【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 91 關係子句/形容詞子句 受格

不知道為什麼這支影片錄了前後起碼三十次吧?上星期五就開始錄,到上課前錄了二十幾分鐘,刪掉,昨天還是前天也試了好幾次,今天也是錄了快二十分又刪掉,不知道為什麼這麼難,真是暈倒。結果剛剛錄完更暈倒,居然快三十分,這誰要看呢?真的想學好形容詞子句的人吧?花了很多時間,盡量一步步給大家看怎麼樣合併句子,然後省略是從哪裡省,希望覺得這部分很難的人可以比較容易地理解。看到居然錄了三十分的時候真的很想重錄個短一點的,不過還是放棄了,因為又快要去上課了。

昨天去看疼痛科門診,醫生意外的年輕,不過解說很詳細,我的肌肉很緊,所以的醫生都這麼說,但是她也舉出了潔西不良的姿勢,不自覺聳肩跟脖子會往前,需要自己注意改進。另外先前頸椎的手術的部分的確有可能造成痠痛,先吃肌肉鬆弛劑跟止痛劑,沒有效的話可以在脖子注射止痛劑,聽起來很恐怖,不過聽說效果會不錯,當然是一個治標不治本。有建議潔西去做一個叫做多面項脊椎運動,訓練上背的核心肌群,可以考慮找物理治療師一對一教適合潔西的運動,因為潔西畢竟是頸椎開過刀,不是什麼運動都可以做,要找專業的治療師比較安心。

為什麼潔西要去看疼痛門診?因為真的痛得很厲害,每天早上起來就痛,大概是三四分的痛,越晚越痛,尤其工作上課後,晚上回到家大概是可以到達七分的痛,回到家真的就只想躺在床上。當然運動是很好,但是痛得不得了的時候是沒有心情跟體力去運動的。最近真的痛得太厲害了。另外很妙的是,醫生叫潔西吃抗憂鬱藥。潔西去年十一月左右停了,醫生有解釋說因為抗憂鬱藥可以緩解大腦中對疼痛的感受,所以其實他們在治療的時候也會開抗憂鬱藥給病人。所以潔西就開始又吃了,先把痛的問題解決比較重要。

要上課去了,想想潔西身體真的是差得不得了。昨天看醫生,十一點多到,兩點多才離開,等醫生跟等拿藥都超久,看完時就全身痠痛的不得了,回到家吃個東西真的累到不行就躺到床上睡了。整個週末也是上課之外,幾乎都在睡。身體跟不上心想做的事。目前就是工作第一,身體第二,所以即使有想做影片的東西也是都要放棄,先把身體養好再說吧!吃了抗憂鬱藥跟止痛藥好像今天真的比較沒有那麼痛。準備出門去上課,順便去四號公園走個一兩圈,順便去喝個E41?加油加油加油!

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

91 關係子句 2: 有與沒有 who / that / which 之關係子句

 

他就是那個偷了我錢包的人。

He is the man. The man stole my wallet.

(He is the man the man stole my wallet)(X)

He is the man who stole my wallet.

先行詞:the man

形容詞子句:who stole my wallet

關係代名詞:who 放在主詞的位置,是主格

 

三 關係代名詞為受格時

關係代名詞在形容詞子句中為主詞時用主格,當受詞時用時用受格,這時候受格為人的時候關係代名詞可以為 whom, who, that, 或省略。主格的關係代名詞一定不可以省略。受格關係代名詞最正式為 whom, 口語時多半省略。受格為事物時關係代名詞用 which, that, 或省略。注意介系詞不要忘了,不可以省略,放在形容詞子句最前面的時候,人要用介系詞+whom,事物要用介系詞+which

1 先行詞是人的時候,關係代名詞受格可以用 whom, who, that, 或省略。

a 他是我欽佩的男人。

He is the man. I admire the man.    

(He is the man the man I admire )(X)

He is the man whom I admire. (最正式)

He is the man who I admire.

He is the man that I admire.

He is the man I admire. (最口語)

 

 b 麗莎在演唱會看到的那個女人是她老闆的女朋友。

Lisa saw the woman at the concert. The woman was Lisa’s boss’s girlfriend.

(The woman Lisa saw the woman at the concert was her boss’ girlfriend.) (X)

The woman whom/who/that Lisa saw at the concert was her boss’s girlfriend.

The woman Lisa saw at the concert was her boss’s girlfriend.

 

c 我喜歡我昨天晚上在派對見到的那個男人。

I like the man. I saw the man at the party last night.

I like the man whom/who/that I saw at the party last night.

I like the man I saw at the party last night.

 

d 那就是那個我在談論的醫生。

That’s the doctor. I was talking about the doctor.

That’s the doctor whom/who/that I was talking about.

That’s the doctor I was talking about.

 

 

2 先行詞是事物的時候,關係代名詞受格可以用 which, that, 或省略。

a 凱特烤的那些餅乾很好吃。

The cookies were delicious. Kate baked the cookies.

(The cookies Kate baked the cookies were delicious) (X)

(The cookies the cookies Kate baked were delicious) (X)

The cookies which Kate baked were delicious. (最正式)

The cookies that Kate baked were delicious.

The cookies Kate baked were delicious. (最口語)

 

b 你有找到你想找的那本書嗎?

Did you find the book? You were looking for the book.

Did you find the book which/that you were looking for?

Did you find the book you were looking for?

 

c 我等的公車遲到了。

The bus is late. I’m waiting for the bus.

The bus which/that I’m waiting for is late.

The bus I’m waiting for is late.

 

d 我不喜歡我們上週末住的那家飯店。

I don’t like the hotel. We stayed in the hotel last weekend.

I don’t like the hotel which/that we stayed in last weekend.

I don’t like the hotel we stayed in last weekend.

 

e 我們昨天晚上聽的音樂很棒。

The music was great. We listened to the music last night.

The music which/that we listened to last night was great.

The music we listened to last night was great.

 

三 關係代名詞受格的練習翻譯

1 你現在穿的這件洋裝很適合你。

2 我們昨天晚上看的那部電影不好看。

3 你剛剛跟他講話的男人是我的老闆。

4 Judy 認識的那個男生是個有名的演員。

5 你現在坐的椅子舒不舒服?

6 John 弄壞了他女朋友買給他的相機。

7 我昨天買的水果在哪裡?

8 我看完你借給我的那本書了。

9 你現在用的杯子是我的。

10 他送給他女朋友的項鍊花了一百萬。

 

翻譯練習答案

三 關係代名詞受格的練習翻譯

1 你現在穿的這件洋裝很適合你。

1 You are wearing a dress. It suits you well.

1 The dress which/that you were wearing now suits you well.

1 The dress you were wearing now suits you well.

 

2 我們昨天晚上看的那部電影不好看。

2 We saw a movie last night. The movie was terrible.

2 The movie which/that we saw last night was terrible.

2 The movie we saw last night was terrible.

 

3 你剛剛跟他講話的男人是我的老闆。

3 You just talked to the man. The man is my boss.

3 The man you whom/who/that just talked to is my boss.

3 The man you just talked to is my boss.

 

4 Judy 認識的那個男生是個有名的演員。

4 Judy knows the man. The man is a famous actor.

4 The man whom/who/that Judy knows is a famous actor.

4 The man Judy knows is a famous actor.

 

5 你現在坐的椅子舒不舒服?

5 Is the chair comfortable? You are sitting on the chair.

5 Is the chair which/that you are sitting on comfortable?

5 Is the chair you are sitting on comfortable?

 

6 John 弄壞了他女朋友買給他的相機。

6 John broke the camera. His girlfriend bought him the camera.

6 John broke the camera which/that his girlfriend bought him.

6 John broke the camera his girlfriend bought him.

 

7 我昨天買的水果在哪裡?

7 I bought the fruit yesterday. Where is the fruit?

7 Where is the fruit which/that I bought yesterday?

7 Where is the fruit I bought yesterday?

 

8 我看完你借給我的那本書了。

8 I’ve finished the book. You lent me the book.

8 I’ve finished the book which/that you lent me.

8 I’ve finished the book you lent me.

 

9 你現在用的杯子是我的。

9 You are using the cup. The cup is mine.

9 The cup which/that you are using is mine.

9 The cup you are using is mine.

 

10 他送給他女朋友的項鍊花了一百萬。

10 He gave his girlfriend a necklace. The necklace cost one million dollars.

10 The necklace which/that he gave his girlfriend cost one million dollars.

10 The necklace he gave his girlfriend cost one million dollars.

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 90 關係子句/形容詞子句 主格

繼續新年快樂!先前有人問到會不會講劍橋活用英語文法的中級,會,潔西今年的新年新希望除了健康外就是想把劍橋活用英語文法的初級跟中級的部分的講義全部寫出來。那幹嘛不自己寫書?因為要找很多例子要想很久,工程太浩大了,等我把所有部分寫完之後說不定就自己編排一下,找影印店印也不是不行,但是可能會太厚。總之再說吧。初級跟中級重複的部分我就不會重複做講義。講義的話也大部分會從我自己原本有的講義部分來改寫。

形容詞子句是有點小難,拆成很多部分的話或許就簡單一點了?今天說的主格真的是不難的,很基礎的,用心看一下,自己多造一些類似的句子,平成看影片的時候多留意,慢慢就能說得出來了也不一定喔。不會說其實也沒關係,拆成兩個句子也是可以理解的,不過人家講的時候要聽得懂就是了。可以自己做做翻譯練習,寫出來的話會很有成就感的喔!

話說剛剛在飲料店看到有人居然穿著睡衣在買飲料,真的是成套那種睡衣。從前穿整套運動服出門有點怪,現在是流行了,不過睡衣整套穿出門是流行嗎?跟流行很不熟的潔西有點嚇到。

等等又要出門上課了,但是我覺得已經有點累了啊,老人一枚今年真的希望能夠把身體照顧好。預約下星期一去看疼痛門診,每個醫生都滿,只有那個醫生沒滿,其實是有一點擔心的,但是呢先去看再說吧。下午去看牙醫弄了一個小時,打麻藥,剛剛做影片還有一點,現在好像退的差不多了,該吃個飯出門上課去了。

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

ㄧ 概論

中文在形容一個名詞的時候多半把形容詞放在名詞前面,比方說他是個很高的人,他是個很帥的人,他是個不說謊的人。在英文像高的,帥的這種形容詞可以放在修飾的名詞的前面。但是不說謊的人這種有包含了動詞在內時,英文多半會用形容詞子句來修飾該名詞。

He is a tall man.

He is a handsome man.

He is a man who doesn’t lie.

中式英文 He is a not lie man.(X) 這樣直譯是不行的,英文的基本句型是一個主詞,一個動詞,當要有另外一個動詞時,要用適當的方式來連結。這種狀況下用的是形容詞子句。

形容詞子句 adjective clause ,或者我們有時候叫做關係子句 relative clause ,是一個有主詞,有動詞,但是語意不完整的子句,用來修飾,定義,或給予額外資訊。形容詞子句可想做是用來形容子句前面的名詞,也就是先行詞,或者可以想做關係子句就是用來表達子句跟前面先行詞之間的關係。每個形容詞子句/關係子句都會有一個關係代名詞用來帶領形容詞子句,比方說 who, which, whom, that, whose 等,這些關係代名詞在特定狀況下會被省略掉。

1 He is the teacher who has changed my life.

   他就是那個改變我的人生的老師。

   teacher 是先行詞

   who has changed my life 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

 

2 Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

   台北是個不夜城。

    city 是先行詞

   which never sleeps 是形容詞子句,其中 which 是關係代名詞

 

3 My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   我爸爸是個牙醫,他不准我們吃糖果。

   father 是先行詞

   who is a dentist 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

包含形容詞子句的句子通常可以拆成兩個句子。也可以看成當兩個句子,有共同的名詞的時候,有時候可以改成形容詞子句。

 

1 He is the teacher. The teacher has changed my life.

   — He is the teacher who has changed my life.

2 Taipei is a city. The city never sleeps.

   — Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

3 My father is a dentist. He doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   — My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時

形容詞子句中的關係代名詞,可以是在子句的句首的主格,可以是放在受詞位置的受格,也可以是修飾子句主句的所有格。而子句修飾的名詞,也就是先行詞,會因人或物而使用不同的關係的代名詞。

先從主格開始看起。先行詞是人的話,主格關係代名詞用 who。先行詞是事物的話,主格關係代名詞用 which。主格的 who 跟 which 都可以用 that 取代。口語的時候主格是人習慣用 who ,主格是事物習慣用 that 。主格的 which 有比較正式的感覺。

1 先行詞是人

I like people who smile a lot.   我喜歡常笑的人。   

I don’t like people who get angry easily.  我不喜歡容易生氣的人。

I have a friend who lives in Switzerland. 我有個住瑞士的朋友。    

I have a friend who works for Facebook. 我有個幫臉書工作的朋友。

形容詞子句可以放在句尾,也可以放在句中

People who have moved a lot have fewer friends. 經常搬家的人有比較少的朋友。

A person who has a lot of friends is lucky.  一個有很多朋友的人很幸運。

 

2 先行詞是事或物

Do you know a shop which sells good coffee? 你知道一間買好咖啡的店嗎?

This is the computer which isn’t working. 這就是壞掉的那台電腦。

The postcard which came this morning was from Italy. 今天早上收到的明信片是從義大利來的。

 

上面的 who 或 which 都可以用 that 取代,在非正式,口語的場合下。

I like people that smile a lot.

Do you know a shop that sells good coffee?

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時 

翻譯練習

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

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翻譯解答

還是覺得有點難度的人可以先分成兩個句子在合併再一起。

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

1 I saw the man. The man stole the wallet.

1 I saw the man/that who stole the wallet.

 

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

2 The driver was polite. The driver took me to the airport.

2 The driver who/that took me to the airport was polite.

 

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

3 I found a shop. The shop sells good chocolate.

3 I found a shop that/which sells good chocolate.

 

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

4 The woman is a lawyer. The woman lives next door.

4 The woman who/that lives next door is a lawyer.

 

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

5 Tom is an engineer. Tom works at Google.

5 Tom, who works at Google, is an engineer.

 

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

6 I found the key. The key was missing.

6 I found the key that/which is missing.

 

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

7 The man was disappointed. The man lost the game.

7 The man who/that lost the game was disappointed.

 

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

8 He has a cat. The cat is blind.

8 He has a cat that/which is blind.    He has a blind cat.

 

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

9 My coworker comes from Canada. My coworker sits next to me.

9 My coworker who/that sits next to me comes from Canada.

 

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

10 I don’t like people who likes to take advantage other people.