形容詞子句 Adjective Clause

形容詞子句 Adjective Clause 又叫做關係子句 Relative Clause 是令很多人頭大的部分,因為主格,受格,所有格的關係代名詞不同,有時候可以省略,而且還有很愛到處即興演出的that出沒,所以很容易令人混淆。潔西盡量寫得簡潔清楚,大家參考一下,希望有幫助。

另外今天又花了一下午改講義,這篇前後改過好幾次,起碼十個小時以上,潔西綜合了好幾本書,找出自己覺得比較常用,然後用最近不太好用的大腦想一想整理了一下,今天一改就發現大錯誤,真的是超心虛啊。裡面難免可能會有些錯誤,因為用腦過度,呵呵,請大家見諒跟幫忙校對。感激不盡:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用,  潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血, 並且標明出處。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的練習題來自下面的書,所有版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

刑容詞子句Adjective Clauses 

 

 

開始前先做一下翻譯練習看看自己的觀念對不對

a. 台北是個方便的城市。

b. 羅馬是個吸引很多遊客的城市。

c. 我的好朋友很健談。

d. 我住在美國的好朋友很喜歡談政治。

e. 那個長髮美女是我老婆。

 

A 修飾名詞

如何修飾名詞的方式有下面幾種

a. 形容詞adjective

形容詞可以用來修飾(modify)名詞,修飾的意思就是加以說明,描述,做些許的改變,名詞加了形容詞後意思可能大不相同。形容詞可以放在名詞前面或連綴動詞後面。

May is a happy girl. May is an unhappy girl.

He is late. He became angry.

 

b. 形容詞子句adjective clause

形容詞子句跟形容詞一樣,只可以用來修飾名詞,對於名詞加以描述,或提供一些額外的訊息。當描述的內容無法用一個形容詞,或者包括了動詞時,則可以用形容詞子句來說明,修飾名詞。形容詞子句永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。形容詞子句前面也幾乎一定都是名詞,形容詞子句只可以用來修飾名詞

New York is a city that never sleeps.

Someone who has a lot of friend is lucky.

Rome is a city that attracts a lot of tourists.

 

c. 介系詞片語preposition phrase

介系詞片語就是由介系詞跟名詞結合成的片語,可以用來說明修飾名詞。放在修飾的名詞的後面。

My brother is the man in the white suit.

Sandy is the tall woman with red hair.

Profess Wu is the tall man with a beard.

 

 

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句,也叫做關係子句,是非獨立子句的一種。整個子句當作形容詞,用來修飾名詞或代名詞。形容詞子句是後衛修飾,永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。

一般中文是用前衛修飾,把形容詞放在修飾名詞前面。例如說,我住在美國的姊姊有三個小孩。當修飾內容有動詞時,英文不可以直接把形容堆在名詞前面。所以除了前衛也常用後衛修飾,把形容詞或形容詞子句放到所要形容的名詞或代名詞後面。

The bride must wear something old, something new, something borrowed, and something blue.

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

 

2. 名詞解釋

a. 子句: 是由一組的字所組成,其中包括主詞與動詞,可能為獨立或非獨立子句。

 

b. 獨立子句: 是一個完整的句子,其中包括主要的主詞與動詞,語意完整,可以單獨

存在。可以最為主要子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

 

c. 非獨立子句: 是一個不完整的句子,如名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。由從屬

連接詞,關係代名詞,疑問詞等為首帶領的子句。雖然其中也包括了主詞與動詞,但是語意不完整,需要與獨立子句結合,才能為一個完整的句子。

 

d. 形容詞子句: 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾

一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。形容詞子句也叫做關係子句。

 

e. 關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有who, whom, which, that,跟whose。關係副詞有when與where。

 

f. 先行詞: 形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多

緊接在先行詞後面。

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children. 這個句子中

獨立子句/主要子句:My sister has two children.

非獨立子句/形容詞子句:who lives in the U.S.,用來修飾sister

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:sister

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.3

B. 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

g. 限定性形容詞子句: 用來辨別,限定前面的先行詞所以是必要的,不可省略,子句前後都不可以有逗點。

h. 非限定性形容詞子句: 用來修飾前面的先行詞,給與額外的資訊,所以可以省略,

必須用逗號把它跟主要子句分開。先行詞為專有名詞時多為非限定性形容詞子句。

限定子句:My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.   (我有幾個姊姊其中一個有兩個小孩)

非限定子句:My sister, who lives in the U.S., has two children.  (我只有一個姊姊,她有兩個小孩)

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

第一,注意形容詞子句的位置。應該盡量緊跟著先行詞。先行詞一定是名詞。

第二,選擇正確的關係代名詞。

第三,不要重複關係代名詞與代替的字。

第四,注意形容詞子句中的動詞與主詞須一致。

第五,注意形容詞子句為限定或非限定。標上需要的逗號。

1. 關係代名詞的位置

關係代名詞所帶領的形容詞子句應緊接著先行詞,放在先行詞後面。先行詞一定是名詞,名詞片語或代名詞。

a. 形容詞子句可能在句中也可能在句尾。

I have a friend who speaks five languages.

My friend who lives in Switzerland speaks five languages.

b. 形容詞子句假如沒有緊接著先行詞容易造成誤解。

He left the car on the street that he had just bought.

He left the car that he had just bought on the street. (比較清楚)

c. 形容詞子句有少數不直接跟在先行詞後面。通常是先行詞後有介系詞片語時,為了

語意的完整,會放在介系詞片語的後面,但比較少見。

The first thanksgiving feast in the United States, which took place in 1621

lasted three days.

d. 形容詞子句也可以用來修飾整個句子,這時用which來帶領形容詞子句,一定放在句尾,一定為非限定。

The team won the championship, which shocked the opponents.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.4

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

2. 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

選擇關係代名詞。形容詞子句常為兩個句子的結合。關係代名詞應使用主格、所有格或受格是依形容詞子句中與先行詞重複的部分在形容詞子句的位置來決定。可將主要子句與形容詞子句分為兩個句子來看,找出重複的部分。

a. 主格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister has two children.

My sister who has two children lives in Canada.

b. 受格

My sister lives in Canada. You talked to my sister last night.

My sister whom you talked to last night lives in Canada.

c. 所有格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister’s children are doctors.

My sister whose children are doctors lives in Canada.

關係代名詞種類

關係代名詞 :人    who, whom, whose, that 事,物  which, whose, that

關係副詞:    時間  when                   地方       where

主詞(主格) 受詞(受格) 介係詞+受詞 形容詞

(所有格)

限定 who

that

whom

who

that

X

whom…to

who…to

that… to

X…  to

to whom

whose
事,物 which

that

which

that

X

which …to

that…  to

X…   to

to which

whose
非限定 , who , whom , whom …to , whose
事,物  , which , which , which… to , whose

上面粗體字為正式用法,寫作時多用正式用法, X 表示省略

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.5

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

2. 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

  1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.
  2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.
  3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.
  4. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.
  5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.
  6. I like the people with _______ I work.
  7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.
  8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.
  9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.
  10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.
  11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.
  12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.
  13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

3. 不要重複關係代名詞與代表的主詞,受詞或所有格

關係代名詞帶領的形容詞子句中因為關係代名詞就代表了原句子中的主詞,受詞,或所有格,所以切記不要再重複這些字。

Scott is someone who he loves sports.

Scott is someone who loves sports.

Scott is the man whose his dog barks all day.

Scott is the man whose dog barks all day.

Scott is the writer whom I saw him on TV.

Scott is the writer whom I saw on TV.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.6

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

4. 形容詞子句中的動詞與主詞一致

形容詞子句中的動詞必須跟形容詞子句中的主詞一致,按主動詞一致原則,所以必須依主詞不同來作動詞的變化。

a. 當關係代名詞是主格時,依先行詞做變化

Ben is my friend who lives in Boston.

Al and Ed are my friends who live in Boston.

b. 當關係代名詞是所有格時,依所有格+名詞,就是形容詞子句中的主詞做變化。

He’s the man whose dog barks all day.

He’s the man whose dogs bark all day.

c. 當關係代名詞是受格時,依形容詞子句中的主詞而變化。

I like the columns which he writes.

I like the column which they write.

填入正確的關係代名詞跟動詞

  1. People _________ __________ (have) moved a lot have few friends.
  2. People _________ __________ (have) lived in the same place have more friends.
  3. The qualities ________ ________ (be) most important in a friend are loyalty, warmth, and the ability to keep secrets.
  4. Someone _________ ________ (face) a crisis turns to friends before family.
  5. Betrayal is the cause ___________ ____________ (be) most often response for ending a friendship.
  6. Many people have friends __________ social or religious backgrounds _________ (be) different from theirs.
  7. Most people __________ friends __________ (include) members of the opposite sex say that these relationships are different from relationships with people of the same sex.
  8. A survey _______ ____________ (appear) in a magazine may not represent everyone.
  9. Someone ________ ___________ (not read) the magazine might have other ideas.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin P.7

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

5. 限定與非限定形容詞子句

a. 限定子句 Restrictive(Identifying) Clause

用來定義或辨認(identify)先行詞,缺少這個限定子句時語義會不清楚,所以限定子句不可省略,不可使用逗號。that 只可以用在限定子句。

Every culture in the world has special days that people observe with traditional food, customs, and events.

b. 非限定子句 Nonrestrictive (Non-identifying) Clause

用來給予先行詞額外的補充資訊,非限定子句可以省略,所以非限定形容詞子句一定要用逗號將主要子句分隔開來。人名或專有名詞為先形詞時,後面幾乎都用非限定子句。

My favorite holiday is Moon Festival, which is on August 15 of the lunar calendar.

結合下面的句子,注意在非限定子句時要用逗號。關係代名詞可以省略的情況下就省略

  1. I bought a cell phone. I can use it to send and receive e-mail.

_______________________________________________________

  1. My new cell phone has become a necessary part of life. I only bought it a month ago.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Now, there are psychologists. They help technophobes use technology.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Michelle Weil wrote a book about “technostress.” She is a psychologist.

_______________________________________________________

  1. A lot of people suffer from technostress. Those people work in my office.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Some people dream of a job. They can do the job without technology.

_______________________________________________________

依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號

  1. (that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.

8.(who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often need a babysitter.

  1. (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
  2. (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
  3. (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
  4. ( who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.

 

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.8

D. 關係代名詞的受格的位置

關係代名詞的受格可作為介係詞的受詞。最正式的用法將介係詞放在關係代名詞前 (此時只可用whom代表人,which代表事物,不可以用who、that也不可以省略),非正式時將介係詞放在句尾,關係代名詞可省略。

The candidate for whom I voted lost the election.          Formal

The candidate whom I voted for lost the election.

The candidate who I voted for lost the election.

The candidate that I voted for lost the election.

The candidate I voted for lost the election.              Informal

F. 關係代名詞的省略

在口語中常常會省可省略某些關係代名詞。

  1. 可以省略的:限定子句中的受格與when。

That’s the man (whom) I love.

I remember the day (when) I met him.

  1. 不可省略的:非限定子句中的所有關係代名詞,限定子句中的主格、所有格與where。

I remember Max, who I visited often.

He is my friend who lives in New York.

That’s the writer whose books I like very much.

That’s the school where I work.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses   Jessie Lin   P.9

G. 關係副詞where

where跟when皆為關係副詞,可用來帶領形容詞子句,分別表地點與時間。兩者皆可用在限定或非限定子句。

where

當要表示在某個地點(城市,國家,房間)時,常會用方位介系詞 in,on, at 等加上地點來表示。比方說I am at home. My father is in his office.  The book is on the table.

關係副詞where的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達地點時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用where來代替。所以where 可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。

所以假如要表達這就是她工作的那間圖書館,可以用下面的表達方式

可以想做是That’s is the library. 與 She works in the library. 這兩個句子的合併。

That’s the library which she works in.  重複的是受詞的library,可以用which代替。

That’s the library in which she works.  正式用法可以把介系詞in放到which前面。

That’s the library where she works.   在這裡可以用 where 取代 in which。

That’s the library that she works in.  在這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同。

That’s the library she works in.  受詞的that 跟which都可以省,所以這裡只剩下in。

因為where相當於“介系詞 + which ”,所以並不是所有地點都可以用where代替。當形容詞子句的地點是主格時,不會有介系詞,就只能用which,不可以用where。形容詞子句中一定要有介系詞加上受格which時,才可以用where代替。常見錯誤是誤用where來取代主格的which。

例如要合併下列兩個句子有兩種方式:

I was born and grew up in Taipei. (1)        Taipei is the capital of Taiwan. (2)

第一種合併方式,用第一句當主要子句,因為第二句的形容詞子句的Taipei是主格,所以並沒有介系詞,只有地點,所以不能用where,只能用which來帶領形容詞子句。

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

第二種合併方式,用第二個句子當主要子句,因為第一個句子中有in Taipei,所以可以用where來帶領形容詞字句。又有逗點時不可以用in which,只可以用where。

Taipei, which I was born and grew up in, is the capital of Taiwan.

Taipei, where I was born and grew up, is the capital city of Taiwan.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses Jessie Lin   P.10

H. 關係副詞when

when

當要表示在某個時間(年,日,時間等)時,常會用時間介系詞 at, in, on 等加上時間來表示。

比方說I get up at 8.  He graduate in June.  We met on my birthday.

關係副詞when的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達時間時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用when來代替。所以when可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。除了將介系詞放在which前外,其他用法時介系詞都會省略掉。

所以假如要表達這就是我記得我遇到他的那一天,可以用下面的表達方式

可以想做是 I remember the day. 與 I met him on that day. 這兩個句子的合併。

I remember the day. I met him on that day.

I remember the day which I met him (on). 重複的是受詞day,可用which代替,on可以省略

I remember the day on which I met him. 正式用法可以把介系詞on放到which前,不可省。

I remember the day when I met him. 這裡可以用 when 取代 on which。

I remember the day that I met him (on).  這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同,on可省

I remember the day I met him (on).  受詞的that 跟which都可以省略,on也可以省略。

因為when相當於“介系詞 + which ”,所以並不是所有時間都可以用when代替。當形容詞子句的地點是主格時,不會有介系詞,就只能用which,不可以用when。形容詞子句中一定要有介系詞加上受格which時,才可以用when代替。

例如要合併下列兩個句子有兩種方式:

People go back to work on Monday. (1)   The most stressful day of the week is Monday. (2)

第一種合併方式,用第一句當主要子句,因為第二句的形容詞子句的Monday是補語,並沒有介系詞,只有時間,所以不能用when,只能用which來帶領形容詞子句。

People go back to work on Monday, which is the most stressful day of the week.

第二種合併方式,用第二個句子當主要子句,因為第一個句子中有on Monday,所以可以用when來帶領形容詞字句。又有逗點時不可以用on which,只可以用when。

The most stressful day of the week is Monday, which people go back to work (on).

The most stressful day of the week is Monday, when people go back to work.

基礎文法L10 第十二章 形容詞子句Adjective Clauses Jessie Lin   P.11

練習題答案Answer key

A. 形容詞與形容詞子句

1. 翻譯練習

a. Taipei is a convenient city.

b. Rome is a city that attracts a lot of tourists.

c. My best friend is talkative.

d. My best friends who lives in the U.S. likes to talk politics.

e. The beautiful woman with long hair is my wife.

C. 學習形容詞子句的重點

2.

1. who/that 2. that/which/x 3. who/that 4. whose 5. whom/who/that/x

6. whom 7. whose 8. that/which/x 9. who/that 10. that/which

11. whose 12. whom 13. that/which/x

4. 形容詞子句中的動詞

1. who(that), have   2. who(that), have 3. that(which), are 4. who(that), faces

5. that(which), is 6. whose, are 7. whose, include 8. that(which), appears/appeared/has appeared 9. who(that), doesn’t read/hasn’t read

5. 限定與非限定形容詞子句

1. I bought a cell phone I can use to send and receive e-mail.

2. My new cell phone, which I bought a month ago, has become a necessary part of

life.

3. Now, there are psychologists who(that) help technophobes use technology.

4. Dr. Michelle Weil, who is a psychologist, wrote a book about “technostress.”

5. A lot of people who work in my office suffer from technostress.

6. Some people dream of a job they can do without technology.

7. This car is a lot cheaper than the one that Claire drives.

8. Olivia, who has twins, often needs a babysitter.

9. The person who took Rita to the party was Tom.

10. Henry, who has a bad temper, shouted at the waiter.

11. The team which Tom supported is United.

12. We all climbed up except Vicky, who is afraid of heights.