【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 102 關係子句 主格 講解講義

今天的照片看得出來是哪裡吧?很有名的水都,威尼斯。當年看的電視介紹說再過幾年可能會被淹沒,所以一定要趕快去看看,所以就選了義大利,因為在威尼斯很驚險,所以呢本來除了羅馬之外還要去翡冷翠,也叫做佛羅倫斯,翡冷翠聽起來美多了吧。總之呢就沒有去了。真的是可惜。那一年本來要去巴黎,但是呢歐洲一個月到最後真的懶了,就沒去了,不過還好去年去了。記得在哪裡聽過,旅遊留點遺憾是下次再去的動力,類似這樣的話。驚險的威尼斯就改天再跟大家說了。要出門去了。

下面是講解影片

下面是練習與翻譯影片

形容詞子句 Adjective Clause 又叫關係子句 Relative Clause 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。

關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有 who, whom, which, that 跟 whose。關係副詞有 when, where, why。

先行詞:形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多緊接在先行詞後面。

I have a friend who works in Japan. 我有一個在日本工作的朋友。

主要子句:I have a friend

形容詞子句:who works in Japan

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:friend

形容詞子句常常是兩個句子的合併。

I have a friend who works in Japan.

(I have a friend. My friend works in Japan.)

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that 緊跟著在先行詞後,在句首帶領形容詞子句,用來當形容詞子句的主詞,提供更多有先前提到某人或某事的資訊。

who 用來代表人

Hank is the man who has a big dog. 漢克是那個有一隻大狗的男人。

The guy who sits next to me in class is from Canada. 在課堂上坐我隔壁的人是來自加拿大。

that 也可以用來代表人,但是比較少用

Yo-yo Ma is the musician that plays the cello. 馬友友是那個彈大提琴的音樂家。

The woman that lived here before us is a writer. 那個在我們之前住在這裡的女人是作家。

which 跟 that 都可以用來代表事物

that 比較口語

The computer that cost $50,000 is broken. 花了五萬元的電腦壞掉了。

I like to read books that have good endings. 我喜歡看有好結局的書。

which 比較正式

There are some restaurants which do Sunday brunches. 有些餐廳賣星期天早午餐。

Twitter is the company which was taken over last year. 推特是那個去年被接收的公司。

關係代名詞主格為人 who 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 The police have found the man. The man robbed the bank. 

1 The police have found the man who robbed the bank. 

2 I talked to the boy. The boy won the race. 

2 ______________________________________________.

3 I thanked the doctor. The doctor saved my mother’s life. 

3 ______________________________________________.

4 I’d like to have a boss. The boss has a good sense of humor. 

4 ______________________________________________.

5 I’d prefer a roommate. The roommate is quiet and neat. 

5 ______________________________________________.

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was very rude. The man stepped on my foot. 

1 The man who stepped on my foot was very rude. 

2 The man wanted my advice. The man wrote to me.

2 ______________________________________________. 

3 A man is called a journalist. A man writes newspaper articles. 

3 ______________________________________________.

4 The woman is funny. The woman lives next to us. 

4 ______________________________________________.

5 The girl told me a heartwarming story. The girl sat in front of me. 

5 ______________________________________________.

關係代名詞主格為物 which 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 I like the car. The car won the race.

1 I like the car which won the race. 

2 This is the dog. The dog attacked me.

2 ______________________________________________.

3 Tokyo is a city. The city never sleeps.

3 ______________________________________________.

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The bus was fifteen years old. The bus crashed. 

1 The bus which crashed was fifteen years old. 

2 The dog belonged to Mr. Lin. The dog bit me. 

2 ______________________________________________.

3 The article won a prize. The article discussed puppy love. 

3 ______________________________________________.

翻譯練習

1 我喜歡有幽默感的男生。

2 一個幫人剪頭髮的女生叫做美髮師。

3 這就是贏得獎項的電影。

4 我知道一家賣好吃的義大麵的餐廳。

5 我不喜歡太嚴肅的老師。

答案:

關係代名詞主格為人 who 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 The police have found the man. The man robbed the bank. 

1 The police have found the man who robbed the bank. 

2 I talked to the boy. The boy won the race. 

2 I talked to the boy who won the race. 

3 I thanked the doctor. The doctor saved my mother’s life. 

3 I thanked the doctor who saved my mother’s life. 

4 I’d like to have a boss. The boss has a good sense of humor. 

4 I’d like to have a boss who has a good sense of humor. 

5 I’d prefer a roommate. The roommate is quiet and neat. 

5 I’d prefer a roommate who is quiet and neat. 

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The man was very rude. The man stepped on my foot. 

1 The man who stepped on my foot was very rude.

2 The man wanted my advice. The man wrote to me.

2 The man who wrote to me wanted my advice. 

3 A man is called a journalist. A man writes newspaper articles. 

3 A man who writes newspaper articles is called a journalist. 

4 The woman is funny. The woman lives next to us. 

4 The woman who lives next to us is funny. 

5 The girl told me a heartwarming story. The girl sat in front of me. 

5 The girl who sat in front of me told me a heartwarming story. 

關係代名詞主格為物 which 的用法

當先行詞,也就是形容詞子句修飾的名詞是受詞或主詞補語,位置在句尾時,形容詞子句就接在句尾。

1 I like the car. The car won the race.

1 I like the car which won the race. 

2 This is the dog. The dog attacked me.

2 This is the dog which attacked me. 

3 Tokyo is a city. The city never sleeps.

3 Tokyo is a city which never sleeps. 

當先行詞的位置是在主格的位置時,形容詞子句就會接在主詞的後面,插入句子的中間,形容詞子句後面會加動詞,再加其他部分。

1 The bus was fifteen years old. The bus crashed. 

1 The bus which crashed was fifteen years old. 

2 The dog belonged to Mr. Lin. The dog bit me. 

2 The dog which bit me belonged to Mr. Lin. 

3 The article won a prize. The article discussed puppy love. 

3 The article which discussed puppy love won a prize .

翻譯練習

1 我喜歡有幽默感的男生。

1 I like guys who have a good sense of humor.  

2 一個幫人剪頭髮的女生叫做美髮師。

2 A woman who cuts hair is called a hairdresser. 

3 這就是贏得獎項的電影。

3 This is the movie which won the prize. 

4 我知道一家賣好吃的義大麵的餐廳。

4 I know a restaurant which sells good pasta.  

5 我不喜歡太嚴肅的老師。

5 I don’t like teachers who are too serious. 

【潔西家】劍橋文法 中級 90 關係子句/形容詞子句 主格

繼續新年快樂!先前有人問到會不會講劍橋活用英語文法的中級,會,潔西今年的新年新希望除了健康外就是想把劍橋活用英語文法的初級跟中級的部分的講義全部寫出來。那幹嘛不自己寫書?因為要找很多例子要想很久,工程太浩大了,等我把所有部分寫完之後說不定就自己編排一下,找影印店印也不是不行,但是可能會太厚。總之再說吧。初級跟中級重複的部分我就不會重複做講義。講義的話也大部分會從我自己原本有的講義部分來改寫。

形容詞子句是有點小難,拆成很多部分的話或許就簡單一點了?今天說的主格真的是不難的,很基礎的,用心看一下,自己多造一些類似的句子,平成看影片的時候多留意,慢慢就能說得出來了也不一定喔。不會說其實也沒關係,拆成兩個句子也是可以理解的,不過人家講的時候要聽得懂就是了。可以自己做做翻譯練習,寫出來的話會很有成就感的喔!

話說剛剛在飲料店看到有人居然穿著睡衣在買飲料,真的是成套那種睡衣。從前穿整套運動服出門有點怪,現在是流行了,不過睡衣整套穿出門是流行嗎?跟流行很不熟的潔西有點嚇到。

等等又要出門上課了,但是我覺得已經有點累了啊,老人一枚今年真的希望能夠把身體照顧好。預約下星期一去看疼痛門診,每個醫生都滿,只有那個醫生沒滿,其實是有一點擔心的,但是呢先去看再說吧。下午去看牙醫弄了一個小時,打麻藥,剛剛做影片還有一點,現在好像退的差不多了,該吃個飯出門上課去了。

 

 

Grammar in use Intermediate 劍橋活用英語文法 中級

ㄧ 概論

中文在形容一個名詞的時候多半把形容詞放在名詞前面,比方說他是個很高的人,他是個很帥的人,他是個不說謊的人。在英文像高的,帥的這種形容詞可以放在修飾的名詞的前面。但是不說謊的人這種有包含了動詞在內時,英文多半會用形容詞子句來修飾該名詞。

He is a tall man.

He is a handsome man.

He is a man who doesn’t lie.

中式英文 He is a not lie man.(X) 這樣直譯是不行的,英文的基本句型是一個主詞,一個動詞,當要有另外一個動詞時,要用適當的方式來連結。這種狀況下用的是形容詞子句。

形容詞子句 adjective clause ,或者我們有時候叫做關係子句 relative clause ,是一個有主詞,有動詞,但是語意不完整的子句,用來修飾,定義,或給予額外資訊。形容詞子句可想做是用來形容子句前面的名詞,也就是先行詞,或者可以想做關係子句就是用來表達子句跟前面先行詞之間的關係。每個形容詞子句/關係子句都會有一個關係代名詞用來帶領形容詞子句,比方說 who, which, whom, that, whose 等,這些關係代名詞在特定狀況下會被省略掉。

1 He is the teacher who has changed my life.

   他就是那個改變我的人生的老師。

   teacher 是先行詞

   who has changed my life 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

 

2 Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

   台北是個不夜城。

    city 是先行詞

   which never sleeps 是形容詞子句,其中 which 是關係代名詞

 

3 My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   我爸爸是個牙醫,他不准我們吃糖果。

   father 是先行詞

   who is a dentist 是形容詞子句,其中 who 是關係代名詞

包含形容詞子句的句子通常可以拆成兩個句子。也可以看成當兩個句子,有共同的名詞的時候,有時候可以改成形容詞子句。

 

1 He is the teacher. The teacher has changed my life.

   — He is the teacher who has changed my life.

2 Taipei is a city. The city never sleeps.

   — Taipei is a city which never sleeps.

3 My father is a dentist. He doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

   — My father, who is a dentist, doesn’t allow us to eat candy.

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時

形容詞子句中的關係代名詞,可以是在子句的句首的主格,可以是放在受詞位置的受格,也可以是修飾子句主句的所有格。而子句修飾的名詞,也就是先行詞,會因人或物而使用不同的關係的代名詞。

先從主格開始看起。先行詞是人的話,主格關係代名詞用 who。先行詞是事物的話,主格關係代名詞用 which。主格的 who 跟 which 都可以用 that 取代。口語的時候主格是人習慣用 who ,主格是事物習慣用 that 。主格的 which 有比較正式的感覺。

1 先行詞是人

I like people who smile a lot.   我喜歡常笑的人。   

I don’t like people who get angry easily.  我不喜歡容易生氣的人。

I have a friend who lives in Switzerland. 我有個住瑞士的朋友。    

I have a friend who works for Facebook. 我有個幫臉書工作的朋友。

形容詞子句可以放在句尾,也可以放在句中

People who have moved a lot have fewer friends. 經常搬家的人有比較少的朋友。

A person who has a lot of friends is lucky.  一個有很多朋友的人很幸運。

 

2 先行詞是事或物

Do you know a shop which sells good coffee? 你知道一間買好咖啡的店嗎?

This is the computer which isn’t working. 這就是壞掉的那台電腦。

The postcard which came this morning was from Italy. 今天早上收到的明信片是從義大利來的。

 

上面的 who 或 which 都可以用 that 取代,在非正式,口語的場合下。

I like people that smile a lot.

Do you know a shop that sells good coffee?

 

二 關係代名詞為主格時 

翻譯練習

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

.

.

.

.

.

翻譯解答

還是覺得有點難度的人可以先分成兩個句子在合併再一起。

1 我看到那個偷皮夾的男人。

1 I saw the man. The man stole the wallet.

1 I saw the man/that who stole the wallet.

 

2 那個開車載我去機場的計程車司機很有禮貌。

2 The driver was polite. The driver took me to the airport.

2 The driver who/that took me to the airport was polite.

 

3 我找到一家賣很美味的巧克力的店。

3 I found a shop. The shop sells good chocolate.

3 I found a shop that/which sells good chocolate.

 

4 住隔壁的那個女人是個律師。

4 The woman is a lawyer. The woman lives next door.

4 The woman who/that lives next door is a lawyer.

 

5 在 Google 工作的 Tom 是工程師。

5 Tom is an engineer. Tom works at Google.

5 Tom, who works at Google, is an engineer.

 

6 我找到丟掉的鑰匙了。

6 I found the key. The key was missing.

6 I found the key that/which is missing.

 

7 那個輸掉比賽的男人感到很失望。

7 The man was disappointed. The man lost the game.

7 The man who/that lost the game was disappointed.

 

8 他有一隻眼睛看不見的貓。

8 He has a cat. The cat is blind.

8 He has a cat that/which is blind.    He has a blind cat.

 

9 坐我隔壁的同事是來自加拿大。

9 My coworker comes from Canada. My coworker sits next to me.

9 My coworker who/that sits next to me comes from Canada.

 

10 我不喜歡喜歡佔人家便宜的人。take advantage of someone

10 I don’t like people who likes to take advantage other people.

形容詞子句,關係副詞,限定子句,非限定子句

 

TGIF Thank God It’s Friday 感謝老天星期五了!而且快下班了
 
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然後他在直播的時候說誰在看,他媽媽寫老母,我本來要寫你老母跟我,但是發現好像在罵人啊,哈哈。他舅舅交代,這剛新買的手機不要一直曬太陽。他停了一下又繼續,說海風很舒服,不錯玩,但是有點累,風聲好大聲,比新竹的風聲還大啊!他說路上很多人幫他加油,各種好心人問他要不要幫忙,台灣人真好。聽了放心多了。因為今天眼皮一直跳,容易擔心的阿姨啊!
 
潔西則是一直坐在電腦前,跟著大寶遊台灣,不過也只有今天,明天後天都要上課。從昨天到今天一直都在備課,明後天的課,上課星期因為小寶帶朋友來家裡做蛋糕跟餅乾,潔西上星期六一早就起來整理家裡,然後他們來了就做餅乾蛋糕,晚上又帶他們去吃熱炒,吃飽回家開始備課的時候大概十點多,想說弄到十二點就好了,結果摸到四點,哪來哪麼多東西好備?其實是太混嗎?最近潔西都一邊備課一邊看日劇或美劇,不過今天真的難得,怕備不完,非常焦慮,所以呢,也沒有看劇,只有聽聽音樂配配大寶的直播。又餓了,又好累,還有一堂寫作還沒備好。
 
這形容詞子句的文法一邊改一邊發現好幾個地方錯,像什麼第三人稱的單數沒加到 s ,拼字拼錯之類的, 啊….好多錯,發現的人再請提醒,這篇,希望沒有太多錯。吃個飯,休息一下,繼續準備去:)
 
關係代名詞 :人   who, whom, whose, that 事,物  which, whose, that
關係副詞:    時間 when 地方 where 原因 why
 
x 表示省略
 
A 關係副詞 when, where, why, how
where, when, why, how 皆為關係副詞,可用來帶領形容詞子句,分別表地點, 時間, 原因,方式可用在限定或非限定子句。
where = the place where, when = the time when,
why = the reason why, how = the way in which
 
1 關係副詞 when
when
當要表示在某個時間(年,日,時間等)時,常會用時間介系詞 at, in, on 等加上時間來表示。
比方說I get up at 8.  He graduate in June.  We met on my birthday.
 
關係副詞when的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達時間時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用when來代替。所以when可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。除了將介系詞放在which前外,其他用法時介系詞都會省略掉。
所以假如要表達這就是我記得我遇到他的那一天,可以用下面的表達方式
可以想做是 I remember the day. 與 I met him on that day. 這兩個句子的合併。
I remember the day. I met him on that day.
I remember the day when I met him. 這裡可以用 when 取代 on which。
I remember the day on which I met him. 正式用法可以把介系詞 on 放到 which 前,不可省。
I remember the day that I met him.  這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同,on需省略
I remember the day I met him.  受詞的 that 跟 which 都可以省略,on也必須省略。
 
上面 when 可以省略掉,因為上列句子中只有當介系詞 on 在前面的時候才會出現介系詞,所以 when 可以直接省略掉。
練習一 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 Sunday is the day. We will come on that day.
2 8:30 is the time. My plane arrives at that time.
3 August is the month. The weather is usually the hottest in that month.
4 1960 is the year. The revolution took place in that year.
 
2 關係副詞 where
當要表示在某個地點(城市,國家,房間)時,常會用方位介系詞 in,on, at 等加上地點來表示。
比方說I am at home. My father is in his office.  The book is on the table.
 
關係副詞where的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達地點時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用where來代替。所以where 可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。
 
所以假如要表達這就是她工作的那間圖書館,可以用下面的表達方式
可以想做是That’s is the library. 與 She works in the library. 這兩個句子的合併。
 
That’s is the library. She works in the library.
 
That’s the library where she works.   在這裡可以用 where 取代 in which。
That’s the library in which she works.  正式用法可以把介系詞in放到which前面。
That’s the library which she works in.  which 可單獨放在句首,介系詞 in 不可省
That’s the library that she works in.  在這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同。
That’s the library she works in.  受詞的that 跟which都可以省,所以這裡只剩下不可省的in。
 
上面的句子 where 不可以直接省略掉,因為省略後的介系詞少掉了,所以只可以用最後一個句子 That’s the library she works in. 不可以用 That’s the library she works. (X)
 
因為where相當於“介系詞 + which ”,所以並不是所有地點都可以用where代替。當形容詞子句的地點是主格時,不會有介系詞,就只能用which,不可以用where。形容詞子句中一定要有介系詞加上受格which時,才可以用where代替。常見錯誤是誤用where來取代主格的which。
 
例如要合併下列兩個句子有兩種方式:
I was born and grew up in Taipei. (1) Taipei is the capital of Taiwan. (2)
第一種合併方式,用第一句當主要子句,因為第二句的形容詞子句的Taipei是主格,所以並沒有介系詞,只有地點,所以不能用where,只能用which來帶領形容詞子句。
I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.  
 
第二種合併方式,用第二個句子當主要子句,因為第一個句子中有in Taipei,所以可以用where來帶領形容詞字句。又有逗點時不可以用in which,只可以用where。
Taipei, which I was born and grew up in, is the capital of Taiwan.
Taipei, where I was born and grew up, is the capital city of Taiwan.
 
練習二 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation in that city.
2 That is the restaurant. I will meet you at that restaurant.
3 The town is small. I grew up in that town.
4 That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry in that drawer.
 
練習三 把兩個句子合併成一個句子
That man was Anna’s brother. He just walked past.
— The man who just walked past was Anna’s brother.
1 The plane was twenty-five years old. It crashed.
The plane ____________________________ twenty-five years old.
2 One day Tessa was ill in bed. Martin rang.
The day ____________________________ ill in bed.
3 Our offices are in Queen Street. They’re new.
Our ____________________________ in Queen Street.
4 Some documents have been found. They were stolen from a car.
The documents ____________________________ found.
5 The map is out of date. You were looking at it.
The map ____________________________ out of date.
6 The King’s Theater is in the center of town. It dates from 1896.
The King’s ____________________________ in the center of town.
7 A woman was terribly upset. Her dog was run over.
The woman ____________________________ terribly upset.
8 Janet solved the puzzle. She did it before everyone else.
Janet was ____________________________ the puzzle.
9 A man was standing outside the building. He was selling newspapers.
A man ____________________________ outside the building.
10 The talk was very interesting. Judy gave it.
The talk ____________________________ was very interesting.
11 The house is empty now. I used to live there.
The house ____________________________ is empty now.
 
3 關係副詞 why
原因 + why = 原因 + for + which
The reason why Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.
= The reason for which Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.
There can only be one champion, and that is the reason why competition is so intense.
= There can only be one champion, and that is the reason for which competition is so intense.
The weather is cold, which is the reason why there are so many people sick.
The weather is cold, which is the reason for which there are so many people sick.
 
4 關係副詞 how
how = the way + (介系詞 + which)
Do a little work every day. This is how you can finish any project, no matter how big.
= Do a little work every day. This is the way in which you can finish any project, no matter how big.
We showed him how we make rice pudding.
= We showed him the way in which we make rice pudding.
 
 
B 複合關係詞
whoever = any person(s) who/that 任何人
whomever = anyone whom
whatever = anything that/which 任何事
whichever = anythings that/which 有選擇當中的選項
wherever = in or at any place that
whenever = in or at any time that
however = in or at any way that
whatever, whoever, whichever 可以用來當作關係子句的主詞或受詞,也可以用 whatever, whoever, whichever 來表示不管什麼,不管誰,不管哪一個。而 wherever, whenever, however 可以用來表示不管在什麼地方,何時或如何
 
Whoever said those things is mistaken.
We will work for whomever they send.
Whatever she did made them happy.
Write in a pen or pencil, whichever you prefer.
I’ll always love you, whatever you do.
He’ll be in trouble, whichever he chooses.
He always keeps in touch wherever he is.
Whenever I see Penny, she asks me about you.
Please sit wherever you like.
Call whenever you can.
Just buy it, however much it costs.
 
 
 
練習四 Choose an ending for each beginning and addd these words
however, whatever, whenever, whichever, whoever
1 You can dress … a … they want to on Sunday morning.
2 We lived on potatoes … b … we think would enjoy the party.
3 The girls can get up … c and … else was available.
4 We’ll go there … d … you like because it’s really casual.
5 They said we could invite … e on Monday or Tuesday, … day you’re free.
 
C 限定與非限定形容詞子句
a. 限定子句 Restrictive / Identifying / Defining Clause
限定子句或辨別子句或定義子句,名稱可能不同,但是都是用來把人事物分類,定義或辨別先行詞。缺少這個限定子句時,語義會不清楚,所以會加上形容詞子句來讓。限定子句不可省略,不可使用逗號。that 只可以用在限定子句。
I have three phones. The phone which is in the kitchen is broken.
The woman who does my hair has just had a baby.
Do you have a good book that’s really easy to read?
What do you think of the wine we drank last night?
 
b. 非限定子句 Nonrestrictive (Non-identifying) Clause
非限定子句用來給予先行詞補充額外資訊。非限定子句可以省略,沒有非限定子句,語意一樣清楚。非限定形容詞子句只是補充說明,這時一定要用逗號將主要子句分隔開來。人名或專有名詞為先行詞時,後面幾乎都用非限定子句。不可以用 that 在非限定子句中。
 
I have only one phone. The phone, which is in the kitchen, is broken.
Sally, who does my hair, has just had a baby.
I lent him The Old Man and the Sea, which is really easy to read.
I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank at once.
 
限定子句用在當我們要表達重要的資訊的時候,當只是要加上額外資訊的時候用非限定子句
The first caller who can give the correct answer will win the prize.
The first caller, who was from the London area, didn’t give the correct answer.
 
在寫作的時候用逗號 comma , 或括號 backets () 或 破折號 dash – – 來把形容詞子句跟主要子句分開,在口說的時候會停一下 pause 來表示句子是非限定的。
The switch, which is on the back, is off. (The machine has only one switch. It’s one the back.)
The switch (pause) which is one the back (pause) is off. (The machine has only one switch. It’s one the back.)
The switch which is on the back is off. (The machine has more than one switch. This one is off.)
 
c which 的特殊用法:在非限定子句中,可以用 which 來給予前面整個句子評論看法,也可以用在 in which case 之類的用法。
David helped me clean up, which was very kind of him.
Sarah had to work late again, which annoyed Mike.
There may be a strike, in which case the office will remained closes.
 
另外也可以在 of which 跟 of whom 前面加上數量詞,比方說 some 或最高級,來提供前面所提過人,事物,或團體中的個人的額外資訊。
The last lecture, some of which I just didn’t understand, was about chemistry.
At the conference, there were several writers, the most famous of whom was Jason Bourne.
 
d 關係副詞的限定與非限定用法
這裡的用法類似用連接詞加上副詞的意思。
On my trip to Paris. I went to the Louvre Museum, where I saw the Mona Lisa on display
= On my trip to Paris, I went to the Louvre Museum, and there I saw the Mona Lisa on display.
Little Red Riding Hood approached the bed, where the wolf was waiting to eat her.
= Little Red Riding Hood approached the bed, and there the wolf was waiting to eat her
Please come back at three o’clock, when I will have time to talk to you.
= Please come back at three o’clock, because then I will have time to talk to you.
 
練習五:
依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號
1(that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.
2 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often needs a babysitter.
3 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
4 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
5 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
6 (who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.
7 (which is on the tenth floor) My new flat ______________________ has a terrific view.
8 (she bought the sofa from) Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop _______________.
 
練習六 翻譯練習 (可以先把句子分成兩個句子,再合併)
1. 那個贏的賽跑比賽的女孩子很開心。
2. 我在哪裡可以搭到開往市中心的公車。
3. 我們昨天拜訪的人非常的好。
4. 我投票給她的那個候選人沒有贏得選舉。
5. 我喜歡你寫的那篇作文。
6. 我們昨晚聽的音樂很好聽。
7. 那個皮包被偷的男人打電話報警。
8. 我住的宿舍裡面的學生來自不同的國家。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
答案在這裡:潔西的答案都有含題目,所以不用再回去對題目,原因是這樣子地…
練習一
1 Sunday is the day. We will come on that day.
Sunday is the day when we will come.
2 8:30 is the time. My plane arrives at that time.
8:30 is the time when my plane arrives.
3 August is the month. The weather is usually the hottest in that month.
August is the month when the weather is usually the hottest.
4 1960 is the year. The revolution took place in that year.
1960 is the year when the revolution took place.
 
 
練習二 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation in that city.
The city where we spent our vacation is beautiful.
2 That is the restaurant. I will meet you at that restaurant.
That is the restaurant where I will meet you.
3 The town is small. I grew up in that town.
The town where I grew up is small.
4 That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry in that drawer.
That is the drawer where I keep my jewelry.
 
 
練習三 把兩個句子合併成一個句子
That man was Anna’s brother. He just walked past.
— The man who just walked past was Anna’s brother.
1 The plane was twenty-five years old. It crashed.
The plane that/which crashed was twenty-five years old.
2 One day Tessa was ill in bed. Martin rang.
The day (when/that) Martin rang, Tessa was ill in bed.
3 Our offices are in Queen Street. They’re new.
Our offices, which are new, are in Queen Street.
4 Some documents have been found. They were stolen from a car.
The documents that/which were stolen from a car have been found.
5 The map is out of date. You were looking at it.
The map that/which/ x you were looking at is out of date.
6 The King’s Theater is in the center of town. It dates from 1896.
The king’s Theater, which dates from 1896, is in the center of town.
7 A woman was terribly upset. Her dog was run over.
The woman whose dog was run over was terribly upset.
8 Janet solved the puzzle. She did it before everyone else.
Janet was the first person who/that solved the puzzle.
9 A man was standing outside the building. He was selling newspapers.
A man who/that was selling newspapers was standing outside of the building.
10 The talk was very interesting. Judy gave it.
The talk that/which/x Judy gave was very interesting.
11 The house is empty now. I used to live there.
The house where I used to live is empty now.
 
練習四 Choose an ending for each beginning and addd these words
however, whatever, whenever, whichever, whoever
1 You can dress …
2 We lived on potatoes …
3 The girls can get up …
4 We’ll go there …
5 They said we could invite …
 
a … they want to on Sunday morning.
b … we think would enjoy the party.
c and … else was available.
d … you like because it’s really casual.
e on Monday or Tuesday, … day you’re free.
 
1 You can dress however you like because it’s really casual.
2 We lived on potatoes and whatever else was available.
3 The girls can get up whenever they want to on Sunday morning.
4 We’ll go there on Monday or Tuesday, whichever day you’re free.
5 They said we could invite whoever we think would enjoy the party.
 
 
練習五:
依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號
1(that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.
1 This car is a lot cheaper than the one that Claire drives.
2 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often needs a babysitter.
2 Olivia, who has twins, often needs a babysitter.
3 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
3 The person who took Rita to the party was Tom.
4 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
4 Henry, who has a bad temper, shouted at the waiter.
5 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
5 The team which Tom supports is United.
6 (who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.
6 We climbed up expect Vicky, who is afraid of heights.
7 (which is on the tenth floor) My new flat ______________________ has a terrific view.
7 My new flat, which is on the tenth floor, has a terrific view.
8 (she bought the sofa from) Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop _______________.
8 Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop she bought the sofa from.
 
練習六 翻譯
1.
The girl won the race.
She is happy.
The girl who won the race is happy.
The girl that won the race is happy.
 
2.
Where can I catch the bus?
The bus goes downtown?
Where can I catch the bus that goes downtown?
Where can I catch the bus which goes downtown?
 
3.
The people were very nice.
We visited them yesterday.
The people whom we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people who we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people that we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people we visited yesterday were very nice.
 
4.
The candidate didn’t win the election.
I voted for her.
The candidate whom I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate who I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate that I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate for whom I voted didn’t win the election.
 
5.
I liked the composition.
You wrote it.
I liked the composition which you wrote.
I liked the composition that you wrote.
I liked the composition you wrote.
6.
The music was good.
We listened to it last night.
The music which we listened to last night was good.
The music that we listened to last night was good.
The music we listened to last night was good.
The music to which we listened to last night was good.
7.
The man called police.
His wallet was stolen.
The man whose wallet was stolen called the police.
8.
I live in a dormitory.
Its residents come from many countries.
I live in a dormitory whose residents come from many countries

為了連身裝爆氣的奧客潔西+形容詞子句

潔西上上週買了件連身褲裝,因為是V領開得很低,問了一下店員的意見,店員說其實本來就做這樣,裡面配個小可愛,當時身上穿的M好就可以。但是回家試穿後覺得有點太小,潔西大概是只可能越來越胖,不會再瘦,再胖一點就套不進去了吧,所以上星期五拿去UNIQLO換囉。

 

UNIQLO先前潔西就換過,也跟他們建議過,他們家連鎖店那麼多,但是在哪家店買就只能在哪家店做退換,真的很不方便,潔西去櫃檯問了一下,櫃檯請潔西自己去拿要換的size再直接去櫃檯做換貨就可以。潔西找了找,啊!沒有潔西要的顏色跟 size ,所以就去問櫃台,櫃台的店員很好,幫潔西問了明曜店有,可以請他們保留,上次也請他們保留過,只能保留一天,潔西剛好隔天要去東區上課。潔西問店員說那要退貨再去那邊買嗎?因為這樣比較方便,潔西隔天就不用再帶著衣服去上課,不過店員說不用,她幫潔西寫一張單子,用那張單子做換貨的動作就可以了。

 

啊,你們公司不是規定只能在同一家店做退換貨嗎?既然可以為什麼要說不行,然後潔西還要回去原本的店,然後再寫單子,就可以去另外一家店換,這不是找消費者麻煩嗎?而且他們保留只能保留一天,假如潔西沒付錢只能保留一天那就算了,都付錢了,要換貨還只能保留一天,有點說不過去吧?不過因為店員人很 nice ,所以潔西就沒多說,要刷退也挺麻煩的,就問店員說過去那要怎麼換,直接去櫃檯嗎?店員很熱心地說,潔西可以先去找隨便一個店員,請他幫潔西拿幫潔西保留要換貨的褲裝,然後再去櫃檯就可以了。

 

隔天潔西早上十點的課,八點起床,八點半出門,有三堂課,上到兩點半,因為當天晚上要去國家音樂廳聽演奏會,所以打了電話去兩廳的表演藝術圖書館預約了閱覽室,就是一個小房間,有沙發,很舒服,潔西三不五時會去混一下。上星期去的時候已經有人了,所以想說先預約看看。本來想說要不要預約五點,不過三點半下課,先去明曜換個衣服,從東區到中正紀念堂不遠,應該四點半到得了吧?就預約四點半了。因為那是一間小房間,上完課很累,有個沙發可以躺,把東西像平時一樣丟得到處都是,一邊聽音樂一邊準備一下隔天要上的課應該不錯。

 

潔西的如意算盤一點都不如意啊!平常下課就走人了,幾乎沒有學生會來問問題,不過因為當天教的是初級寫作的形容詞子句,這真的不容易,不管是說還是寫,潔西常聽到改到同學說錯寫錯的,因為這部英文跟中文的句型有相當大的差異,只有一個很強的學生沒問題,大部分的人都有點一臉茫然,潔西想說講的應該是中文,不是英文啊,哈哈。對學生來說潔西說的可能是像外星文一樣難懂吧。潔西有安慰他們初級剛開始學比較難,慢慢再多學一些多重複幾次上到就會比較容易了。下課後有幾個人來問問題,然後上星期只有兩個學生潔西有給他們作業,因為今天來的另外六七個都是上星期沒來的,所以就沒有對答案,學生請潔西幫他看答案,然後潔西把錯的地方解釋給他聽,到後面另外一個同學說好像有老師要上課,先出去好了,潔西把東西收收黑板擦好,一個學生說沒關係先走了,另外一個留下來,潔西解釋一些他沒法理解的點。潔西是挺樂意回答學生的問題,但是平常沒事都沒人問啊,有事同學就會有問題啊,哈哈。結果離開補習班已經接近大概三點快五十了吧,想說要快點,不然會來不及啊。

 

其實補習班在忠孝復興站,明曜在忠孝敦化站,但是下課的時候下狂暴雨,所以走地下街,一邊走一邊趕,啊,等等不快點會來不及四點半的預約。潔西到了明曜的 UNIQLO 人爆多,因為他們剛好在做活動,潔西找一個店員要請他幫潔西拿潔西預約的褲裝,結果他要潔西直接去櫃檯。一樓櫃台起碼排了二十個人,潔西上次在二樓買過東西,想說二樓應該會好一點吧,就上二樓,也差不多十來個人,好不容易等到潔西的時候,櫃台的人員說,小姐,不好意思,換貨要到那邊的櫃檯喔,旁邊有另外一個櫃檯專門處理退換貨,潔西這時候臉色應該很難看了,店員說我去幫你拿褲子,那邊有兩個人在處理應該很快。

 

潔西等他拿褲子還真的等蠻久,店員才把褲子拿過來,然後要潔西再去退貨的櫃檯再重新排隊。不開心,潔西先前在旁邊櫃檯排假的嗎?不過是換個尺寸而已,褲子拿過來的人就不能幫潔西一起處理嗎?所以潔西只好再從頭繼續排要退換貨的隊伍,前面有兩三個人吧?退換本來就比較弄慢,弄有點久而且只有一個人在處理。然後總算潔西前面那個人的退貨處理好了,退貨的婦人又要跟店員要收據,貨都退了,還要什麼收據?婦人跟他說是公司要報帳的,所以要有退的收據,明明就退兩件新出女生穿的就像男生當內褲穿的那種四角褲,這都可以報帳?問題退貨就不會給單據啊,婦人跟他盧了很久說報賬一定要有證明之類的,最後店員說那去幫她影印他們公司退貨的單據,然後用對講機找人幫他印,別人也在忙的樣子,他就跟客人說您等一下,我去幫您印,大概要三分鐘。

 

潔西忍不住發飆了,「可以快一點嗎?我在趕時間,我快要生氣了。」忘記了,就是類似的話。先前在等的時候就一邊做去上心理回饋的治療師教的呼吸法,一把火已經有壓半把了,潔西要來不及了,然後半退貨的人又要離開,又不知道要等到什麼時候,真的是一把火就燒上來了,雖然對店員很不好意思。那個要去影印的人跟旁邊櫃檯的人應該有嚇到,因為潔西本來就被說不笑看起來就很兇的人,當時臉色應該很難看吧,店員馬上說,不好意思,那我請我們店長幫你處理。原來店長就是先前幫潔西拿褲裝的人。其實 UNIQLO的人員大多時候都非常有禮,潔西也覺得自己失態,店長一直道歉跟潔西說不好意思,潔西也跟她說不好意思,不過因為真的趕時間,而且覺得他們公司換貨制度很有問題,解釋給她聽。

 

明明中和店的人說請個店員先幫拿褲子就再去辦換貨,可是潔西去到明曜的店員又不去幫潔西拿,叫潔西去櫃檯,然後去櫃檯也不跟潔西說要去專門辦退換貨的櫃檯,的確在右邊有個小小的標示寫退換貨在此,問題你看到一堆人在排隊當然直覺就是去跟著排了,誰會去注意到,而且當初潔西在中和的做退換貨的時候就是在一般櫃檯,並沒有去什麼專門退換貨的櫃檯,排半天到潔西時要潔西到旁邊退貨櫃臺,去幫潔西拿褲子回來後居然又要潔西再重新排隊,就算潔西沒有在趕時間大概也會火冒三丈。浪費潔西多少時間?不過就換個褲子,起碼弄了二三十鐘。潔西還要跟店長說,不好意思,我知道你們很忙,但是我真的趕時間。雖然也不是什麼很重要的大約定。

 

潔西覺得凶店員的人實在是沒品的奧客,但是潔西真的是一把火,也有反省了。也沒很兇,只是用很生氣的聲音說我快要生氣了這樣,後來口氣都很和緩,解釋為什麼會那麼生氣的時候,不過店長好像都沒在聽潔西說,只是一直說很不好意思,感覺沒有在聽潔西說話,這樣反而讓人覺得沒誠意啊。潔西自己也一直說不好意思。覺得究竟是誰的錯啊?

 

弄好的時候已經四點二十左右了,坐捷運到西門站已經快四點半了,潔西打電話去閱覽室說會來不及,能不能幫潔西保留,被告知說,會保留十分鐘,但是呢假如有人要使用的話十分鐘後就會給現場的人使用。潔西下中正紀念堂捷運站的時候幾乎用跑的,然後外面下狂大雨,潔西穿白褲子,快暈倒。趕下去閱覽室的時候四點四十五分,差五分還有機會吧? 結果問了櫃台,櫃檯說,不好意思,已經讓給現場的人了。啊!啊!啊!就差五分鐘。在UNIQLO不要浪費那麼多時間的話絕對來得及的,可惡。

 

不過潔西最近狀況沒有太差,還能做到正面思考轉念,在擠死人的捷運上就在想,萬一趕不上的話怎麼辦,聽黑膠好了,黑膠那邊也有沙發。所以被告知已經被使用了就只有,啊!慘叫一聲,也沒生氣就接受了啊,就來不及了啊。還了DVD,就去黑膠唱片區晃,找了潔西很喜歡的 Ella Fitzgerald 聽聽爵士樂放鬆一下,然後再找了小澤征爾指揮的貝多芬第九號交響曲,聽那個令人振奮的歡樂頌。一邊聽也沒有閒著,隔天早上還有兩堂課,講義拿出來準備,雙人沙發上,另外一個位置堆滿了潔西的東西,起來要上洗手間的時候發現堆得一團亂,覺得真不好意思,趕快整理一下。

 

快七點的時候去聽當天音樂會的導覽,七點半開始演出,伏特加之夜,潔西開玩笑發文說愛喝伏特加的一定不能錯過的,哈哈。潔西對俄羅斯的樂曲還頗有好感的。第一首是荒山之夜,第二首是柴可夫斯基的第一號鋼琴協奏曲,鋼琴演奏家是葉孟儒,超厲害的。潔西基本上是音痴,對音樂流行古典都一樣,好聽不好聽只是自己喜歡不喜歡的直覺,上星期聽了行星組曲的音樂會,也有鋼琴的獨奏的部分,偷懶不查了,是一個外國的鋼琴家,潔西聽了沒什麼感覺,但是這個鋼琴家,潔西超喜歡的,一上場就是非常有自信那種,完全知道自己要做什麼信心滿滿,潔西上次坐右邊,後來有做功課說聽鋼琴演奏的話可以選左邊的位置比較可以看得到鋼琴家,聲音也比較好?連安可曲,潔西完全沒聽過的曲目都可以讓潔西感動到眼淚就自己流出來。聽現場演奏真的非常有療癒性啊!

 

潔西上次坐第十排,上網查聽說很多人覺得第十五排最好,這次坐第十七排,可能是年紀大了耳朵不好,覺得第十排聽得比較清楚,還是左邊跟右邊聽起來也不同呢?潔西因為要上課大包小包,所以都選中間最旁邊走道的位置,腳還可以往旁邊伸,一整個坐不住的人,一直動來動去,後面的人應該很討厭潔西。不過很巧,當天後面坐的剛好是潔西先前有次去聽某個音樂講座的講者。

 

星期六那天早上八點半出門,回到家已經十一點了,吃個宵夜邊看影集邊準備隔天上課的東西,然後再洗個澡,也不知道怎麼摸的,要躺上床的時候已經三點半了。超累,想說應該不用吃藥就可以睡著,結果躺了半個小時都睡不著,躺到四點起來吃藥上FB發廢文的時候,剛好去 UCLA 念 summer school 的學生在美國剛到宿舍,超大的宿舍只有他一個人,就又聊一下了,後來潔西真的不行了,他們那邊下午一點半,潔西在台灣已經是四點半,而且潔西十點半要上課,所以就下線昏迷了。

 

隔天上課還好沒遲到,還挺早到的,潔西上課上得比較習慣了,所以最近上課都很開心,恩,自己上的很開心,學生開不開心就不知道了,哈哈,感覺上課氣氛都還不錯。上完後小寶找吃飯,約了板橋的定食八,快餓死了,還讓潔西等了三十分鐘,可惡的臭小寶,吃飽飯還陪小寶去買太陽眼鏡。結果一進去店家潔西的包包就嗶嗶叫,那天要進去 Zara 的時候也是,一進去就開始叫,潔西只好滾出去了。

 

不過今天這家店員很好心的說你是不是買了什麼東西沒消磁?潔西說應該是包包,先前也是一直叫。店員就說你要不要把東西拿出來試試看,有時候甚至是化妝品沒消到磁都有可能喔。潔西就把大包小包的東西拿出來測,測到最後就剩下一個空包包,還是叫,果然罪魁禍首就是它。店員很好心的拿去幫潔西消磁,果然,店員說應該是在袋子的最下面,有些防盜的會縫在袋子裡面,所以看不到也找不到。真是感恩,店員人好好。然後看了一下包包,厚,又是讓潔西不太開心的 ZARA ,這袋子超有印象的,好多年前跟幾個學生去那家現在永遠外面排滿滿的二男日本料理吃中飯,吃完後兩個男生回去吃橘子,哈哈,不是啦,人家在橘子工作,已經離職了的女同學跟潔西一起去逛,潔西超喜歡這個包,但又覺得重,也不缺包,同學就在旁邊搧風點火,哈哈就是喜歡就買啊,也不貴,又好看,所以就帶回家了。

 

又亂扯了,因為在等看醫生,昨天其實很可憐,因為連續兩天上課,又去音樂會,又備課到很晚,下午回家的路上潔西就跟小寶說潔西大概知道過勞死是什麼樣的感覺了,回到家就開了冷氣躺在沙發上動不了了。不幸地,睡了兩三個小時吧,起來的時候頭狂痛的痛醒,吃了藥還是狂痛,整個人真的覺得快要死掉了。而且太累了,又沒有早吃藥,所以痛超久的,自己都覺得很可憐啊XD

 

幹嘛把自己弄的這麼累?其實也還好,星期六三堂課都是個一個半小時,中間都有休息半小時,覺得這樣很不錯,不用趕,可以慢慢上。不過第一堂居然只有一個人,上一對一,上星期連假都還有三個人,不知道是不是三個人都不喜歡潔西的上法,還是有事,週末本來人就比較少,上星期寫作也只有兩個人。潔西跟學生說你賺到了耶,不過學生是害羞型的,一對一壓力應該頗大,不知道下星期會不會有人出現了啊?

 

第二個會話班有個同學程度有點太好,潔西聽到 missile 的字就走過去了,恩,飛彈?怎麼會講到這個,是要說 miso 味增嗎XD 走過去了解,結果發現原來同學是軍官,負責愛國者飛彈 patriot missile 的事宜常會跟外國人溝通,那堂課是他第一次上課第一堂課,試水溫吧,潔西建議他可以直接跳去上外師的課了,單字量多,又流利,上初級會話跟他練習的同學應該壓力都很大吧。然後潔西又一整個開始迷糊,找不到講義,筆之類的,都靠同學幫潔西找到,哈哈。這一班同學都有一點程度,上起課氣氛也不錯,只是潔西記不住同學名字,又開始亂叫,怎麼叫怎麼錯,真的還挺開心的啊!

 

第三個班是初級文法班,講形容詞子句,講義放下面,順便發部落格好讀板好了,有一個部分圖表格式以為會跑掉,不過隔沒問題。不過FB會跑掉,而且長文難讀。潔西其實花了很多時間在整理這個講義,上個星期弄超久,雖然也只不過是把舊的重新整理一下,找多點簡單易懂的練習,還是參考了那一堆文法書中的其中幾本,把容易錯的地方,儘量給多一點例子讓同學練習。

 

潔西覺得教文法大概就是盡量要表達的用簡單易懂的方式講出來,然後讓同學當場做題目,因為聽可能都聽得懂,但是自己要寫可能又是另外一回事了,寫的時候也才會發現哪裡有問題。這新補習班潔西目前為止都很喜歡,可能是因為潔西剛好都上假日班,人少,最多不到十個人,那天最少還一對一,不知道會不會有一個人都沒有來上的課啊。人少的話所以潔西可以到處遊走,看看學生寫的,有沒有問題可以解答。

 

然後現在在醫院等看醫生,警鈴大響,應該是不小心壓到,應該不用逃吧?醫院一群人要逃的話應該是蠻恐怖的。大家在觀望中,突然煙味好重,護士安撫病人說,沒事已經有人處理了,大家不用太緊張,有個人很好笑,他說雖然你這樣說,但我還是覺得我想走比較安全,哈哈。

 

看完醫生了,後來發現剛跟醫生說的重點都沒說到,因為一直在打這篇廢文,突然就輪到潔西了,還是旁邊的爺爺提醒問潔西說你幾號?ㄟ,就是潔西啊。醫生後面坐著四個醫生,平常會有一兩個實習醫生在後面,這麼多還沒看過,潔西一進去第一句話,哇!好大的陣仗,醫生說就只有這一次了,不會再有了。哈哈。跟醫生聊完就回家了,很累,去一趟醫院,等了三個小時,買了同學說很好吃的泰國餐館的炒牛肉河粉,不怎麼樣耶。

 

回到家馬上昏過去了,醒來買個晚餐吃,九點半又昏睡過去,半夜三點半起來小寶跟大寶都還醒著,潔西在看一直沒時間看的權力遊戲的時候小寶進來了,星期一沒看權力遊戲都沒辦法刷FB,很容易會被爆雷。然後小寶的朋友來潔西家過夜,但是已經睡著了,沒事做的小寶就進來跟潔西聊天一聊就聊到早上六點多,兩個人把昨天潔西請小寶買的蛋糕跟他自己也買了的蛋糕拿出來,兩個人就吃了蛋糕當早餐。六點多,把大寶叫醒,他要去拍他們班的畢業歌的 MV,然後小寶就昏睡過去,潔西也昏睡過去了。九點半潔西起床,總算把一直都還沒看的最精彩的第九集看了,正精彩的部分,打鬥太多這一集,潔西走溫和派的,打戰的部分都省略掉。

 

好長的廢文,這幾天就是忙,累,病,總算可以好好休息一下了,要來去剪個頭髮。這次要早點把這星期的課準備一下。發現兩個級數一樣的班,學生本身的程度也會差異性頗大,還是要看學生來準備不同的東西,繼續調試中。第一次代課被幾個學生直接出走,還給負評打擊真的有一點。不過這次看到學生給的評論,寫作有學生給很正面的評論,說老師上課很認真,受益良多,謝謝。還有一個會話課同學留言說謝謝老師,您的教材生活化,上課互動佳,補充多,助於我的吸收,再次感謝您。潔西真的是超感動感動啊,雖然也有人可能沒那麼喜歡,就留個 OK。

 

其實真的就是沒法討好每一個人也沒有必要,潔西上次代課準備了起碼八個小時,這次代課跟備自己的課其實也花很多時間,因為剛開始上新的課程,大概準備都超過每一堂課實際的上課時間一點五個小時多很多,不過因為是喜歡的工作,會願意花時間下去,上課上得順利也會很開心。不過也是有人不喜歡潔西的上法,不適應,其實真的沒有一個最適合所有人的上法,大概就是只能找到最適合自己的上法才有最好的效果。去剪頭髮,被美容師拒絕。因為頭髮剛好及肩,開始亂翹,潔西髮量又,想修一下,結果美容師說潔西這個長度剛好很尷尬,不然就剪短,修一下再來還是會亂翹,乾脆不要剪。結果今天特白別跑一趟公館,在美容院等美容師等了半個小時,所以回家順便繞去買了烘焙用品,結果公車站牌改位置找半天找不到,滿身大汗,熱死人的天氣啊!

 

超累的,才出去一下也沒做什麼事,回來就超累的,一躺上床又昏睡到八點半,最近好容易累,作息超不正常啊!什麼事都沒做,兩天又過去了。好像該做點事啊!下面是重寫的形容詞子句的講義。

 

然後因為補習班只能印六頁講義,所以潔西沒辦法印答案給學生,潔西給學生郵件地址說需要答案的人可以給寫信給潔西,都沒人寫,是潔西留錯地址了嗎?上次代課請學生寫信給潔西要講義還有兩個人寄。潔西留錯的地址的可能信還頗高的。

 

(參考各大文法講義書,請不要任意轉載,感恩)上課有找到有錯的地方,但是還有一個地方找不到,有發現的人在麻煩告知,謝謝。

 

 

形容詞子句 Adjective Clauses                         

A 形容詞子句簡介

定義:

形容詞子句,也叫做關係子句,是非獨立子句的一種。整個子句當作形容詞,用來修飾名詞或代名詞。用來定義某個代名詞或給予額外的資訊。

a 用來定義名詞:

I know the woman who lives there. 我認識那個住在那裡的女人。

b 給額外資訊:

Rome is a city which attracts tourists. 羅馬是個吸引很多觀光客的城市。

 

後衛修飾:

形容詞子句是後衛修飾,永遠放在修飾名詞或代名詞的後面。一般中文是用前衛修飾,把形容詞放在修飾名詞前面。但是當修飾內容有動詞時,英文不可以直接把形容詞堆在名詞前面。所以除了前衛外也常用後衛修飾,把形容詞或形容詞子句放到所要形容的名詞或代名詞後面。例句:

The bride must wear something old, something new, something borrowed, and something blue.

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

 

結合句子:

也可以把形容詞子句看作是兩個句子的結合。我姊姊住在美國。她有三個孩子。把兩個句子重複的地方結合在一起。有時候會可以有兩種結合方式,看要強調的部分在哪,放在主要子句。

My sister lives in the U.S.  My sister has two children.

 

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

強調有兩個小孩

 

My sister who has two children lives in the U.S.

強調住美國

 

關係代名詞為主詞

關係代名詞帶領的形容詞子句,其中的關係代名詞,也就是代替連結兩個句子相同之處,或者用來修飾前面名詞或代名詞的這個關係代名詞,當它是用來引導句子當主詞時,可以用 who 或 that 來取代人,用 which 或 that 來取代事物或地點,用 whose 加上名詞來取代某人的所有物。

New work is a city which never sleeps.

 

關係代名詞為受詞

關係代名詞為受詞時,用 whom 或 who 或 that 來取代人,用 which 或 that 來取代事物。

He is the actor who I saw on TV.

 

限定形容詞子句與非限定形容詞子句:

限定形容詞子句是用來定義,不可缺乏,明確的說明定義他修飾的對象。而非限定是用來補充說明,可有可無,只是給予額外的資訊。

I have three phones. The phone which is in the kitchen is broken.

I have only one phone. The phone, which is in the kitchen, is broken.

 

 

B 名詞解釋

a 子句:

是由一組字所組成,其中包括主詞與動詞,可能為獨立或非獨立子句。

 

b 獨立子句:

是一個完整的句子,其中包括主要的主詞與動詞,語意完整,可以單獨存在,也可以用為主要子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

 

c 非獨立子句:

是一個不完整的句子,如名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。由從屬連接詞,關係代名詞,疑問詞等為首帶領的子句。雖然其中也包括了主詞與動詞,但是語意不完整,需要與獨立子句結合,才能為一個完整的句子。

 

d 形容詞子句:

是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。形容詞子句也叫做關係子句。

 

e 關係代名詞:

也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有who, whom, which, that, 跟whose。關係副詞有when與where。

 

f 先行詞:

形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句大部分的時間都要緊接在修飾的先行詞的後面。

 

g 限定性形容詞子句:

用來辨別,限定前面的先行詞所以是必要的,不可省略,子句前後都不可以有逗點。

 

h 非限定性形容詞子句:

用來修飾前面的先行詞,給與額外的資訊,所以可以省略,必須用逗號把它跟主要子句分開。先行詞為專有名詞時多為非限定性形容詞子句。

在結合兩個獨立子句

1 My sister lives in the U.S.

2 My sister has two children.而形成的

3 My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children. 中

上面 3 的句子中

My sister has two children. 為 b 獨立子句/主要子句

who lives in the U.S. 為 c 非獨立子句/形容詞子句

who 用來帶領整個形容詞子句為 d 關係代名詞

sister 為 f 先行詞

 

g 限定子句:

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

我住在美國的姊姊有兩個小孩。

沒有逗號,表限定,我有好幾個姊姊,有兩個小孩的是住美國的那個。

 

h 非限定子句:

My sister, who lives in the U.S., has two children.

我住在美國的姊姊有兩個小孩

有逗號,非限定,只是補充說明,我只有一個姊姊,這姊姊有兩個小孩。

 

 

C 學習形容詞子句的重點

1 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

形容詞子句常為兩個句子的結合。關係代名詞應使用主格、所有格或受格是依形容詞子句中與先行詞重複的部分在形容詞子句的位置來決定。可以把主要子句與形容詞子句分為兩個句子來看,找出重複的部分,就知道應該使用的關係代名詞。

a 主格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister has two children.

My sister who has two children lives in Canada.

 

b 受格

My sister lives in Canada. You talked to my sister last night.

My sister whom you talked to last night lives in Canada.

 

c 所有格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister’s children are doctors.

My sister whose children are doctors lives in Canada.

 

關係代名詞的種類

關係代名詞 :

人:who, whom, whose, that

事,物:which, whose, that

 

關係副詞:時間:when ,地方:where

 

主詞(主格) 受詞(受格) 介係詞+受詞 形容詞(所有格)
 

限定

 

 

 

 

who

that

 

whom

who

that

X

whom…to

who…to

that… to

X…  to

to whom

whose
事,物 which

that

which

that

X

which …to

that…  to

X…   to

to which

whose
非限定

 

, who , whom , whom …to

 

, whose
事,物  , which , which , which… to , whose

上面粗體字為正式用法,寫作時多用正式用法, X 表示省略

 

 

2 關係代名詞的位置:

關係代名詞所帶領的形容詞子句應緊接著先行詞,放在先行詞後面。先行詞一定是名詞,名詞片語或代名詞。

 

a 形容詞子句可能在句中也可能在句尾。

I have a friend who speaks five languages.

My friend who lives in Switzerland speaks five languages.

 

b 形容詞子句假如沒有緊接著先行詞容易造成誤解。

He left the car on the street that he had just bought.

He left the car that he had just bought on the street. (比較清楚)

 

c 形容詞子句有少數不直接跟在先行詞後面。通常是先行詞後有介系詞片語時,為了

語意的完整,會放在介系詞片語的後面,但比較少見。

The first thanksgiving feast in the United States, which took place in 1621 lasted three days.

 

d 形容詞子句也可以用來修飾整個句子,這時用which來帶領形容詞子句,一定放在句尾,一定為非限定。

The team won the championship, which shocked the opponents.

 

練習一: 填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

  1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.
  2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.
  3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.
  4. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.
  5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.
  6. I like the people with _______ I work.
  7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.
  8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.
  9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.
  10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.
  11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.
  12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.
  13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

 

不要重複關係代名詞與代表的主詞,受詞或所有格

關係代名詞帶領的形容詞子句中因為關係代名詞就代表了原句子中的主詞,受詞,或所有格,所以切記不要再重複這些字。

Scott is someone who he loves sports. (X) Scott is someone who loves sports.

Scott is the man whose his dog barks all day. (X) Scott is the man whose dog barks all day.

Scott is the writer whom I saw him on TV. (X) Scott is the writer whom I saw on TV.

 

4 形容詞子句中的動詞與主詞一致

形容詞子句中的動詞必須跟形容詞子句中的主詞一致,按主動詞一致原則,所以必須依主詞不同來作動詞的變化。

 

a 當關係代名詞是主格時,依先行詞做變化

Ben is my friend who lives in Boston.

Al and Ed are my friends who live in Boston.

 

b 當關係代名詞是所有格時,依所有格+名詞,就是形容詞子句中的主詞做變化。

He’s the man whose dog barks all day.

He’s the man whose dogs bark all day.

 

c 當關係代名詞是受格時,依形容詞子句中的主詞而變化。

I like the columns which he writes.

I like the column which they write.

 

練習二:填入正確的關係代名詞跟動詞

  1. People _________ __________ (have) moved a lot have few friends.
  2. People _________ __________ (have) lived in the same place have more friends.
  3. The qualities ________ ________ (be) most important in a friend are loyalty, warmth, and the ability to keep secrets.
  4. Someone _________ ________ (face) a crisis turns to friends before family.
  5. Betrayal is the cause ___________ ____________ (be) most often response for ending a friendship.
  6. Many people have friends __________ social or religious backgrounds _________ (be) different from theirs.
  7. Most people __________ friends __________ (include) members of the opposite sex say that these relationships are different from relationships with people of the same sex.
  8. A survey _______ ____________ (appear) in a magazine may not represent everyone.
  9. Someone ________ ___________ (not read) the magazine might have other ideas.

 

5 限定與非限定形容詞子句

限定子句 Restrictive(Identifying) Clause

用來定義或辨認 (identify)先行詞,缺少這個限定子句時語義會不清楚,所以限定子句不可省略,不可使用逗號。that 只可以用在限定子句。

Mr. Lee is a teacher who cares about his students.

I have three phones. The phone which is in the kitchen is broken.

 

b 非限定子句 Nonrestrictive (Non-identifying) Clause

用來給予先行詞額外的補充資訊,非限定子句可以省略,所以非限定形容詞子句一定要用逗號將主要子句分隔開來。人名或專有名詞為先形詞時,後面幾乎都用非限定子句。

Our family cottage, which has a tennis court, is on a lake.

I have only one phone. The phone, which is in the kitchen, is broken.

 

練習三:結合下面的句子,注意在非限定子句時要用逗號。關係代名詞可以省略的情況下就省略

1 I bought a cell phone. I can use it to send and receive e-mail.

_______________________________________________________

 

2 My new cell phone has become a necessary part of life. I only bought it a month ago.

_______________________________________________________

 

3 Now, there are psychologists. They help technophobes use technology.

_______________________________________________________

 

4 Michelle Weil wrote a book about “technostress.” She is a psychologist.

_______________________________________________________

 

5 A lot of people suffer from technostress. Those people work in my office.

_______________________________________________________

 

6 Some people dream of a job. They can do the job without technology.

_______________________________________________________

 

依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號

 

7 (that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.

8 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often need a babysitter.

9 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.

10 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.

11 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.

12 ( who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.

 

6 關係代名詞的受格的位置

關係代名詞的受格可作為介系詞的受詞。最正式的用法將介系詞放在關係代名詞前 (此時只可用whom代表人,which代表事物,不可以用who、that,也不可以省略關係代名詞)。非正式用法時把介係詞放在句尾,關係代名詞可省略。

The candidate for whom I voted lost the election.          Formal

The candidate whom I voted for lost the election.

The candidate who I voted for lost the election.

The candidate that I voted for lost the election.

The candidate I voted for lost the election.              Informal

 

7關係副詞where, when

where跟when皆為關係副詞,可用來帶領形容詞子句,別表地點與時間。可為限定或非限定子句。

 

where用在形容詞子句表達地點時,相當於”方位介系詞+which”,介系詞不可省。

That’s the library where she works.

That’s the library in which she works.

That’s the library which she works in.

That’s the library that she works in.

That’s the library she works in.

 

when用在形容詞子句來表達時間時, 相當於 ”時間介系詞 + which”。除了將介系詞放在which前外,其他用法時介系詞都會省略掉。

I remember the day when I met him.

I remember the day on which I met him.

I remember the day that I met him.

I remember the day I met him.

 

 8 關係代名詞的省略

在口語中常常會省可省略某些關係代名詞。

1 可以省略的:

限定子句中的受格 whom, which, that 與表時間的 when。

That’s the man (whom) I love.

That’s the computer (that) I bought

I remember the day (when) I met him.

 

2 不可省略的:

非限定子句中的所有關係代名詞,限定子句中的主格、所有格與表地點的 where 。

I remember Max, who I visited often.

He is my friend who lives in New York.

That’s the writer whose books I like very much.

That’s the school where I work.

 

練習四:翻譯

1 我不喜歡一直說笑話的人。

2 那個我未婚夫買給我的項鍊是情人節禮物。

3 那個射殺了兩個警察的人已經去坐牢了。

4 那就是我父親工作的公司。

5 彼得買了一台狀況還是很好的二手車。

6 剛剛跟我講話的湯姆是個醫生。

7 湯姆烤的那個蛋糕很好吃。

 

練習五:合併句子

1 A person is luck. That person has a lot of friends.

2 Emily and I shared a room. We spent nights talking there.

3 I remember one summer. The whole family went to the lake then.

4 Jenny has a sister. Her sister’s name is Ruby.

5 The houses were sold out. The houses are located in the city center.

 

答案

練習一: 填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

  1. The people who/that moved into town are Italian.
  2. The lamp that/which/x I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.
  3. Everyone who/that came to the audition got a part in the play.
  4. Rice is the teacher whose class I enjoy most.
  5. The man whom/who/that/x I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.
  6. I like the people with whom I work.
  7. I have a friend whose father is a famous artist.
  8. The camera that/which/x I bought takes very sharp pictures.
  9. Students who/that have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.
  10. Flying squirrels that/which live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.
  11. The people whose car I dented were a little upset.
  12. The person to whome you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.
  13. Monkeys will eat almost anything that/which/x they can find.

 

 

練習二:填入正確的關係代名詞跟動詞

1 People who/that have moved a lot have few friends.

2 People who/that have lived in the same place have more friends.

3 The qualities that/which are most important in a friend are loyalty, warmth, and the

ability to keep secrets.

4 Someone who/that faces a crisis turns to friends before family.

5 Betrayal is the cause that/which is most often response for ending a friendship.

6 Many people have friends whose social or religious backgrounds are different from

theirs.

7 Most people whose friends include members of the opposite sex say that these relationships are different from relationships with people of the same sex.

8 A survey that appears/appeared/has appeared in a magazine may not represent everyone.

9 Someone who doesn’t read/hasn’t read the magazine might have other ideas.

  

練習三:結合下面的句子,注意在非限定子句時要用逗號。關係代名詞可以省略的情況下就省略

1 I bought a cell phone. I can use it to send and receive e-mail.

I bought a cell phone I can use to send and receive e-mail.

2 My new cell phone has become a necessary part of life. I only bought it a month ago.

My new cell phone, which I bought a month ago, has become a necessary part of

life.

3 Now, there are psychologists. They help technophobes use technology.

Now, there are psychologists who(that) help technophobes use technology.

4 Dr. Michelle Weil wrote a book about “technostress.” She is a psychologist.

Dr. Michelle Weil, who is a psychologist, wrote a book about “technostress.”

5 A lot of people suffer from technostress. Those people work in my office.

A lot of people who work in my office suffer from technostress.

6 Some people dream of a job. They can do the job without technology.

Some people dream of a job they can do without technology

7 (that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.

This car is a lot cheaper than the one that Claire drives.

8 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often need a babysitter.

Olivia, who has twins, often needs a babysitter.

9 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.

The person who took Rita to the party was Tom.

10 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.

Henry, who has a bad temper, shouted at the waiter

11 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.

The team which Tom supported is United

12 ( who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.

We all climbed up except Vicky, who is afraid of heights.

 

 

練習四:翻譯

1 我不喜歡一直說笑話的人。

1 I don’t like people who tell jokes all the time.

2 那個我未婚夫買給我的項鍊是情人節禮物。

2 The necklace my fiancé bought for me is a Valentine’s Day gift.

3 那個射殺了兩個警察的人已經去坐牢了。

3 The man who shot two policemen has gone to prison.

4 那就是我父親工作的公司。

4 That’s the company where my father works.

5 彼得買了一台狀況還是很好的二手車。

5 Peter bought a second-hand car whose condition is still very good.

6 剛剛跟我講話的湯姆是個醫生。

6 Tom, who I just talked to, is a doctor.

7 湯姆烤的那個蛋糕很好吃。

7 The cake that Tom baked was delicious.

 

 

練習五:合併句子

1 A person is luck. That person has a lot of friends.

1 A person who has a lot of friends is lucky.

2 Emily and I shared a room. We spent nights talking there.

2 Emily and I shared a room where/in which we spent nights talking.

3 I remember one summer. The whole family went to the lake then.

3 I remember one summer when/that the whole family went to the lake.

4 Jenny has a sister. Her sister’s name is Ruby.

4 Jenny has a sister whose name is Ruby.

5 The houses were sold out. The houses are located in the city center

5 The houses are located in the city were sold out.