【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 102 關係子句 主格 講解講義

今天的照片看得出來是哪裡吧?很有名的水都,威尼斯。當年看的電視介紹說再過幾年可能會被淹沒,所以一定要趕快去看看,所以就選了義大利,因為在威尼斯很驚險,所以呢本來除了羅馬之外還要去翡冷翠,也叫做佛羅倫斯,翡冷翠聽起來美多了吧。總之呢就沒有去了。真的是可惜。那一年本來要去巴黎,但是呢歐洲一個月到最後真的懶了,就沒去了,不過還好去年去了。記得在哪裡聽過,旅遊留點遺憾是下次再去的動力,類似這樣的話。驚險的威尼斯就改天再跟大家說了。要出門去了。

下面是講解影片

下面是練習與翻譯影片

形容詞子句 Adjective Clause 又叫關係子句 Relative Clause 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。

關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有 who, whom, which, that 跟 whose。關係副詞有 when, where, why。

先行詞:形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多緊接在先行詞後面。

I have a friend who works in Japan. 我有一個在日本工作的朋友。

主要子句:I have a friend

形容詞子句:who works in Japan

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:friend

形容詞子句常常是兩個句子的合併。

I have a friend who works in Japan.

(I have a friend. My friend works in Japan.)

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that 緊跟著在先行詞後,在句首帶領形容詞子句,用來當形容詞子句的主詞,提供更多有先前提到某人或某事的資訊。

who 用來代表人

Hank is the man who has a big dog. 漢克是那個有一隻大狗的男人。

The guy who sits next to me in class is from Canada. 在課堂上坐我隔壁的人是來自加拿大。

that 也可以用來代表人,但是比較少用

Yo-yo Ma is the musician that plays the cello. 馬友友是那個彈大提琴的音樂家。

The woman that lived here before us is a writer. 那個在我們之前住在這裡的女人是作家。

which 跟 that 都可以用來代表事物

that 比較口語

The computer that cost $50,000 is broken. 花了五萬元的電腦壞掉了。

I like to read books that have good endings. 我喜歡看有好結局的書。

which 比較正式

There are some restaurants which do Sunday brunches. 有些餐廳賣星期天早午餐。

Twitter is the company which was taken over last year. 推特是那個去年被接收的公司。

關係代名詞主格為人 who 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 The police have found the man. The man robbed the bank. 

1 The police have found the man who robbed the bank. 

2 I talked to the boy. The boy won the race. 

2 ______________________________________________.

3 I thanked the doctor. The doctor saved my mother’s life. 

3 ______________________________________________.

4 I’d like to have a boss. The boss has a good sense of humor. 

4 ______________________________________________.

5 I’d prefer a roommate. The roommate is quiet and neat. 

5 ______________________________________________.

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was very rude. The man stepped on my foot. 

1 The man who stepped on my foot was very rude. 

2 The man wanted my advice. The man wrote to me.

2 ______________________________________________. 

3 A man is called a journalist. A man writes newspaper articles. 

3 ______________________________________________.

4 The woman is funny. The woman lives next to us. 

4 ______________________________________________.

5 The girl told me a heartwarming story. The girl sat in front of me. 

5 ______________________________________________.

關係代名詞主格為物 which 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 I like the car. The car won the race.

1 I like the car which won the race. 

2 This is the dog. The dog attacked me.

2 ______________________________________________.

3 Tokyo is a city. The city never sleeps.

3 ______________________________________________.

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The bus was fifteen years old. The bus crashed. 

1 The bus which crashed was fifteen years old. 

2 The dog belonged to Mr. Lin. The dog bit me. 

2 ______________________________________________.

3 The article won a prize. The article discussed puppy love. 

3 ______________________________________________.

翻譯練習

1 我喜歡有幽默感的男生。

2 一個幫人剪頭髮的女生叫做美髮師。

3 這就是贏得獎項的電影。

4 我知道一家賣好吃的義大麵的餐廳。

5 我不喜歡太嚴肅的老師。

答案:

關係代名詞主格為人 who 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 The police have found the man. The man robbed the bank. 

1 The police have found the man who robbed the bank. 

2 I talked to the boy. The boy won the race. 

2 I talked to the boy who won the race. 

3 I thanked the doctor. The doctor saved my mother’s life. 

3 I thanked the doctor who saved my mother’s life. 

4 I’d like to have a boss. The boss has a good sense of humor. 

4 I’d like to have a boss who has a good sense of humor. 

5 I’d prefer a roommate. The roommate is quiet and neat. 

5 I’d prefer a roommate who is quiet and neat. 

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was very rude. The man stepped on my foot. 

1 The man who stepped on my foot was very rude.

2 The man wanted my advice. The man wrote to me.

2 The man who wrote to me wanted my advice. 

3 A man is called a journalist. A man writes newspaper articles. 

3 A man who writes newspaper articles is called a journalist. 

4 The woman is funny. The woman lives next to us. 

4 The woman who lives next to us is funny. 

5 The girl told me a heartwarming story. The girl sat in front of me. 

5 The girl who sat in front of me told me a heartwarming story. 

關係代名詞主格為物 which 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 I like the car. The car won the race.

1 I like the car which won the race. 

2 This is the dog. The dog attacked me.

2 This is the dog which attacked me. 

3 Tokyo is a city. The city never sleeps.

3 Tokyo is a city which never sleeps. 

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The bus was fifteen years old. The bus crashed. 

1 The bus which crashed was fifteen years old. 

2 The dog belonged to Mr. Lin. The dog bit me. 

2 The dog which bit me belonged to Mr. Lin. 

3 The article won a prize. The article discussed puppy love. 

3 The article which discussed puppy love won a prize .

翻譯練習

1 我喜歡有幽默感的男生。

1 I like guys who have a good sense of humor.  

2 一個幫人剪頭髮的女生叫做美髮師。

2 A woman who cuts hair is called a hairdresser. 

3 這就是贏得獎項的電影。

3 This is the movie which won the prize. 

4 我知道一家賣好吃的義大麵的餐廳。

4 I know a restaurant which sells good pasta.  

5 我不喜歡太嚴肅的老師。

5 I don’t like teachers who are too serious. 

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 90, 91 關係子句/形容詞子句 關係代名詞 what 的用法

因為書裡面有提到關係代名詞 what 的用法,有點小複雜,不過其實也不難,可能大家都會說,只是不知道他是關係代名詞而已。比方說。What you did is annoying. 你做的事很惹人厭。What I don’t udnerstand is his motive. 我不懂的是他的動機。諸如此類。懂的話比較不會說錯。不懂的話其實分開兩個句子說出來都是沒問題的啦。

肚子好餓,又睡到中午才起床,吃了點早午餐,吃不下太多,想說來繼續寫形容詞子句的受格,不過看到 what ,覺得還是要交代一下,所以就從兩點交代到現在快五點了。又要趕著出門去上課了,時間過得真快。其實潔西也不是不辛苦啊,發一下牢騷。朋友覺得潔西似乎工作很輕鬆的樣子,1/1元旦要上班發給潔西看他當天上班的工作證,說給你看一下我們上班族的辛苦,聽起來就有點你一點都不辛苦。其實是很好的朋友,知道他開玩笑的,但是脆弱的心靈還是小小受傷,所以只能在部落格上反平一下,潔西其實元旦晚上也有上課喔,明天星期六跟後天星期天也都要上課喔。是個要上課才有錢賺的工作,沒有年終,學生請假的話收入就變零喔。所以沒有不辛苦的行業啦,大家都很辛苦的,想要做好的話。

牢騷發完了,準備出門上課去了。冬天是對潔西來說很辛苦的季節,憂鬱症會特別嚴重,今天怎麼樣都不想起床,在床上賴了快兩個小時吧,不過是比較有進步的冬天呢,雖然我在去年年底停了藥,現在是隨時眼淚可以流下來的狀態,這是個跟誰也說不清的狀況吧,自己用自己的方法不打擾別人,好好的把日子過去下,先前整理的時候看到有些年的十二月一月有時候一個月只有幾篇,因為完完全全寫不出來,現在能寫得出來是值得開心的。希望能夠最少一個星期有五篇,加油中!大家新的一年也多多加油,別人說什麼不重要,做好自己想做的事,跟自己比較,今天的我比昨天的我進步,或許那就可以了!

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

主格

I don’t like people. People like to cut in line.

I don’t like people (who like to cut in line). 我不喜歡喜歡插隊的人。

 

受格

I don’t like the girl. You talked to the girl last night.

I don’t like the girl (who/whom/that you talked to last night). 我不喜歡你昨天晚上跟她說話的女生。

 

關係代名詞 what 前面可以不需要名詞,它可以當作一個代名詞,用來表示 the thing(s) that 或者是 the stuff that ,相當於一個名詞跟關係代名詞一起

你做的事讓我很傷心。

You did the thing. The thing made me sad.

The thing that you did made me sad.

What you did made me sad.

 

我需要的就是一杯飲料。

I need the thing. The thing is a drink.

The thing that I need is a drink.

What I need is a drink.

 

他們不懂的是有多困難。

They don’t understand the thing. The thing is how difficult it is.

The thing that they don’t understand is how difficult it is.

(The thing that they don’t understand)   is     (how difficult it is)

        主詞 (形容詞子句去修飾名詞)                        主詞補語(名詞子句)

What they don’t understand is how difficult it is.

 

What he wants to know is where has his money gone. 他想要的是知道他的錢去哪了。

The thing that he wants to know is where has his money gone.

 

What you have to think about is your profit. 你需要考慮的是你的利益。

The thing that you have to think about is your profit.

 

What you need to do is (to) plan ahead. 你需要做的是事先計畫。

The thing that you need to do is (to) plan ahead.

 

Did you read about what happened to Sue? 你讀到 Sue 發生什麼事了嗎?

Did you read about the thing that happened to Sue.

 

The teacher just teaches us what we already know. 那個老師只教我們已經知道的。

The teacher just teaches us the thing that we already know.

 

He didn’t get what he asked for. 他沒有得到他所要求的。

He didn’t get the thing that he asked for.

 

He gave me what I wanted. 他給我我想要的。

He gave me the thing that I wanted.

 

what 不會用在有 all, everything, nothing, the only, 最高級等的句子。只會用 that

I’ve told you everything that I know.

I’ve told you everything what I know. (X)

The only thing that matters to him is money.

The only thing what matters to him is money. (X)

 

翻譯練習

1 給我看你買的東西。

2 那間商店沒有她想要的。

3 我會付我吃的。

4 你可以擁有所有你想要的東西。

5 你說的讓我非常開心。

6 我首先想要了解的是要花多少錢。

7 我已經跟你說所有發生的一切了。

8 我不確定接下來要做什麼。

9 我們做的事就是一起打麻將。

10 我不懂你在說什麼。

 

.

.

.

.

.

 

翻譯練習 答案

1 給我看你買的東西。

1 Show me what you bought.

 

2 那間商店沒有她想要的東西。

2 The shop didn’t have what she wanted.

 

3 我會付我吃的東西。

3 I’ll pay for what I ate.

 

4 你可以擁有所有你想要的東西。

4 You can have everything that you want.

 

5 你說的讓我非常開心。

5 What you said made me very happy.

 

6 我首先想要了解的事是將要花多少錢。

6 What I want to know first is how much it is going to cost.

 

7 我已經跟你說所有發生的一切了。

7 I’ve told you all that happened.

 

8 我不確定接下來要做什麼。

8 I’m not sure what I am going to do next.

8 I’m not sure what to do next.

 

9 我們做的事就是一起打麻將。

9 What we did was (to) play mahjong together.

 

10 我不懂你在說什麼。

10 I don’t understand what you are talking about.

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 90 關係子句/形容詞子句 主格

繼續新年快樂!先前有人問到會不會講劍橋活用英語文法的中級,會,潔西今年的新年新希望除了健康外就是想把劍橋活用英語文法的初級跟中級的部分的講義全部寫出來。那幹嘛不自己寫書?因為要找很多例子要想很久,工程太浩大了,等我把所有部分寫完之後說不定就自己編排一下,找影印店印也不是不行,但是可能會太厚。總之再說吧。初級跟中級重複的部分我就不會重複做講義。講義的話也大部分會從我自己原本有的講義部分來改寫。

形容詞子句是有點小難,拆成很多部分的話或許就簡單一點了?今天說的主格真的是不難的,很基礎的,用心看一下,自己多造一些類似的句子,平成看影片的時候多留意,慢慢就能說得出來了也不一定喔。不會說其實也沒關係,拆成兩個句子也是可以理解的,不過人家講的時候要聽得懂就是了。可以自己做做翻譯練習,寫出來的話會很有成就感的喔!

話說剛剛在飲料店看到有人居然穿著睡衣在買飲料,真的是成套那種睡衣。從前穿整套運動服出門有點怪,現在是流行了,不過睡衣整套穿出門是流行嗎?跟流行很不熟的潔西有點嚇到。

等等又要出門上課了,但是我覺得已經有點累了啊,老人一枚今年真的希望能夠把身體照顧好。預約下星期一去看疼痛門診,每個醫生都滿,只有那個醫生沒滿,其實是有一點擔心的,但是呢先去看再說吧。下午去看牙醫弄了一個小時,打麻藥,剛剛做影片還有一點,現在好像退的差不多了,該吃個飯出門上課去了。

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

ㄧ 概論

中文在形容一個名詞的時候多半把形容詞放在名詞前面,比方說他是個很高的人,他是個很帥的人,他是個不說謊的人。在英文像高的,帥的這種形容詞可以放在修飾的名詞的前面。但是不說謊的人這種有包含了動詞在內時,英文多半會用形容詞子句來修飾該名詞。

He is a tall man.

He is a handsome man.

He is a man who doesn’t lie.

中式英文 He is a not lie man.(X) 這樣直譯是不行的,英文的基本句型是一個主詞,一個動詞,當要有另外一個動詞時,要用適當的方式來連結。這種狀況下用的是形容詞子句。

形容詞子句 adjective clause ,或者我們有時候叫做關係子句 relative clause ,是一個有主詞,有動詞,但是語意不完整的子句,用來修飾,定義,或給予額外資訊。形容詞子句可想做是用來形容子句前面的名詞,也就是先行詞,或者可以想做關係子句就是用來表達子句跟前面先行詞之間的關係。每個形容詞子句/關係子句都會有一個關係代名詞用來帶領形容詞子句,比方說 who, which, whom, that, whose 等,這些關係代名詞在特定狀況下會被省略掉。

1 He is the teacher who has changed my life.

   他就是那個改變我的人生的老師。

   teacher 是先行詞

   who has changed my life 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

 

2 Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

   台北是個不夜城。

    city 是先行詞

   which never sleeps 是形容詞子句,其中 which 是關係代名詞

 

3 My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   我爸爸是個牙醫,他不准我們吃糖果。

   father 是先行詞

   who is a dentist 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

包含形容詞子句的句子通常可以拆成兩個句子。也可以看成當兩個句子,有共同的名詞的時候,有時候可以改成形容詞子句。

 

1 He is the teacher. The teacher has changed my life.

   — He is the teacher who has changed my life.

2 Taipei is a city. The city never sleeps.

   — Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

3 My father is a dentist. He doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   — My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時

形容詞子句中的關係代名詞,可以是在子句的句首的主格,可以是放在受詞位置的受格,也可以是修飾子句主句的所有格。而子句修飾的名詞,也就是先行詞,會因人或物而使用不同的關係的代名詞。

先從主格開始看起。先行詞是人的話,主格關係代名詞用 who。先行詞是事物的話,主格關係代名詞用 which。主格的 who 跟 which 都可以用 that 取代。口語的時候主格是人習慣用 who ,主格是事物習慣用 that 。主格的 which 有比較正式的感覺。

1 先行詞是人

I like people who smile a lot.   我喜歡常笑的人。   

I don’t like people who get angry easily.  我不喜歡容易生氣的人。

I have a friend who lives in Switzerland. 我有個住瑞士的朋友。    

I have a friend who works for Facebook. 我有個幫臉書工作的朋友。

形容詞子句可以放在句尾,也可以放在句中

People who have moved a lot have fewer friends. 經常搬家的人有比較少的朋友。

A person who has a lot of friends is lucky.  一個有很多朋友的人很幸運。

 

2 先行詞是事或物

Do you know a shop which sells good coffee? 你知道一間買好咖啡的店嗎?

This is the computer which isn’t working. 這就是壞掉的那台電腦。

The postcard which came this morning was from Italy. 今天早上收到的明信片是從義大利來的。

 

上面的 who 或 which 都可以用 that 取代,在非正式,口語的場合下。

I like people that smile a lot.

Do you know a shop that sells good coffee?

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時 

翻譯練習

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

.

.

.

.

.

翻譯解答

還是覺得有點難度的人可以先分成兩個句子在合併再一起。

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

1 I saw the man. The man stole the wallet.

1 I saw the man/that who stole the wallet.

 

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

2 The driver was polite. The driver took me to the airport.

2 The driver who/that took me to the airport was polite.

 

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

3 I found a shop. The shop sells good chocolate.

3 I found a shop that/which sells good chocolate.

 

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

4 The woman is a lawyer. The woman lives next door.

4 The woman who/that lives next door is a lawyer.

 

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

5 Tom is an engineer. Tom works at Google.

5 Tom, who works at Google, is an engineer.

 

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

6 I found the key. The key was missing.

6 I found the key that/which is missing.

 

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

7 The man was disappointed. The man lost the game.

7 The man who/that lost the game was disappointed.

 

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

8 He has a cat. The cat is blind.

8 He has a cat that/which is blind.    He has a blind cat.

 

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

9 My coworker comes from Canada. My coworker sits next to me.

9 My coworker who/that sits next to me comes from Canada.

 

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

10 I don’t like people who likes to take advantage other people.

形容詞子句,關係副詞,限定子句,非限定子句

 

TGIF Thank God It’s Friday 感謝老天星期五了!而且快下班了
 
收拾好東西坐等放假?不是潔西啊,潔西準備上課的東西準備到頭到暈了。又是形容詞子句,寫不完改不完的形容詞子句XD 練習練習再練習。明天要帶的文法課還是形容詞子句,不過學生不同,也不知道會有什麼反應,反正多準備一些,寫清楚一點,就算上課潔西口齒不清希望學生回去自己看也能看得懂,希望如此啦。
 
潔西的外甥大寶今天一早出發騎腳踏車環島,居然快到台中了,原來騎腳踏車一天就可以騎到台中,不過覺得他應該超拼的啊。還好他平常暑假放假每天就打籃球,從早打到晚也不是沒有,所以體能應該沒問題,十八歲了,在桃園遇到善心人士給了他兩大瓶水跟貝果,但是水好重啊,他說。背著兩瓶重重的水的確很辛苦,快快喝掉或用來灑在身上應該也不錯。潔西三不五時就看一下 FB ,看他到哪裡了,從桃園大溪到新竹到苗栗不停繼續往前,西濱。現在看他直播,現在離台中還有14公里,他說有夠遠,沒有什麼人騎車只有他一個人孤單寂寞XD。發現原來沿途都有步道或腳踏車道,還挺方便的。有個藍天橋還蠻美的,不過他說永無止盡的道路。然後超好笑的,他說好熱,想下去玩水,然後接著又說啊,沒有帶泳帽,自己又想到說,對喔,去海邊不用泳帽,還說不知道講話大家能不能聽到,不過沒關係,自言自語也可以,幫自己加油等等,今天一直都在自言自語,果然是念表演藝術科的,自己一個人演得很開心啊!
 
然後他在直播的時候說誰在看,他媽媽寫老母,我本來要寫你老母跟我,但是發現好像在罵人啊,哈哈。他舅舅交代,這剛新買的手機不要一直曬太陽。他停了一下又繼續,說海風很舒服,不錯玩,但是有點累,風聲好大聲,比新竹的風聲還大啊!他說路上很多人幫他加油,各種好心人問他要不要幫忙,台灣人真好。聽了放心多了。因為今天眼皮一直跳,容易擔心的阿姨啊!
 
潔西則是一直坐在電腦前,跟著大寶遊台灣,不過也只有今天,明天後天都要上課。從昨天到今天一直都在備課,明後天的課,上課星期因為小寶帶朋友來家裡做蛋糕跟餅乾,潔西上星期六一早就起來整理家裡,然後他們來了就做餅乾蛋糕,晚上又帶他們去吃熱炒,吃飽回家開始備課的時候大概十點多,想說弄到十二點就好了,結果摸到四點,哪來哪麼多東西好備?其實是太混嗎?最近潔西都一邊備課一邊看日劇或美劇,不過今天真的難得,怕備不完,非常焦慮,所以呢,也沒有看劇,只有聽聽音樂配配大寶的直播。又餓了,又好累,還有一堂寫作還沒備好。
 
這形容詞子句的文法一邊改一邊發現好幾個地方錯,像什麼第三人稱的單數沒加到 s ,拼字拼錯之類的, 啊….好多錯,發現的人再請提醒,這篇,希望沒有太多錯。吃個飯,休息一下,繼續準備去:)
 
關係代名詞 :人   who, whom, whose, that 事,物  which, whose, that
關係副詞:    時間 when 地方 where 原因 why
 
x 表示省略
 
A 關係副詞 when, where, why, how
where, when, why, how 皆為關係副詞,可用來帶領形容詞子句,分別表地點, 時間, 原因,方式可用在限定或非限定子句。
where = the place where, when = the time when,
why = the reason why, how = the way in which
 
1 關係副詞 when
when
當要表示在某個時間(年,日,時間等)時,常會用時間介系詞 at, in, on 等加上時間來表示。
比方說I get up at 8.  He graduate in June.  We met on my birthday.
 
關係副詞when的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達時間時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用when來代替。所以when可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。除了將介系詞放在which前外,其他用法時介系詞都會省略掉。
所以假如要表達這就是我記得我遇到他的那一天,可以用下面的表達方式
可以想做是 I remember the day. 與 I met him on that day. 這兩個句子的合併。
I remember the day. I met him on that day.
I remember the day when I met him. 這裡可以用 when 取代 on which。
I remember the day on which I met him. 正式用法可以把介系詞 on 放到 which 前,不可省。
I remember the day that I met him.  這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同,on需省略
I remember the day I met him.  受詞的 that 跟 which 都可以省略,on也必須省略。
 
上面 when 可以省略掉,因為上列句子中只有當介系詞 on 在前面的時候才會出現介系詞,所以 when 可以直接省略掉。
練習一 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 Sunday is the day. We will come on that day.
2 8:30 is the time. My plane arrives at that time.
3 August is the month. The weather is usually the hottest in that month.
4 1960 is the year. The revolution took place in that year.
 
2 關係副詞 where
當要表示在某個地點(城市,國家,房間)時,常會用方位介系詞 in,on, at 等加上地點來表示。
比方說I am at home. My father is in his office.  The book is on the table.
 
關係副詞where的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達地點時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用where來代替。所以where 可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。
 
所以假如要表達這就是她工作的那間圖書館,可以用下面的表達方式
可以想做是That’s is the library. 與 She works in the library. 這兩個句子的合併。
 
That’s is the library. She works in the library.
 
That’s the library where she works.   在這裡可以用 where 取代 in which。
That’s the library in which she works.  正式用法可以把介系詞in放到which前面。
That’s the library which she works in.  which 可單獨放在句首,介系詞 in 不可省
That’s the library that she works in.  在這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同。
That’s the library she works in.  受詞的that 跟which都可以省,所以這裡只剩下不可省的in。
 
上面的句子 where 不可以直接省略掉,因為省略後的介系詞少掉了,所以只可以用最後一個句子 That’s the library she works in. 不可以用 That’s the library she works. (X)
 
因為where相當於“介系詞 + which ”,所以並不是所有地點都可以用where代替。當形容詞子句的地點是主格時,不會有介系詞,就只能用which,不可以用where。形容詞子句中一定要有介系詞加上受格which時,才可以用where代替。常見錯誤是誤用where來取代主格的which。
 
例如要合併下列兩個句子有兩種方式:
I was born and grew up in Taipei. (1) Taipei is the capital of Taiwan. (2)
第一種合併方式,用第一句當主要子句,因為第二句的形容詞子句的Taipei是主格,所以並沒有介系詞,只有地點,所以不能用where,只能用which來帶領形容詞子句。
I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.  
 
第二種合併方式,用第二個句子當主要子句,因為第一個句子中有in Taipei,所以可以用where來帶領形容詞字句。又有逗點時不可以用in which,只可以用where。
Taipei, which I was born and grew up in, is the capital of Taiwan.
Taipei, where I was born and grew up, is the capital city of Taiwan.
 
練習二 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation in that city.
2 That is the restaurant. I will meet you at that restaurant.
3 The town is small. I grew up in that town.
4 That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry in that drawer.
 
練習三 把兩個句子合併成一個句子
That man was Anna’s brother. He just walked past.
— The man who just walked past was Anna’s brother.
1 The plane was twenty-five years old. It crashed.
The plane ____________________________ twenty-five years old.
2 One day Tessa was ill in bed. Martin rang.
The day ____________________________ ill in bed.
3 Our offices are in Queen Street. They’re new.
Our ____________________________ in Queen Street.
4 Some documents have been found. They were stolen from a car.
The documents ____________________________ found.
5 The map is out of date. You were looking at it.
The map ____________________________ out of date.
6 The King’s Theater is in the center of town. It dates from 1896.
The King’s ____________________________ in the center of town.
7 A woman was terribly upset. Her dog was run over.
The woman ____________________________ terribly upset.
8 Janet solved the puzzle. She did it before everyone else.
Janet was ____________________________ the puzzle.
9 A man was standing outside the building. He was selling newspapers.
A man ____________________________ outside the building.
10 The talk was very interesting. Judy gave it.
The talk ____________________________ was very interesting.
11 The house is empty now. I used to live there.
The house ____________________________ is empty now.
 
3 關係副詞 why
原因 + why = 原因 + for + which
The reason why Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.
= The reason for which Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.
There can only be one champion, and that is the reason why competition is so intense.
= There can only be one champion, and that is the reason for which competition is so intense.
The weather is cold, which is the reason why there are so many people sick.
The weather is cold, which is the reason for which there are so many people sick.
 
4 關係副詞 how
how = the way + (介系詞 + which)
Do a little work every day. This is how you can finish any project, no matter how big.
= Do a little work every day. This is the way in which you can finish any project, no matter how big.
We showed him how we make rice pudding.
= We showed him the way in which we make rice pudding.
 
 
B 複合關係詞
whoever = any person(s) who/that 任何人
whomever = anyone whom
whatever = anything that/which 任何事
whichever = anythings that/which 有選擇當中的選項
wherever = in or at any place that
whenever = in or at any time that
however = in or at any way that
whatever, whoever, whichever 可以用來當作關係子句的主詞或受詞,也可以用 whatever, whoever, whichever 來表示不管什麼,不管誰,不管哪一個。而 wherever, whenever, however 可以用來表示不管在什麼地方,何時或如何
 
Whoever said those things is mistaken.
We will work for whomever they send.
Whatever she did made them happy.
Write in a pen or pencil, whichever you prefer.
I’ll always love you, whatever you do.
He’ll be in trouble, whichever he chooses.
He always keeps in touch wherever he is.
Whenever I see Penny, she asks me about you.
Please sit wherever you like.
Call whenever you can.
Just buy it, however much it costs.
 
 
 
練習四 Choose an ending for each beginning and addd these words
however, whatever, whenever, whichever, whoever
1 You can dress … a … they want to on Sunday morning.
2 We lived on potatoes … b … we think would enjoy the party.
3 The girls can get up … c and … else was available.
4 We’ll go there … d … you like because it’s really casual.
5 They said we could invite … e on Monday or Tuesday, … day you’re free.
 
C 限定與非限定形容詞子句
a. 限定子句 Restrictive / Identifying / Defining Clause
限定子句或辨別子句或定義子句,名稱可能不同,但是都是用來把人事物分類,定義或辨別先行詞。缺少這個限定子句時,語義會不清楚,所以會加上形容詞子句來讓。限定子句不可省略,不可使用逗號。that 只可以用在限定子句。
I have three phones. The phone which is in the kitchen is broken.
The woman who does my hair has just had a baby.
Do you have a good book that’s really easy to read?
What do you think of the wine we drank last night?
 
b. 非限定子句 Nonrestrictive (Non-identifying) Clause
非限定子句用來給予先行詞補充額外資訊。非限定子句可以省略,沒有非限定子句,語意一樣清楚。非限定形容詞子句只是補充說明,這時一定要用逗號將主要子句分隔開來。人名或專有名詞為先行詞時,後面幾乎都用非限定子句。不可以用 that 在非限定子句中。
 
I have only one phone. The phone, which is in the kitchen, is broken.
Sally, who does my hair, has just had a baby.
I lent him The Old Man and the Sea, which is really easy to read.
I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank at once.
 
限定子句用在當我們要表達重要的資訊的時候,當只是要加上額外資訊的時候用非限定子句
The first caller who can give the correct answer will win the prize.
The first caller, who was from the London area, didn’t give the correct answer.
 
在寫作的時候用逗號 comma , 或括號 backets () 或 破折號 dash – – 來把形容詞子句跟主要子句分開,在口說的時候會停一下 pause 來表示句子是非限定的。
The switch, which is on the back, is off. (The machine has only one switch. It’s one the back.)
The switch (pause) which is one the back (pause) is off. (The machine has only one switch. It’s one the back.)
The switch which is on the back is off. (The machine has more than one switch. This one is off.)
 
c which 的特殊用法:在非限定子句中,可以用 which 來給予前面整個句子評論看法,也可以用在 in which case 之類的用法。
David helped me clean up, which was very kind of him.
Sarah had to work late again, which annoyed Mike.
There may be a strike, in which case the office will remained closes.
 
另外也可以在 of which 跟 of whom 前面加上數量詞,比方說 some 或最高級,來提供前面所提過人,事物,或團體中的個人的額外資訊。
The last lecture, some of which I just didn’t understand, was about chemistry.
At the conference, there were several writers, the most famous of whom was Jason Bourne.
 
d 關係副詞的限定與非限定用法
這裡的用法類似用連接詞加上副詞的意思。
On my trip to Paris. I went to the Louvre Museum, where I saw the Mona Lisa on display
= On my trip to Paris, I went to the Louvre Museum, and there I saw the Mona Lisa on display.
Little Red Riding Hood approached the bed, where the wolf was waiting to eat her.
= Little Red Riding Hood approached the bed, and there the wolf was waiting to eat her
Please come back at three o’clock, when I will have time to talk to you.
= Please come back at three o’clock, because then I will have time to talk to you.
 
練習五:
依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號
1(that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.
2 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often needs a babysitter.
3 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
4 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
5 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
6 (who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.
7 (which is on the tenth floor) My new flat ______________________ has a terrific view.
8 (she bought the sofa from) Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop _______________.
 
練習六 翻譯練習 (可以先把句子分成兩個句子,再合併)
1. 那個贏的賽跑比賽的女孩子很開心。
2. 我在哪裡可以搭到開往市中心的公車。
3. 我們昨天拜訪的人非常的好。
4. 我投票給她的那個候選人沒有贏得選舉。
5. 我喜歡你寫的那篇作文。
6. 我們昨晚聽的音樂很好聽。
7. 那個皮包被偷的男人打電話報警。
8. 我住的宿舍裡面的學生來自不同的國家。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
答案在這裡:潔西的答案都有含題目,所以不用再回去對題目,原因是這樣子地…
練習一
1 Sunday is the day. We will come on that day.
Sunday is the day when we will come.
2 8:30 is the time. My plane arrives at that time.
8:30 is the time when my plane arrives.
3 August is the month. The weather is usually the hottest in that month.
August is the month when the weather is usually the hottest.
4 1960 is the year. The revolution took place in that year.
1960 is the year when the revolution took place.
 
 
練習二 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation in that city.
The city where we spent our vacation is beautiful.
2 That is the restaurant. I will meet you at that restaurant.
That is the restaurant where I will meet you.
3 The town is small. I grew up in that town.
The town where I grew up is small.
4 That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry in that drawer.
That is the drawer where I keep my jewelry.
 
 
練習三 把兩個句子合併成一個句子
That man was Anna’s brother. He just walked past.
— The man who just walked past was Anna’s brother.
1 The plane was twenty-five years old. It crashed.
The plane that/which crashed was twenty-five years old.
2 One day Tessa was ill in bed. Martin rang.
The day (when/that) Martin rang, Tessa was ill in bed.
3 Our offices are in Queen Street. They’re new.
Our offices, which are new, are in Queen Street.
4 Some documents have been found. They were stolen from a car.
The documents that/which were stolen from a car have been found.
5 The map is out of date. You were looking at it.
The map that/which/ x you were looking at is out of date.
6 The King’s Theater is in the center of town. It dates from 1896.
The king’s Theater, which dates from 1896, is in the center of town.
7 A woman was terribly upset. Her dog was run over.
The woman whose dog was run over was terribly upset.
8 Janet solved the puzzle. She did it before everyone else.
Janet was the first person who/that solved the puzzle.
9 A man was standing outside the building. He was selling newspapers.
A man who/that was selling newspapers was standing outside of the building.
10 The talk was very interesting. Judy gave it.
The talk that/which/x Judy gave was very interesting.
11 The house is empty now. I used to live there.
The house where I used to live is empty now.
 
練習四 Choose an ending for each beginning and addd these words
however, whatever, whenever, whichever, whoever
1 You can dress …
2 We lived on potatoes …
3 The girls can get up …
4 We’ll go there …
5 They said we could invite …
 
a … they want to on Sunday morning.
b … we think would enjoy the party.
c and … else was available.
d … you like because it’s really casual.
e on Monday or Tuesday, … day you’re free.
 
1 You can dress however you like because it’s really casual.
2 We lived on potatoes and whatever else was available.
3 The girls can get up whenever they want to on Sunday morning.
4 We’ll go there on Monday or Tuesday, whichever day you’re free.
5 They said we could invite whoever we think would enjoy the party.
 
 
練習五:
依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號
1(that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.
1 This car is a lot cheaper than the one that Claire drives.
2 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often needs a babysitter.
2 Olivia, who has twins, often needs a babysitter.
3 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
3 The person who took Rita to the party was Tom.
4 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
4 Henry, who has a bad temper, shouted at the waiter.
5 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
5 The team which Tom supports is United.
6 (who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.
6 We climbed up expect Vicky, who is afraid of heights.
7 (which is on the tenth floor) My new flat ______________________ has a terrific view.
7 My new flat, which is on the tenth floor, has a terrific view.
8 (she bought the sofa from) Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop _______________.
8 Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop she bought the sofa from.
 
練習六 翻譯
1.
The girl won the race.
She is happy.
The girl who won the race is happy.
The girl that won the race is happy.
 
2.
Where can I catch the bus?
The bus goes downtown?
Where can I catch the bus that goes downtown?
Where can I catch the bus which goes downtown?
 
3.
The people were very nice.
We visited them yesterday.
The people whom we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people who we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people that we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people we visited yesterday were very nice.
 
4.
The candidate didn’t win the election.
I voted for her.
The candidate whom I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate who I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate that I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate for whom I voted didn’t win the election.
 
5.
I liked the composition.
You wrote it.
I liked the composition which you wrote.
I liked the composition that you wrote.
I liked the composition you wrote.
6.
The music was good.
We listened to it last night.
The music which we listened to last night was good.
The music that we listened to last night was good.
The music we listened to last night was good.
The music to which we listened to last night was good.
7.
The man called police.
His wallet was stolen.
The man whose wallet was stolen called the police.
8.
I live in a dormitory.
Its residents come from many countries.
I live in a dormitory whose residents come from many countries