V                (adj clause)

Ms. Rice is the teacher.

I enjoy Ms. Rice’s class most.

Ms. Rice is the teacher whose class I enjoy most.

我最喜歡萊斯小姐的課。

 

5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.

S                                                                 V

The man had collapsed from heat exhaustion.

I found the man in the doorway.

The man who/whom/that/x I found in the doorway had collapsed form heat exhaustion.

那個我在門廊發現的男人因為熱衰竭暈倒了。

 

6. I like the people with _______ I work.

I like the people.   I work with the people.

I like the people who/whom/that/x I work with.

I like the people with whom I work.

我喜歡跟我一起工作的人。

 

7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.

I have a friend. My friend’s father is a famous artist.

I have a friend whose father is a famous artist.

我有個朋友的爸爸是個有名的藝術家。

I have a friend’s father is a famous artist. (X)

 

8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.

The camera takes very sharp pictures. I bought the camera.

The camera which/that/x I bought takes very sharp pictures.

我買的那台相機拍的照片很漂亮。

 

9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.

Students have to budget their time very carefully.

Students have part-time jobs.

Students who/that have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.

有兼差工作的學生必須要很小心的規劃他們的時間。

 

10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

Flying squirrels stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

Flying squirrels live in tropical rain forests.

Flying squirrels which/that live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.

住在熱帶雨林的飛鼠會一輩子待在樹上不會碰到地面。

 

11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.

The people were a little upset.

I dented the people’s car.

The people whose car I dented were a little upset.

我撞到他們車子的那些人不太開心。

 

12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.

The person is the Director of Admission.

You should send your application to the person.

The person whom/who/that/x you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.

The person to whom you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.你應該寄你的申請書的那個人是主任委員。

 

13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

Monkeys will eat almost anything. Monkeys can find anything.

Monkeys will eat almost anything which/that/x they can find.

猴子幾乎會吃任何他可以找到的食物。

I wear the jacket, the jacket of my father is old. (x)

I wear my father’s old jacket. 我穿我爸的舊外套。