【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 70, 71 a, an, the 的用法

其實這一篇主要是在說定冠詞 the 的用法,一開始學英文的人可能回覺得 the 很討厭,究竟什麼時候要用 the ,什麼時候又不用 the 呢?這真的很難一一說明,有一整本書討論五十種不同用法,先前有參考寫了簡版的,不過這次寫講義的時候改了一下,把一些自己教學多年來覺得可能比較常會用到的規則整理了一下。 順便把常見前面不用加 the 被誤加的列出來,比方說國家,比方說街道。喔,國家什麼時候要加 the 什麼時候不用也有說到喔。

昨天半夜錄的影片,有點無趣,相較於 a, an 的那隻影片,錄那隻影片太亢奮了,也不知道我在興奮什麼。半夜錄的影片又太鎮定的,正經八百,莫名其妙。雙極人格的特質?希望沒有影響學習。昨天睡不著,寫了長篇文,關於語言,很多人都覺得只要去上課,英文馬上可以變好,不要小看語言好不好,不是每個會講英文的人都會教英文。實際上有機會去教中文就知道了,教英文跟教中文?我一定選教英文,中文才真的有夠難。

今天超冷的,昨天半夜冷醒,終於要把我忘記我有的毯子拿出來了!潔西正式宣佈冬天來臨!不過我還是穿著無袖的夏天洋裝加上一件長袖針織衫在家,還好我家目前沒有那麼冷,不用穿很多。十五度,體感十三度真的有冷。在加拿大的小寶笑說台灣冷?他們現在是零下一度,恩,他們贏了,但是台北還是很冷,哈哈。

居然十二點了,這種天最好就是吃火鍋,正中午打算悠哉悠哉吃火鍋的人是不是有點可恨啊?不會啦,可恨之人必有可憐之處,這可憐的人昨天上完課回到家可是晚上十一點多了呢。放飯去,午安!

 

不定冠詞 a 與 an 放在單數可數名詞前面,不可以放在複數或不可數名詞前面。

定冠詞 the 可以放在單數,複數可數名詞前面,也可以放在不可數名詞前面。

 

the 的用法

1 指特定的某一個

桌上有一盤橘子  Can I have a tangerine?

桌上有一個橘子,一個香蕉,一個蘋果  Can I have the tangerine?

 

2 講話的人彼此都知道的東西,事物

Could you close the window? It’s cold.

It’s dark in the room. Turn on the light.

Hurry up! The movie is starting.

 

3 第一次提到一個名詞的時候用 a 或 an,接下來因為彼此都知道了,就用 the

I bought a dress and a skirt. The dress was very expensive.

Joe lent me a book. The book is very interesting.

 

4 最高級的時候用 the

She’s the oldest daughter.

Paris is the most beautiful place in the world.

 

5 the 加形容詞表示該族群的人

Life nowadays is very difficult for the poor and the disabled.

There was a garden for the blind.

 

6 獨特的,唯一的存在

The moon goes around the earth.

The sun rises in the east.

 

7 方位前面

at the top, at the bottom, of the left, of the right, in the middle

In Taiwan, people drive on the right.

 

8 樂器

I can’t play the guitar.

Can you play the piano?

 

9 系統或服務

I heard it on the radio.

She likes to surf the Internet.

 

10 序數前

I live on the first floor.

We have a meeting on December the fifth.

 

11 當國家的名字當中有 union, kingdom, states, republic 時等複合字時

the United States, the United Kingdom, the Republic of China, the People’s Republic of China

Are you from the United States?

He lives in the United Kingdom.  He’s from England.

 

12 比較沒有規則的可以用慣用法來記,比方說 the same, the police, the countryside, the weather 等等

They went to the same school.

The weather wasn’t very good yesterday. 

 

13 前面不用 the 的字,語言 English, Japanese,三餐 breakfast, lunch, dinner,城市 New York, Tokyo,大部分的國家 France, Italy,電視 watch TV,this, last, next 加上 week, month, year, summer, January, Friday 等等 this Monday, last week

Do you speak Chinese?

We went to the movies last Sunday.

 

14 通常一個單數可數名詞不會單獨存在,通常需要 a 或 an 或 the 或 this, that 或 my, your 等等。

Do you have a dog? Would you like an apple? The book you want is on the table.

I don’t like this dress, but I like that one. Is this your pen or mine?   mine=my pen

 

15 英文一般要表達總體,總稱的時候,前面通常不會用 the 。

可數名詞通常用複數來表達

I don’t like carrots.  I like apple. (X)

Lemons are sour.

不可數名詞直接可以表達

 

I like coffee.

Money is important.

可以用 the 加可數單數名詞代表全部,比較不常用

The tiger is a very dangerous animal.  Tigers are very dangerous animals.

My favorite flower is the rose.  Roses are my favorite flowers.

 

翻譯練習

1 你早餐通常都吃什麼?

2 我給你票錢了嗎?

3 米在歐洲很貴。

4 我今天早上跟他講電話。

5 我們房子沒有花園

6 假如你喜歡海灘,陽光,衝浪,或許你可以考慮我們的假期套裝行程。

7 我跟我朋友要去英國旅行一個月。

8 我上個月去日本。人們很友善,空氣很清新,街道很乾淨。

9 我從圖書館借了一本書。它是我看過最糟糕的書。

10 Andrew 喜歡貓,但是他不喜歡狗。

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答案

1 你早餐通常都吃什麼?

1 What do you usually eat for breakfast?

 

2 我給你票錢了嗎?

2 Did I give you the money for the ticket?

 

3 米在歐洲很貴。

3 Rice is very expensive in Europe.

 

4 我今天早上跟他講電話。

4 I talked to him on the phone.

 

5 我們房子沒有花園

5 Our house doesn’t have a garden.

 

6 假如你喜歡海灘,陽光,衝浪,或許你可以考慮我們的假期套裝行程。

6 If you like the beach, the sun, and the surf, you might consider our vacation package.

 

7 我跟我朋友要去英國旅行一個月。

7 My friend and I are taking a trip to the U.K. for a month.

 

8 我上個月去日本。人們很友善,空氣很清新,街道很乾淨。

8 I went to Japan last month. The people were friendly, the air was fresh, and the streets were clean.

 

9 我從圖書館借了一本書。它是我看過最糟糕的書。

9 I borrowed a book from the library. It was the worst book I have ever read.

 

10 Andrew 喜歡貓,但是他不喜歡狗。

10 Andrew likes cats, but he doesn’t like dogs.

冠詞 a, an, the 的用法小整理

最近終於有點恢復了開始慢慢地動起來。雖然還是很亂,不過呢就像解糾結成一團的毛線球一樣,要一步一步的抽絲剝繭,沒辦法一步登天,呵呵,我濫用成語的能力還是相當高,一點都不失色,呵呵。

總之呢,所以繼前幾天整理了部落格門面後,今天在家整理我那數不清的講義。其實已經整理過很多次了,但是習慣不好,沒有馬上放回去,再加上潔西教了很多不同的課程,光會話課課本現在一星期用的就有五本,還有多益,寫作,發音,啊,總之呢還有先前近十年來累積的數量龐大的講義,說是nightmare噩夢,一點也沒錯,不過呢一邊整理一邊發現很多很好用的東西都被我忘記擱在一旁的,比方說剛剛打了一個多小時的冠詞的講義。

常常有學生會問我什麼時候用 a/an,什麼時候用 the。啊,其實這是個很難的問題,因為光講這幾個冠詞就可以寫一本書,真的,真有這本書。不過最基本的就是非特定的時後用 a/an,特定的用the。但是還有很多比較細的東西,還有例外要稍微記一下。可是呢假如你像潔西建議的,與其背單字,不如被片語跟句子,其實那應該沒什麼問題,比較基本的,你句子念慣了就應該很熟悉,很自然而然就已經知道很多下面的規則了。

舉了十八個用法,大部份是參考書上,我又補了幾個常用,但是要說的其實還有很多,太累了,下次再找時間好好地在整理整理,先將就着看。有問題再問我。其實真的要寫的東西太多了,所以有問題的同學可以提問,我有空的時候就會先整理。啊,好累,今天整理了一下午,然後快晚上的時候去走了操場十圈,再回來,休息一下,再整理,剛剛又休息一輪吃水果,但是寫這篇估計三十分要寫完,結果是一個多小時,啊,我的動作真慢,真愛改,再來整理一下要睡覺去了明天再繼續整理。

冠詞a, an, the用法小整理                           Jessie Lin  整理     參考The Article Book by Tom Cole

A. a / an 為不定冠詞,用在非特定的名詞前。an用在母音字首的名詞前。

He is a teacher.   She is an assistant.

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B. the  為定冠詞,用在表限定,特定的名詞前。

He is the teacher from the U.S.

一些規則

1. a/an為不定冠詞,放在非特定的單數可數名詞前。

Do you have a pen?  你有筆嗎?任何一支,沒有特定的。 He is an old man.

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2. 當一個單數可數名詞第一次被提到的時候要用a/an,再次提到的時候前面要用the。

I saw a dog. The dog ran away.

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3.在there is / there are 後面的名詞不可加the。單數可數名詞前加a / an。所有名詞無論是單數或複數,在there is / there are 後面皆為不特定。

There is a pen on the table.

There were planes in the sky.

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4. 當提及在世界上唯一存在的事物時,前面要加the

The sky is blue.  (The sun, the moon, the earth)

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5. 表達形容詞副詞的最高級superlative時,前面要加the。

Paris is the most beautiful place I’ve ever been.

He is the tallest student in my class.

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6. 在動物園zoo,花園garden,博物館museum,機構institute,公司company的名字前面要加the。

The Ford Motor Company was founded by Henry Ford.

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7. 在飯店hotel/motel,劇院theater,橋bridge和建築物building的名字前要加the,但是在廳堂,醫院的名字前不加the。

The Hilton Hotel is on Main Street.

I was born in National Taiwan University Hospital.

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8. 姓氏後面加名詞時,前面要加the

The Everly Brothers were a famous musical duet.

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9. 在複數名字前加the

The Johnsons bought a new car last week.

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10. 在河流river,海洋ocean/sea,沙漠desert前要加the。

The biggest ocean in the world is the Pacific.

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11. 在單獨的湖泊,山脈,島嶼,峽谷前不加冠詞a/an或the,但複數時要加the。

Only a few people have climbed Mt. Everest.

The Rocky Mountains are in the western United States.

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12. 在國家country,城市city,州state前不可加冠詞a/an或the,但是某些特定字組合成國家的名稱時,前面要加the。

The capital of Taiwan is Taipei.

There are fifty states in the United States. the Republic of China, the United Kingdom

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13. 在街道名稱street, avenue, road, boulevard前不可加the。

Fifth Avenue is a famous street in New York.

I live on Thomas Street.

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14. 複數名詞前不可加a/an。

I have friends in Canada.

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15. 不可數名詞前不可加a/an。

She drinks orange juice every day.

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16. 不可數名詞除非是特定,否則前面不可加the

Do you often drink milk? Do you like the coffee I made?

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17. 在早上,下午,傍晚前要加the,但是晚上,中午,午夜前不加the。

He always leaves home in the morning and goes home at night.

in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening at noon, at night, at midnight

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18. 在一些go的片語或複合字,名詞前面不加the。通常是一些地方你固定去的,比方說家裡,學校,教堂,都會去同一間。

Do you go to church? go to bed, go to class, go to school, go to college, go to jail, go home

改錯練習:

  1. Do you have pen?
  2. I saw dog. Dog ran away.
  3. There is the pen on the table.
  4. Sky is blue.
  5. He is tallest student in my class.
  6. Ford Motor Company was founded by Henry Ford.
  7. Hilton Hotel is on Main Street.
  8. Everly Brothers were a famous musical duet.
  9. Johnsons bought a new car last week.
  10. The biggest ocean in the world is Pacific.
  11. Only a few people have climbed the Mt. Everest.
  12. The capital of the Taiwan is the Taipei.
  13.  I live on the Thomas Street.
  14. I have a friends in Canada.
  15. She drinks an orange juice every day.
  16. Do you often drink the milk?
  17. He always leaves home in the morning and goes home at the night.
  18. Do you go to the church?

答案

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  1. Do you have a pen?
  2. I saw a dog. The dog ran away.
  3. There is a pen on the table.
  4. The sky is blue.
  5. He is the tallest student in my class.
  6. The Ford Motor Company was founded by Henry Ford.
  7. The Hilton Hotel is on Main Street.
  8. The Everly Brothers were a famous musical duet.
  9. The Johnsons bought a new car last week.
  10. The biggest ocean in the world is the Pacific.
  11. Only a few people have climbed Mt. Everest.
  12. The capital of Taiwan is Taipei.
  13. I live on Thomas Street.
  14. I have friends in Canada.
  15. She drinks orange juice every day.
  16. Do you often drink milk?
  17. He always leaves home in the morning and goes home at night.
  18. Do you go to church?