【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 101 假設語氣 第二條件句 If I had

臉書的回顧就是告訴潔西自己有多迷糊,兩年前的今天去醫院做檢查的時候把錢包掉在櫃檯,做檢查前發現皮包不見了,不確定掉在哪 ,檢驗人員問潔西說要不要先去找皮包,潔西還很悠哉的說沒關係,檢查完後才去找,還好有被人撿到被收起來了,所以有找回來。當天下午,隔了五個小時後又把皮包跟手機忘在洗手間,然後還好有想起來衝去拿的時候還在。

其實前幾天去星巴克上洗手間的時候也把手機忘在洗手間,還好想起來的時候衝回去還在,最近真的很忙,狀況也沒有很好。這兩天一直肚子痛,吃太多了嗎?其實吃得跟平常差不多,也沒多吃,但是呢就一直消化不良肚子痛,現在也還是肚子痛,剛剛找到腸胃藥吃了一下,希望會好一點。

身體很差的潔西啊,不能太忙。但是呢又很愛給自己找事做。先前跟同學聊到說學日文的事,學生建議可以上網找老師,所以潔西上網找了一下,不少網站,看得頭好暈,其中看到一個網站有各種語言可以任選,有各種老師,其中一個日文老師,日本人要教英文,但是自我介紹的英文就有錯誤了。看到那,潔西覺得我還是找補習班面對面上課好了,師資比較有一定保證吧?

然後突然想到重點,我學日文要做什麼?老實說,根本用不到 。去日本玩是不需要日文也可以玩得很開心的。昨天睡覺前想了一下,以前都是說為了想看村上春樹的小說,但是呢近年也沒有這麼想看了。能看當然最好,但是不能看也沒有太大的損失。新的目標說出來應該會被日文老師笑。

先前也說過,我最近喜歡的是日本已經解散的團體 SMAP,去年十月看木村拓哉的東京大飯店,覺得他超帥的。木村拓哉的日劇看了也不少,去年看了之後開始想看他的更多相關的節目,去B站的時候不小心看到 SMAPxSMAP,是 SMAP 的冠名節目,做菜給來賓吃,跟來賓閒聊,可以看到團員們的另外一面。在這種綜藝節目看到的團員們跟日劇或電影裡面的非常不一樣,多少當然還是可能有演,但是呢是比較相對真實的一面,每個人的個性一覽無遺。

看著看著,原本最喜歡的是木村拓哉,不知不覺中最喜歡的變成是最天然的五歲兒草彅剛,有一些整他的影片我實在不太忍心看,脾氣應該算是最好的,所以也最容易被整,應該是被天然的這部分吸引吧,感覺是比較沒心機的那種人。一下突然想不起來,不過有看過一些訪談中都讓我蠻感動的,這個人的個性我是喜歡的。不過很可惜的人真的要非常注意,尤其是公眾人物,一失足成千古恨,現在我去查 Google,最先出現的還是他很多年前喝醉酒裸奔的新聞。

原本看到他們解散的成因之一是香取慎吾的時候真的很生氣,有一陣子覺得他很討厭,但是呢他太可愛了,很難讓人討厭,再加上他是草彅剛的大親友,所以呢也跟著一起喜歡了。居然在羅浮宮辦過特展,超帥的。然後呢剛退社的中居正廣當主持的功力,所做的努力,另外個人的魅力真的是擋不住。最慢喜歡上的是喜歡紅酒的紳士稻吾郎。看了好多他們的節目,看到連歌都喜歡了。剛開始遇到唱歌的部分都跳掉,最近已經開始聽他們的歌了,哈哈。心情不好看看他們的節目,總是會把心情多少拉回來一下。

雖然解散了,有一陣子很感概,為什麼我要喜歡上一個已經解散的團體啊,超慘的。不過呢,人就是這樣,天下沒有不散的宴席,總之都是要前進的,分開後他們每個人可以做不同自己喜歡的事也很好,還是繼續支持。他們每個人各自有各自的活動,新的地圖的三個人每個月都有節目 ,草彅剛今年的 YouTube 終於破百萬人了,經常在 Twitter 發一下爆笑的療癒影片,做自己很好啊,就是個怪人也無妨。昨天聽草彅剛跟香取慎吾的廣播,只能聽懂一半左右,覺得痛苦。真的想學好日文的動機大概就是聽得懂他們究竟在說什麼,看節目沒有中文字幕的時候也能明白那就太好了。

一大把年紀了還喜歡偶像喔?不行嗎?有規定年輕人才可以喜歡偶像嗎?很療癒的,有偶像可以喜歡是幸福的事。有些人覺得年紀一大把還為了偶像出國看演唱會之類的也太瘋狂之類的言論有聽過,也有人用很不以為是的眼光看待談論。每個人都有自己的自由,做想做喜歡做的事,沒有妨礙到別人的話,其他人都無權去批評的。喜歡偶像跟喜歡喝酒還是喜歡上夜店喜歡打電動都是差不多的事吧?自己的生命自己的錢自己的時間要怎麼運用都是個人自由,開心就好,人生苦短啊!

所以為了要看懂偶像的綜藝節目聽懂他們的廣播的潔西今天去報名日文課了。去年去上過的那個補習班。因為新冠肺炎,做大特價,到五月底前,潔西當場就付錢了。吃到飽的課程,不過呢因為做活動所以學生很多,所以呢課可能會是看得到選不到,今天付錢時有被警告了,但是實在太便宜了,剛好我六月又比較有空所以還是跟他賭一把。但是呢課真的超難選,下個星期的課表,潔西下午一點看得時候課表還沒出來,四點看得時候下星期一到五的課出來了,但是馬上被選得差不多了,只有搶到一堂課是我的時候可以配合的。真的很誇張,然後其他馬上也就沒了,差不多都被選光了。現在課就是一個幾乎全滿的狀態。一個星期可以搶到一堂的話也不錯,這星期的課下午在選的時候還蠻好運的,有選到三個時間,不過並不是我最想上的,但是呢選到課就偷笑了。因為是一個便宜到誇張的價格所以是不能抱怨的。

腸胃藥不錯,日本的,現在肚子不痛了,洗個澡睡覺去,明天再來介紹七月想開的會話課程的說明。大家保重,夏天到了,又是過敏,又是肚子痛,每次換季整個人就像在打戰一樣,繼續奮戰中。晚安!

條件句最好從零條件句開始一個一個看比較建議。

第二條件句講解

翻譯練習

2: 跟現在事實相反的假設,假的

if      past ———— now (x) ————— future             if + S + V2,

結果  past ———— now (x) ————— future                   S + would + V0

If + S + V2, S + would + V0         If + 過去簡單式,S + would + 動詞原型.

A if 子句用過去簡單式,主要子句用主詞加 would 加動詞原型,用在談論與現在的事實不符或相反的假設條件下,可能是非真實的 unreal,或是假的 untrue,想像的 imagined,或不可能的 impossible 的條件下與他們的結果。

1 If I loved him, I would marry him. (But I don’t love him, so I won’t marry him.)

1 假如我愛他的話,我就會嫁給他。(但是我不愛他,所以我不會嫁給他)

2 If I had more time, I would travel. ( But I don’t have time, so I don’t travel.)

2 假如我有更多時間的話,我就會旅遊。(但是我沒有時間,所以我不會旅遊。)

3 If I told you, I’d have to kill you.  假如我告訴你的話,我就必須要殺了你。

4 If a bear attacked me, I’d run away.  假如一隻熊攻擊我的話,我就會逃走。

5 I would live in the country if I didn’t have any children.  假如我沒有小孩的話,我就會住在鄉下。

B if 子句雖然用的是過去簡單式,但沒有過去的意思,指的是與現在事實相反。

6 If I had a lot of money now, I would take a trip around the world.  假如我現在有很多錢,我就會環遊世界。

7 If it were sunny now, I would go to the beach with you.  假如現在出大太陽的話,我就會跟你去海邊。

C if 子句不可以用 would,would 用在主要子句。

8 If she knew the answer, she would tell you.  假如她知道答案的話,她就會跟你說。

8 If she would knew the answer, she would tell you. (X)

D 主要子句也可以用 could 或 might。

9 If we had a calculator, we could work this out a lot quicker.  假如我們有一台計算機的話,我們會更快的算出答案。

10  If Rachel worked harder, she might do even better at her studies.  假如 Rachel 更努力的話,她可能會把書唸得更好。

E 第二條件句表達跟現在事實相反的假設時,當 if 子句的動詞是 be 動詞時,有些文法書上寫說不論人稱,通通用 were。在非正式談話中, I, he, she, it 或任何第三人稱單數的名詞當主詞時,可以用 was 。有些書則是說 I, he, she, it 或任何第三人稱單數的名詞當主詞時,if 子句中的 be 動詞用 was 或 were 都可以。

11 If I were rich, I would travel around the world.  假如我很有錢的話,我會環遊全世界。

11 If I was rich, I would travel around the world.  假如我很有錢的話,我會環遊全世界。

12 Sally would answer the phone if she were in her office right now.  Sally 假如現在在辦公室的話,她就會接電話。

12 Sally would answer the phone if she was in her office right now.  Sally 假如現在在辦公室的話,她就會接電話。

13 If I were you, I would tell the truth.  假如我是你的話,我會說實話。

14 If I were a bird, I could fly.  假如我是鳥的話,我就能飛。

F 第一條件句與第二條件句的比較

第一條件句表示這個條件,這個狀況有可能,但也可能不會發生。

第二條件句表示這個條件是非真實的,是假的,是不會發生的。

15 If I have time, I will help you.  假如我有時間的話我會幫你。(我可能有時間,可能沒有)

16 If I had time, I would help you. 假如我有時候的話我會幫你。(我現在沒時間,我不能幫你)

17 If we take the car, we’ll have to pay for parking.  假如我們開車的話,我們會必須付停車費。(我們可能開車,可能不開車)

18 If we took the car, we’d have to pay for parking. 假如我們開車的話,我們會必須付停車費。(我沒沒有開車,所以我沒也不需要付停車費)

翻譯練習

1 假如這間輛車子大一點的話我就會買它。

2 假如我有車的話,我就不用搭捷運。

3 假如我們的兒子住得近一點的話,我們會更常見他。

4 假如我是你的話,我不會那麼做。

5 假如 Sam 沒有住在公寓的話,他會養狗。

6 假如我做運動的話,我會更健康。

翻譯練習 答案

.

.

.

.

.

1 假如這輛車子大一點的話我就會買它。

1 If the car were bigger, I would buy it.

1 If the car was bigger, I would buy it.

2 假如我有車的話,我就不用搭捷運。

2 If I had a car, I wouldn’t have to take the MRT.

3 假如我們的兒子住得近一點的話,我們會更常見他。

3 If our son lived closer to us, we would see him more often. 

4 假如我是你的話,我不會那麼做。

4 If I were you, I wouldn’t do that.

4 If I was you, I wouldn’t do that.

5 假如 Sam 沒有住在公寓的話,他會養狗。

5 If Sam didn’t live in an apartment, he would have a dog.

6 假如我做運動的話,我會更健康。

6 I did exercise, I would be healthier.

If I had …, I would buy ….

If I had money, I would buy you.

【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 100 假設語氣 第一條件句 If we go

Rain rain go away, come again another day!

雨啊雨啊走開啦,改天再來啦!

這應該是大家的心聲吧。雨下了這麼多天,再下下去都要發霉了。潔西不能去散步,晚一點又要去逛百貨公司了,上星期不小心搭手扶梯搭到地下一樓的時候,順便逛了起來,然後就發現,啊,有個潔西想買的洗髮精。聲稱可以防止亂翹的,潔西的短髮長長之後,突然發現,啊,自然捲有點小嚴重。長髮看不太出來,短髮的話會亂翹,而且有時候會很有弧度翹得很好看,大部分都是不安分的亂七八糟翹。現在這個長度是要讓它留更長一點再來剪會比較好,所以每天抗戰,或者是放棄,委屈路人甲乙跟學生的眼睛。

aromatherapy 芳香療法,大家不知道有沒有聽過,其實潔西覺得也不用那麼講究,潔西自己再買沐浴用品的時候儘量找一些有含精油的,比方說洗髮精是山茶花的,很香,不過很難起泡,潤髮乳是玫瑰香味的。沐浴乳是薰衣草,還有柑橘的,還有玫瑰的香皂。所以呢洗得香噴噴的時候心情就自然好了,哈哈。

前天去看醫生,非常不開心,這個心理醫生我真的已經是非常不喜歡了,不過呢方便。其實很不方便,非常的遙遠,總之呢,潔西今年分別被疼痛科,家醫科,婦產科,乳房外科的醫生說你要回去看精神科的醫生,因為潔西有躁鬱症,去年底停藥了,再加上最近過得真的很不好,所以就回去看醫生。醫生感覺跟我的感覺是 mutual 共同的,他也很不喜歡我,一點都沒有掩飾。總之呢,原本說一定要吃的鋁鹽 lithium 也不用吃了,推薦目前據說是對於躁鬱症鬱期最有效的兩種藥,一個是我剛再重新開始吃的樂途達 Latuda ,一個是樂命達 Lamictal 我會過敏起藥疹。

醫生原本說吃半顆,後來開藥的時候開一顆,其實呢應該是要我從半顆開始?然後慢慢吃成一顆?總之是老病患他也懶得說了?然後藥袋上說是睡前吃,醫生說,白天吃也沒關係,不會想睡的。才怪。聽了醫生的話,第一天看完醫生的下午吃了一顆,吃完之後吃了晚飯之後開始超想睡,而且全身超級不舒服。剛好不巧又跟老姐與大寶出去,整個人說不出來的不舒服,沒有特定哪裡不舒服,但是呢就是整個人不對勁,一直忍耐一直忍耐到蠻晚才回到家上床的時候終於鬆了一口氣,第一次跟家人出去玩得這麼辛苦。心中一直偷罵醫生騙潔西。

昨天晚上吃第二顆,一顆,因為第一天就吃一顆了,第二天再吃半顆也很奇怪。然後早上起不大來,其他目前為止都還好。心情有比較穩定嗎?老實說,憤世忌俗的成分真的有減少了,最好藥這麼誇張的有效,潔西對於藥物反應通常到谷底的時候反應都很良好,希望這個藥能夠繼續吃下去吧。儘管沒有喜歡醫生,但是還是相信他的專業,假如他說這個要是現階段最好的藥,副作用也最少,那應該就是對潔西最有幫助的吧?繼續加油,我要很努力。改天再來說這些日子的心聲。

備課去了。每天做一隻影片也是因為真的還有很多事要做,正職,也就是家教跟基礎文法班要先顧好,另外想在七八九月開基礎會話班,還在籌備中,敬請期待。下一期的基礎文法班何時會開呢?預估十月吧?但是呢都是計劃中,有詳細時間表後會再公告,開放報名。先這樣囉。備課去!

Have a good day! 

 

講解影片

 

 

翻譯練習影片

 

講義內容

第一條件句 First Conditional 

1: 未來有可能會發生的事實,真的

 

if      past ———— now ——x—— future             if + S + V1,

結果  past ———— now ——x—— future                   S + will + V0 

 

If + S + V1, S + will + V0.      If + 現在簡單式,未來.

 

A if 子句用現在簡單式,主要子句用未來,用在談論在某種特定條件下,在未來會發生的事。

If 副詞子句會用現在簡單式來代替未來

1 If it rains tomorrow, the concert will be canceled.  假如明天下雨的話,演唱會將會被取消。

2 If we hurry, we’ll catch the bus.  假如我們快一點的話,我們就能趕上公車。

3 If it doesn’t rain, we’ll have a picnic.  假如不下雨的話,我們會去野餐。

 

假如 if 子句在前面,需要用逗號跟主要子句分開

4 If I want to be on time, I will have to leave early. 假如我想要準時的話,我將必須提早離開。

假如主要子句在前面,if 子句在句子中間則不需逗號,因為 if 明顯地告知另外一個子句的出現

4 I will have to leave early if I want to be on time.  我將必須提早離開,假如我想要準時的話。

 

C 第一條件句可以用來提供協助與建議,主要子句可以用情態助動詞

5 If you need a ticket, I can get you one.  假如你需要一張票的話,我可以幫你弄到一張。

6 If you feel like seeing the sights, we can take a bus tour.  假如你想要看景色的話,我們可以參加巴士旅遊。

 

D 第一條件句可以用來警告與威脅

7 If you go on like this, you’ll make yourself ill.  假如你繼續這樣的話,你會讓自己生病。

8 If you don’t apologize, I’ll never speak to you again.  假如你不道歉的話,我永遠都不會再跟你說話。

 

E if 跟 when

if 的話是用來表示假設某個條件可能會發生的狀況,比較不確定。

9 If it is sunny tomorrow, I’ll go swimming.  假如明天好天氣,我將會去游泳。

10 If I take the bus, I might be late.  假如我搭公車的話,我可能會遲到。

when 的話是表示當某個狀況發生的時候,會去做某事,是確定的

 

11 When it stops raining, I’ll go swimming.  當雨停的時候,我將會去游泳。

12 When I go shopping tonight, I’ll buy some milk.  當我今天晚上去逛街時,我將會買一些牛奶。

 

翻譯練習

1 假如你靠近那隻狗,它會咬你。

2 假如我們錯過公車,會有另外一台。

3 假如我有空,我就會幫你。

4 假如下雨的話,我們就會待在家裡。

5 假如明天天氣好的話,我們就會去動物園。

6 假如我有足夠的錢,我就會跟你去。

翻譯練習 答案

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1 假如你靠近那隻狗,它會咬你。

1 If you go near the dog, it’ll bite you. 

1 The dog will bite you if you go near it.  

 

2 假如我們錯過公車,會有另外一台。

2 If we miss the bus, there will be another one.

 

3 假如我有空,我就會幫你。

3 If I have free time, I’ll help you. 

 

4 假如下雨的話,我們就會待在家裡。

4 If it rains, we’ll stay (at) home. 

 

5 假如明天天氣好的話,我們就會去動物園。

5 If the weather is nice, we’ll go to the zoo. 

 

6 假如我有足夠的錢,我就會跟你去。

6 If I have enough money, I’ll go with you. 

If I don’t eat breakfast, I feel hungry. 

【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 100 假設語氣 零條件句 Zero Conditional

上課的時候教到現在完成式,用 I’ve taught English for 20 years. 我教英文二十年了的例子。學生問說只是舉例吧?不是真的吧?潔西說是真的啊。學生一臉驚訝說怎麼可能?是事實啊,潔西說。不然你以為我幾歲?問了學生。他說 I think you’re 23. 我覺得你二十三歲,啊,潔西笑到嘴巴都合不攏。馬上跟學生說 I love you!


大家一定想說潔西你居然吃這套,想也知道學生是故意哄你開心的。而且才 23歲,也太誇張,騙太大了吧?但是學生是很認真的表情,重點來了:他今年才八歲,所以他應該是分辨不太出來大人的年齡,不是故意說給潔西開心的啦。哈哈哈,潔西當然也不可能隨便跟大人說 I love you. 的啦!


潔西不是不教小孩的嗎?真的是只教成人,但是很偶爾也是有例外。學生因為年紀很小,中英文一起學,所以呢弄混淆的時候真的很好笑,超可愛的。潔西請他帶筆記,他跟潔西有得拼,四個星期過去了,每星期都忘記帶,那天跟潔西說 Because I’ve got a whale brain. 因為我有鯨魚腦。潔西當場笑到肚子痛。原本以為他是開玩笑的,很多冷笑話的學生,但是後來才發現,他是真的弄錯了喔。所以教英文還要一起教中文。不是鯨魚腦,應該是金魚腦喔,鯨魚ㄐㄧㄥㄩˊ跟金魚ㄐㄧㄣㄩˊ,大家分的清楚嗎?You’ve got a goldfish brain, not a whale brain. 你有金魚腦,不是鯨魚腦。應該是聽到大人,可能像潔西這樣發音發不清楚的,聽錯了,所以就弄錯了。

上課的時候教到現在完成式,用 I’ve taught English for 20 years. 我教英文二十年了的例子。學生問說只是舉例吧?不是真的吧?潔西說是真的啊。學生一臉驚訝說怎麼可能?是事實啊,潔西說。不然你以為我幾歲?問了學生。他說 I think you’re 23. 我覺得你二十三歲,啊,潔西笑到嘴巴都合不攏。馬上跟學生說 I love you!
大家一定想說潔西你居然吃這套,想也知道學生是故意哄你開心的。而且才 23歲,也太誇張,騙太大了吧?但是學生是很認真的表情,重點來了:他今年才八歲,所以他應該是分辨不太出來大人的年齡,不是故意說給潔西開心的啦。哈哈哈,潔西當然也不可能隨便跟大人說 I love you. 的啦!
潔西不是不教小孩的嗎?真的是只教成人,但是很偶爾也是有例外。學生因為年紀很小,中英文一起學,所以呢弄混淆的時候真的很好笑,超可愛的。潔西請他帶筆記,他跟潔西有得拼,四個星期過去了,每星期都忘記帶,那天跟潔西說 Because I’ve got a whale brain. 因為我有鯨魚腦。潔西當場笑到肚子痛。原本以為他是開玩笑的,很多冷笑話的學生,但是後來才發現,他是真的弄錯了喔。所以教英文還要一起教中文。不是鯨魚腦,應該是金魚腦喔,鯨魚ㄐㄧㄥㄩˊ跟金魚ㄐㄧㄣㄩˊ,大家分的清楚嗎?You’ve got a goldfish brain, not a whale brain. 你有金魚腦,不是鯨魚腦。應該是聽到大人,可能像潔西這樣發音發不清楚的,聽錯了,所以就弄錯了。

先前上課的時候舉了我教英文二十年的例子,現在完成式的句子 I’ve taught English for 20 years. 學生說怎麼可能?是事實啊,潔西說。不然你以為我幾歲?問了學生。他說 I think you’re 23. 我覺得你二十三歲,啊,潔西笑到嘴巴都合不攏。馬上跟學生說 I love you!

大家一定想說潔西你居然吃這套,想也知道學生故意哄你開心的。而且才 23歲,也太誇張,騙太大了吧?但是學生是很認真的表情,最主要是他今年才八歲,所以他應該是分辨不太出來年齡,不是故意說給潔西開心的啦。哈哈哈,

潔西不是不教小孩的嗎?真的是只教成人,但是很偶爾也是有例外。學生因為年紀很小,中英文一起學,所以呢弄混淆的時候真的很好笑,超可愛的。潔西請他帶筆記,他跟潔西有得拼,四個星期過去了,每星期都忘記帶,那天跟潔西說 Because I’ve got a whale brain.  因為我有鯨魚腦。潔西當場笑到肚子痛。原本以為他是開玩笑的,很多冷笑話的學生,但是後來才發現,他真的弄錯了。所以教英文還要一起教中文。不是鯨魚腦,是金魚腦喔,ㄐㄧㄥㄩˊ跟ㄐㄧㄣㄩˊ,大家分的清楚嗎?You’ve got a goldfish brain, not a whale brain. 你有金魚腦,不是鯨魚腦。

上課能上的很開心的時候都覺得特別幸福,做自己喜歡的是還有錢賺,這麼幸運的人不多吧?,開心的時後學習效果會特別好喔,學的不開心的話真的學過就忘了。先前有學生這麼說過的,雖然很開心但是其實句型也有記住的,那就真的太好了。

今天要說的假設語氣也就是條件句,說難其實沒有很難,但是呢有點小複雜,最主要是必須弄清楚什麼時候該用什麼時態,每本文法書的名稱說法不同,但是講的是同一件事,潔西這邊講解時會用零條件句,第一條件句,第二條件句,第三條件句,分四支影片講解。混合條件句要不要說啊?考慮中。先簡單地分開講解。

一直錄不好,第一隻影片錄失敗十八次,有幾隻影片都錄到最後了,發現錯誤,或者發現例子應該用更簡單的或者是調整順序,明明六分鐘的影片。

然後隨便摸一摸一天又過了,啊!晚安晚安,明天再來錄第一條件句。週末就到了喔!Have a good weekend! 週末愉快!

零條件句講解影片

翻譯練習影片

0:  現在的習慣,真的,可能發生的,慣性的                                                                    

if      past —x—x—x— now —x—x—x— future     if + S + V1

結果  past —x—x—x— now —x—x—x— future           S + V1

If + S + V1, S + V1.      If + 現在簡單式,現在簡單式.

A if 子句用現在簡單式,主要子句也用現在簡單式。用在當一件事總是跟隨著另外一件事發生時。

也可以用來表達一般真理或科學的事實。

1 If you press this switch, the computer comes on. 假如你按這個開關,電腦會開始運作。

2 If It’s 12:00 A.M. in New York , it’s 12:00 P.M. in Taipei. 假如現在紐約是半夜十二點,台北市是中午十二點。

3 If you heat water, it boils. 假如你熱水的話,水會沸騰。

4 If Daniel has any money, he spends it.  假如 Daniel 有錢的話,他把錢花掉。

5 If my mom goes out, the dog barks.  假如我媽媽出去,狗狗會叫。

B 可以把主要子句放在前面,這時候句子就不需逗號,因為 if 明顯地告知另外一個子句的出現。

6 If Bill flies, he always orders a special meal. 假如 Bill 搭飛機的話,他總是訂一個特別餐點。

6 Bill always orders a special if he flies.  Bill 總是訂一個特別餐點假如他搭飛機的話。

7 If the weather is fine, I go hiking.  假如天氣好的話,我去健行。           

7 I go hiking if the weather is fine. 我去健行假如天氣好的話。

翻譯練習 答案 

1 假如你丟了你的信用卡,你必須要打電話給銀行。

2 假如你得到升遷 (get promoted),你的薪水會增加 (go up)。

3 假如你晚上很晚喝咖啡,你會睡不著。

4 假如有人進入建築物,警鈴(alarm)會響起 (go off)

5 假如人們長途旅遊 (travel a long distance),他們常會有時差 (jet lag)。

6 假如我不吃早餐,我上課時總是感到飢餓。

翻譯練習 答案 

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1 假如你丟了你的信用卡,你必須要打電話給銀行。

1 If you lose your credit card, you have to call the bank.

1 You have to call the bank if you lose your credit card.

2 假如你得到升遷 (get promoted),你的薪水會增加 (go up)。

2 If you get promoted, your salary goes up.

2 Your salary goes up if you get promoted.

3 假如你晚上很晚喝咖啡,你會睡不著。

3 If you drink coffee late at night, you can’t sleep.

4 假如有人進入建築物,警鈴(alarm)會響起 (go off)

4 If someone enters the building, the alarm goes off. 

5 假如人們長途旅遊 (travel a long distance),他們常會有時差 (jet lag)。

5 If people travel a long distance, they often get/have jet lag.

6 假如我不吃早餐,我上課時總是感到飢餓。

6 If I don’t eat breakfast, I always get/feel hungry during class.

假設語氣第一條件句+潔西碎碎念

“Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery, and today is a gift … that’s why they call it present.”

「昨天已是歷史,明日宛如謎題,而今天是個禮物,那就是為什麼人們叫它是當下。」

 

翻譯很難啊,昨天就過去了,所以就是歷史,不要懷疑,上一秒也是歷史了。明天是個未知的謎題,誰都沒有百分之百的把握會發生什麼事。今天是個禮物,因為你可以自己開創你的人生,英文的 gift 跟 present 都是禮物,但是 present 還有現在的意思。常聽到 live in the present 活在當下,珍惜現在所擁有的一切,這是自己給自己的禮物吧?

 

說了這一堆,其實今天要講的是假設語氣,第一條件句 first conditional ,很多人都說沒聽過第一第二條件句等等。其實名字不重要,重要的是要知道怎麼用。

 

當我們要講有關未來的事的時候,就像上面說的是個謎題,所以呢,可能會發生也可能不會發生。而假設語氣的第一條件句就是用來表示未來的假設,假如怎麼怎麼樣,就會怎麼怎麼樣。常見的是假如下星期六下雨的話,演唱會就會被取消。假如我明天早上還是發燒的話,我就會請假。中文看起來沒什麼特別,但是在英文裡面有個很重要的時態。if 帶領的子句是個副詞子句,要用現在簡單式代替未來式,而主要子句要用未來。

 

If + S + V1, S + will + V1

If it rains next Saturday, the concert will be cancelled.

If I still have a fever tomorrow, I will take a day off.

 

也可以把主要子句放到前面,這時候因為 if 很明顯帶領一個新的子句,所以就不用要逗點。

 

S + will + V1 if + S + V1

The concert will be cancelled if it rains next Saturday.

I will take a day off if I still have a fever tomorrow morning.

 

副詞子句會用現在簡單式代替未來,為什麼?潔西也不知道,這個規則要稍微記一下,不過自己念念句子看看,用未來的話其實會覺得怪怪的,下面有幾個常見的副詞子句的從屬連接詞,比方說 if, when, as soon as, until, before, after 等等。所以用來表未來的時候有上述那些連接詞帶領的副詞子句要用現在簡單式,而主要子句則用未來。

 

下面就是一些從一些書上摘要下來的練習題,做過會更有印象,雖然這不會很難,但是還是有從基礎開始學的人可以參考一下。

剛剛吃飽不小心睡著了,現在也是很想睡啊,哈哈。最近每天都一直做夢,做好多各式各樣的夢,醒來還記得,晚點就忘得差不多了,但是因為一直做夢覺得好像沒有睡到依樣,醒來還是超累的啊。日有所思夜有所夢?同學會,跟朋友出去吃飯,上課,備課,住院,等等。就一直睡,然後就準備上課的東西,其實課很少啊,但就渾渾噩噩,每天都不知道在做什麼。

 

人,越想要成為一個更好的自己時,越難做好任何事。昨天走在路上,開始胡思亂想時,中文,英文,日文,全部跑出來,很好笑。不知道大家是怎麼樣的,開始想的時候是中文,跳到英文去,什麼都想不出來,再轉到日文,因為日文程度不好,能想的說的話有限,只能圍繞在會說的東西說。用日文想的話,就會打不出中文。但是呢,覺得至少腦袋有在動,因為語言轉換也不是那麼容易,恩,轉換不會不容易,是思考的內容的問題。

 

 

轉回來,當想要成為一個更好的自己時,就是嫌棄自己不足的時候,覺得自己不夠好,想要變更好,但是變得更好這件事其實不是那麼容易的。有時候會覺得自己一事無成,活了這麼久,經年累月下來,實質上可以看得見摸得到的比方說夠用的錢,貼心的老公,活蹦亂跳的小孩,代步的車子,舒適的房子,一樣都沒有。空虛感還蠻嚴重的。還好自己不是個物質取向的人,但也覺得是不是少了什麼東西,在人生的岔路上,是不是哪裡走錯路還是迷失了方向呢?

 

沒有答案的問題。我之所以成為現在的我是因為個性,生活,環境等等造就了我,沒有不喜歡自己,但是卡在一個不爭氣的現實環境的無奈。人是用別人來定義自己的存在嗎?用物質來定義自己?用成就?用名聲?用財富?

 

扯好遠,不過每次很空虛的時候,剛好有人找潔西家教,就會有點小安慰,或許這也算是別人的一種肯定?不過最近潔西因為要開刀先不會接家教,開完刀休息一陣子看狀況再說,最快也要明年了。健康真的是遇到事情的時候才知道是最寶貴的財富,沒有任何東西比得上的。早睡早起身體好,睡覺去,晚安:)

 

下面是用法,有些人對這些連接詞的用法還不太確定,可以先做一下,斜線前後選擇一個適當的。

 

face2face Pre-intermediate 9A P69

1 We use if/when to say we are certain something will happen.

2 We use if/when to say something is possible, but it isn’t sure.

3 We use as soon as/until  to say something will happen immediately after something else.

4 We until/after to say something stops happening at this time.

 

答案跟翻譯

1 We use if/when to say we are certain something will happen.

1 我們用 when 當我們很確定某件事將會發生。

 

2 We use if/when to say something is possible, but it isn’t sure.

2 我們用 if 當我們認為某件事有可能性,但是不確定。

 

3 We use as soon as/until to say something will happen immediately after something else.

3 我們用 as soon as 來表達某件事會在另外一件事發生後馬上發生。

 

4 We until/after to say something stops happening at this time.

4 我們用 until 來表達某件事在某個時間後停止不再進行。

 

 

下面是要選擇正確的從屬連接詞,並填入正確時態的動詞。

1 I’ll probably work as soon as/until I  ________ (be) sixty-five.

2 I ________ (do) my homework before/as soon as the class finishes.

3 When/If I _______ (get) home today, I’ll probably watch TV.

4 Maybe I ________ (phone) some friends if/after I have dinner.

5 I’ll probably read a book before/after I _________ (go) to sleep.

6 I _________ (study) English next year if/until I have time.

 

答案

1 I’ll probably work as soon as/until I  ________ (be) sixty-five.

1 I’ll probably work until I am sixty-five.

 

2 I ________ (do) my homework before/as soon as the class finishes.

2 I will do my homework as soon as the class finishes.

 

3 When/If I _______ (get) home today, I’ll probably watch TV.

3 When I get home today, I’ll probably watch TV.

 

4 Maybe I ________ (phone) some friends if/after I have dinner.

4 Maybe I will phone some friends after I have dinner.

 

5 I’ll probably read a book before/after I _________ (go) to sleep.

5 I’ll probably read a book before I go to sleep.

 

6 I _________ (study) English next year if/until I have time.

6 I will study English next year if I have time.

 

 

再來是翻譯,不是很難,但是同學有些寫不太出來,可能是潔西用英文翻中文,試著用英文的句型來寫或許會容易一點。記得假設語氣的句子表未來時要用現在簡單式代替未來。

 

翻譯

1 假如我再遲到,我就會丟工作。

2 假如我們不快找到票,我們就會錯過電影了。

3 假如我們遲到了,該怎麼辦?

4 假如他錯過末班公車,他會搭計程車。

5 當我到家的時候,我會打電話給你。

6 你一到家就換衣服嗎?

7 在我決定日期後我就會打電話給飯店訂房。

8 在我上床前,我寫完作業。

 

 

翻譯 答案 建議自己做完或想想句子再怎麼說在看答案,不要直接看答案,另外可能有很多不同類似的答案都可以。

 

1 假如我再遲到,我就會丟工作。

1 If I’m late again, I’ll lose my job.

 

2 假如我們不快找到票,我們就會錯過電影了。

2 If we don’t find the tickets soon, we’ll miss the movies.

不少人寫 If we don’t find the tickets hurry (X) ,hurry 是動詞,這邊要用副詞 soon 才對喔。

 

3 假如我們遲到了,該怎麼辦?

3 What do we do if we’re late?

這一句很多人寫 If we’re late, what do we do? (X) 英文的問句應該是不會這樣寫。

 

4 假如他錯過末班公車,他會搭計程車。

4 If he miss the last bus, he’ll take a taxi.

 

5 當我到家的時候,我會打電話給你。

5 When I get home, I’ll call you.

 

6 你一到家就換衣服嗎?

6 Do you change clothes as soon as you get home?

 

7 在我決定日期後我就會打電話給飯店訂房。

7 After I decide on the date, I’ll call the hotel to make a reservation.

 

8 在我上床前,我寫完作業。

8  I finish my homework before I go to bed.

 

還有一些狀況題讓同學回答的,潔西寫個參考回答好了。

1 What will you do if someone steals your cellphone?

I’ll use “Find my phone” to see if I can locate my cell phone. Then I’ll go to the police

station to report it.

1 假如有人偷你的手機的話你會怎麼辦?

我會用「找到我的手機」(iPhone 的功能) 看看我能不能找到手機的位置。然後我會去警察

局報警。

 

2 What will you do if you see a car accident?

I’ll call the police and see if there’s anything I can do to help.

2 假如你看到車禍的話,你會怎麼做?

我會打電話給警察,然後看看有沒有可以幫忙的地方。

 

3 What will you do if you get bored with working?

I’ll find something else to do. Maybe I’ll go out and get a cup of coffee or take a walk.

3 假如你工作做得很無趣的時候怎麼辦?

我會找其他的事做。或許我會出去買杯咖啡或散散步。

 

4 What will you do if you get lost?

If I get lost, I’ll ask a stranger for directions.

4 假如你迷路的話,你會怎麼辦?

假如我迷路的話,我會問陌生人怎麼走。

 

5 What will you do if you forget your wallet?

I’ll go home and get it unless I have my Easy Card with me.

5 假如你忘了你的錢包的話你會怎麼做?

我會回家拿,除非我有悠遊卡在身上。

假設語氣條件子句簡單小說明

潔西把最難的假設語氣用最簡單的方式說明,哈哈,真的嗎?能夠理解的話就太好了。

最近愛上亂畫圖的潔西,其實一般文法書沒有人這樣畫的,不過潔西自己覺得條件子句難其實就難在什麼時候用,究竟是真的,假的,還有句型,不同的時態要用不同的句型,但是這邊的句型因為是假的,所以要往前推一個變成過去與過去完成,所以容易混淆。希望這樣有比較容易理解

 

 

0:  現在的習慣,真的,可能發生的,慣性的

if      past —x—x—x— now —x—x—x— future     if + S + V1

結果  past —x—x—x— now —x—x—x— future           S + V1

If + S + V1, S + V1

If the weather is fine, I go hiking.           I go hiking if the weather is fine.

If my mom goes out, the dog barks.        When my mom goes out, the dog barks.

 

1: 未來有可能會發生的事實,真的

if      past ———— now ——x—— future             if + S + V1

結果  past ———— now ——x—— future                   S + will + V1

If + S + V1, S + will + V2

If it rains tomorrow, the concert will be canceled.   副詞子句會用現在簡單式來代替未來

If I want to be on time, I will have to leave early.

I will have to leave early if I want to be on time.

 

2: 跟現在事實相反的假設,假的

if      past ———— now (x) ————— future             if + S + V2

結果  past ———— now (x) ————— future                   S + would + V1

If + S + V2, S + would + V1

If I were rich, I would buy a new house.

If I had a lot of money, I would buy a new house.

If I were a bird, I could fly.

If I lived in Taipei, I wouldn’t have to take the HSR (high speed railway) to the airport.

If I were you, I would tell the truth.

 

3: 跟過去事實相反的假設,假的

if      past —— (x) —— now ————— future             if + S + had + V3

結果  past —— (x) —— now ————— future                   S + would + have + V3

If + S + had + V3, S + would + have + V3

If I had remembered her birthday, she wouldn’t have been so angry.

If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam.

If he had been more careful, he wouldn’t have lost his wallet.

If I hadn’t watched Korean dramas until late, I wouldn’t have been late this morning.

 

混合:if 子句是跟過去事實相反,結果子句是跟現在是相反,假的

if      past —— (x) ——  now ——————— future        if + S + had + V3

結果  past —————— now (x) ——————future              S + would + V1

If I had stayed in the U.S., I would speak English well now.

If he had attended the test, he would have a driver’s license now.

If I hadn’t eaten so much, I wouldn’t have a stomachache.

混合:if 子句是跟現在事實相反,結果子句是跟過去是相反,假的

if      past —————— now (x) —————— future        if + S + V2

結果  past —— (x) —— now ———————— future                S + would + have + V3

If she were a good student, she wouldn’t have skipped class.

If I finished my homework, I would have gone to the movies with my friends.

If I lived in Japan now, I would speak English well.

If I hadn’t slept so much, I would have recoded a few videos.

If didn’t cough a lot, my voice would sound much better.

進階文法L12 第二十章 條件句和願望 Conditional Sentences and Wishes

Jessie has such a bad memory that she would forget her head if it weren’t attached to her body.

潔西超健忘到假如她的頭不是接在她的身體上的話,她一定會把頭也給忘掉XD

呵呵,沒錯,這是真的。今天要說的是有點小複雜,有點難的假設語氣,或叫做條件句,條件子句等等。在英文因為有時態的關係,所以if所帶領的假設條件的句子會依照有可能發現在現在,未來的事實,還有跟現在事實相反的假設,過去事實相反的假設等等句子的時態會有所不同。而這些不同的時態也就代表了不同的意思。

每本書用的都不太一樣,潔西覺得Oxford用0,1,2,3條件句來分,還挺清楚的。

0條件句:If + S + V1, S + V1.  if條件句跟主要子句都用過去簡單式。兩者是一對一之間的關係,每次if子句的條件成立時,後面的子句就會跟著成立。

If I heat the water, it boils. 假如我煮水,水會沸騰。

If I drink too much, I have a headache the day after. 我只要喝太多酒,隔天就頭痛。

1條件句:If + S + V1, S + will + V1.  if條件句用現在簡單式代替未來是,主要子句用未來是,表達未來可能發生的假設。

If it rains tomorrow, I will stay home. 假如明天下雨,我就會待在家。(可能下雨也可能不下雨,下雨的話我就會在家)

If I get married, I will invite all my friends and students. 假如我結婚,我會邀請我所有的朋友跟學生。(可能會也可能不會結婚)

2條件句:If + S + V2, S + would + V1.  if條件句用過去式,主要子句用would加動詞原型。表示跟現在事實相反的假設。

If I had two children, my life would be very different. 假如我有兩個孩子,我的生活會非常不同。(但是我沒有兩個孩子,所以不能用If I have

two children)

If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. 假如我是你的話,我就不會那麼做。(但是我不是你,所以be要用過去式,所有人稱都用were)

3條件句:If + S + had + V3, S + would + have + V3.  if條件句用過去完成式,主要子句用would have 加過去分詞。表示跟過去事實相反的假設。常用

在懊悔,批評,指責等等。

If I had gotten married twenty years ago, I would have been divorced. 假如我二十年前結婚的話,我應該早就離婚了。(但沒結婚,所以也沒

離婚)

If you had worked harder, you wouldn’t have gotten fired.  假如你過去努力一點工作,你就不會被開除了。(但是你沒有努力工作,所以你被

開除了。)

簡單來說就是上面幾個例子,比較複雜的,詳細的部分可以看下面的說明。假如基礎比較差的人可以看每個句型的前面幾個重點就可以了。這次潔西放了很多例題。多做例題多想想就會比較有概念。就會發現,其實也沒有那麼難喔。 請勿任意轉載使用,歡迎個人使用, 尊重一下寫到手都快斷掉的潔西。另外裡面的例題多出自于Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。版權完全歸原書所有。

A. 條件句概論

條件句 Conditional Sentences / Conditionals 或叫做假設語氣。指的是某個先決假設的條件下,會有的結果。在不同的假設狀態下,英文會用不同的時態來表達。有時候是可能發生的現實狀況,If it rains,有時會是與現在事實相反的假設,If I were a bird,有時會是與已經發生的過去事實相反的假設,多半用於反省,指責,懊悔等,If I had studied harder。

在不同的條件下會用不同的時態,所以分零條件句Zero Conditional, 第一條件句First Conditional, 第二條件句Second Conditional, 第三條件句Third Conditional。也就是可能成真的現在或未來事實,與現在相反的事實,與過去事實相反的事實的假設。

B. 零條件句 Zero Conditional /與現在事實相符的假設條件句

這指的是一件事總是自然而然接著另外一件事發生。 這樣子的條件句,if子句用現在簡

單式,主要子句也用現在簡單式。主要子句可以放在前面,放前面時,不需要逗號。

If + S + V1, S + V1.  / S + V1  if + S + V1.

a. 用現在的事實的條件句來描述一些一般的真理general truths或科學上的事實scientific facts。

If you heat the water, it boils.

It’s 11:00 P.M. in New York if it’s noon in Taipei.

b. 也可以用來表達一些習慣habits或重複發生的活動recurring events。

If Daniel has money, he spends it.

Bill orders a special meal if he flies.

c. 主要子句的部分也可以視情況用情態助動詞modals。

If you practice your English every day, you can improve quickly.

You might learn more if you watch American TV series.

d. 主要子句的部分也可以用祈使句imperative。

If you come to Taipei, stay with me.

Don’t leave your seat if the seat belt light is on.

C.  Match the sentences and join them with if.  (Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate P.347)

  1. You get promoted.   2. I drink coffee late at night.     3. You don’t pay the bill.
  2. I try to fun fast.    5. Someone enters the building.    6. You lose your credit card.
  1. I can’t sleep.           b. You get a warning letter.           c. You have to ring the bank.
  2. Your salary goes up.    e. The alarm goes off.               g. I get out of breath.

1. ______________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________

3. ______________________________________________________________

4. ______________________________________________________________

5. ______________________________________________________________

6. ______________________________________________________________

D. 第一條件句First Conditional / 與未來事實相符的假設條件句

這指的是在某些特定的條件下,未來會發生什麼事,這個假設跟結果都是可能發生的。

這時if子句用現在簡單式來代替未來式,主要子句用未來式。

If + S + V1, S + will/be going to + V1.  / S + will + V1 if S + V1.

a. 當要描述未來可能會發生的事,跟這樣的事產生的結果時,if子句用來描述可能的條件,主要子句描述產生的結果。if子句是副詞子句,所以用現在簡單式代替未來式,主要子句可以用will或be going to表達未來的結果,也可以用情態助動詞,或祈使句。

If we hurry, we’ll catch the bus.

If she wins, she’s going to fight crime.

If it rains, everyone can eat inside.

If you don’t vote, you might regret it.

If anyone calls, please take a message.

b. 在if子句中,有時會用情態助動詞 should ,這個用法跟用現在簡單式的差別在於多了一些不確定性。當基本上意思是相同的。

If anyone should call, please take a message.

If it should rain tomorrow, we’ll cancel the picnic.

c. if跟unless兩者都可以用在條件句,但兩者意思非常不同。unless用在否定的條件,相當於if…not。

If you vote, you’ll have a say in the future of our city.

Unless you vote, you won’t have a say in the future of our city.

If you don’t vote, you won’t have a say in the future of our city.

d. if子句可以用現在進行式或現在完成式,主要子句用未來式。

If we’re expecting visitors, the flat will need a good clean.

If you’ve finished with the computer, I’ll put it away.

e. 第一條件句可以用來表示提供幫助或給予建議。

If you need a ticket, I can get you one.

We can take a bus tour if you feel like seeing the sights.

f. 第一條件句可以用來也可以用來警告或威脅。

If you go on like this, you’ll make yourself ill.

I’ll never speak to you again if you don’t apologize.

g.  if 子句通常不會用未來式,但是假如用來表達請求時,可以用未來式。

If you’ll just wait a moment, I’ll find someone to help you. (Please wait a moment…)

h. 條件句的if子句為副詞子句,通常不會用未來式,會用現在簡單式代替未來式,但是名詞子句中if帶領的名詞子句在表達未來的時候用未來式。

If it snows tomorrow, the roads will be closed.

I don’t know if it will snow tomorrow.

E. a. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses and if or unless. (Longman Grammar Express P.284)

  1. A: What’s the first thing you ___________ (do) ______________ (if/unless) you __________ (get) elected?
  2. B: Well, it’s been a long, hard campaign. _________ (if/unless) I _________(win), I _________ (take) a short vacation before I begin my new job.
  3. A: Sounds good. Where to?
  4. B: Sorry, but I’d rather not say. ___________ (if/unless) I __________ (become) mayor, I _____________ (try) to keep my personal life private. Even mayors need privacy.
  5. A: I can understand that. Now, every election has a winner and a loser. What ________ you _______ (do) ___________ (if/unless) you _________ (lose)?
  6. B: _______ (if/unless) I ________ (lose) this election, I _________ (continue) to be active in politics as a private citizen. ____________ (if/unless) both parties _______________ (cooperate), this city __________ (not be) as great as it can be. Finally, __________ (if/unless) the people ____________ (not elect) me to office this time, I ____________ (be) back in four years to try again!

b. Comment of the situations.  (Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate P.347)

example:

It might rain. If it does, everyone can eat inside.

–If it rains, everyone can eat inside.

The children mustn’t go near Nick’s dog. It’ll bite them.

—If the children go near Nick’s dog, it’ll bite them.

1. Rachel might fail her driving test. But she can take it again.

__________________________________________________________

2. United might lose. If they do, Tom will be upset.

__________________________________________________________

3. The office may be closed. In that case Mark won’t be able to get in.

__________________________________________________________

4. Nick may arrive a bit early. If he does, he can help Tom to get things ready.

__________________________________________________________

5. The party might go on all night. If it does, no one will want to do any work tomorrow.

__________________________________________________________

6. Emma may miss the train. But she can get the next one.

__________________________________________________________

7. Is Matthew going to enter the race? He’ll probably win it.

__________________________________________________________

F. 第二條件句Second Conditional / 與現在或未來事實相反的假設條件句

這指的是用在假設跟現在或未來事實相反的條件下,所會產生的結果。這樣的句子中,

if子句用過去簡單式,假如是be動詞時,不論主詞,多用were,主要子句用主詞加

would加動詞原型。

If + S + V2, S + would + V1.  / S + would + V1 if S + V2.

a. 這個句型用在描述與現在的事實不符,相反的假設條件,可能是不真實unreal,假的

untrue,想像的imagined,或不可能的impossible的條件,跟可能產生的結果。這樣的

先決條件下所會產生的結果。

If I loved him, I would marry him. (But I don’t love him, so I won’t marry him.)

If I had more time, I would travel. ( But I don’t have time, so I don’t travel.)

If I told you, I’d have to kill you. (But I don’t tell you, so I don’t have to kill you.)

b. if子句雖然用的是過去簡單式,但沒有過去的意思,指的是與現在事實相反。

If I had money now, I would take a trip around the world.

If it were sunny now, I would go to the beach with you.

c. if子句不可以用would,would用在主要子句。

If she knew the answer, she would tell you.

Not If she would knew the answer, she would tell you.

d. 主要子句也可以用could或might。

If we had a calculator, we could work this out a lot quicker.

If Rachel worked harder, she might do even better at her studies.

e. if子句的動詞是be動詞時,不論人稱,通通用were。在非正式談話中,was會與I, he, she, it跟任何可用這些代名詞代替的名詞連用。

If I were rich, I would travel around the world.

Sally would answer the phone if she were in her office right now.

f. 當句子以 If I were you開始,常常會用在給予忠告give advice。

If I were you, I would study harder.

If I were you, I’d ask a lawyer for some advice.

g. if子句可以用過去進行式,表示與現在正發生的事實是相反的。

If Rachel was playing her stereo, it wouldn’t be so quiet in here.

h. 第二條件句可用來提供幫助或給予建議。但比較不那麼直接,說話的人沒有那麼確定。

If you needed a ticket, I could get you one.

If you felt like seeing the sights, we could take a bus tour.

G. 第一條件句跟第二條件句的比較

第一條件句,if子句為現在簡單式,表示這個條件,這個狀況有可能,但也可能不會發生。

第二條件句,if子句為過去件單式,表示這個條件是非真實的,是假的,是不會發生的。

If you have a lie-down, you’ll feel better.

If I had a million pounds, I’d probably buy you a yacht.

比較下面兩個句子

If we take the car, we’ll have to pay for parking.

If we took the car, we’d have to pay for parking.

這兩個句子都表達未來的可能性,但是第二條件句表示那個行為是比較不可能的。可能是我們已經決定不開車後說的話。

H. a. Comment on these situations. Use a Second Conditional with would or could.

Examples:

Andrew is such a boring person because he works all the time.

—You know, if Andrew didn’t work all the time, he wouldn’t be such a boring person.

You can’t take a photo because you don’t have your camera.

—How annoying. If I had my camera, I could take a photo.

1. You can’t look the word up because you don’t have a dictionary.

I’m sorry. ____________________________________________________

2 .You don’t write to your friends because you’re so busy.

I’ve got so much to do. ___________________________________________

3. You can’t play tennis because your back is aching.

It’s a nuisance. ________________________________________________

4. Claire won’t marry Henry because she doesn’t love him.

Of course, ____________________________________________________

5. Nick can’t find the way because he doesn’t have a map.

Nick’s lost, but ________________________________________________

6. David has so many accidents because he’s so clumsy.

You know, ____________________________________________________

H. b. Complete the conversation. Put the correct form of the verb. You may need to use will or would.

A: I haven’t forgotten your birthday, you know. If you like, I’ll book (I/book) a table

for Thursday at our favorite restaurant.

B: My birthday is on Wednesday, Matthew. You’re playing basketball then, aren’t you?

If you cared for me, (1) _______________ (you/not/play) basketball on my

birthday.

A: What’s the difference? If (2) __________________ (we/go) out on Thursday,

it’ll be just the same. If (3) ______________ (I/not/play), I’d be letting the

team down.

B: Yes, I suppose (4) ______________ (it/be) a disaster if you missed one game.

Well, if (5) _______________ (you/think) more of your friends than you do for

me, you can forget the whole thing.

A: I just don’t understand you sometimes, Emma.

B: If (6) _______________ (you/think) about it, you’d understand. And I think

(7) _______________ (it/be) better if we forgot all about my birthday.

A: Don’t be silly, Emma. If you get into one of your bad moods,

(8) ___________________ (it/not/do) any good.

B: If you were interested in my feelings, (9) _________________ (I/not/get) into a

bad mood.

H. c. Read this boy’s journal entry. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of the present unreal conditional (second conditional).

I’ve got to stop staying up late reading “Peanuts”! If I weren’t always to tired, I will be able to stay awake in class. Whenever the teacher calls on me, I don’t know what to say. Then I get really embarrassed because of that cute red-haired girl that I like. I would talk to her if I wouldn’t be so shy. My friend Jason says, “If I was you, I’d ask her to a party,” but I’m too afraid that if I asked her, she would have said no. After class, I played baseball. Nobody wanted me on their team. If I play better, I would get chosen sometimes. Life is hard! I can really understand that Charlie Brown character in “Peanuts.” If fact, if I didn’t laugh so hard while reading “Peanuts,” I would cried!

I. 第三條件句Third Conditional / 與過去事實相反的假設條件句

這是用在過去已經發生的事情,但是跟你想要的情形是不同時,用來表示假如過去是在

一個不同的條件下時,所會產生的結果。這個句型的if子句用的是過去完成式,主要子

句用的是主詞加上would have + V3(過去分詞)。

If + S + had + V3, S + would have + V3.  / S + would have + V3 if + S + had + V3.

a. 這個句型用來表達過去的條件跟結果都是不可能發生的。if子句帶領的事與過去事實相反的假設條件,而條件句則是在這個不可能的條件下所產生的結果。因為事情其實已經發生了,所以if條件子句的條件是不存在的,但我們常用這樣來表示假如過去是如何的話,就會產生怎麼樣的後果。

If we had gone two weeks earlier, we would have had better weather.

(But we didn’t go two weeks earlier, so we didn’t have better weather.)

If David had been more careful, he would have passed the exam.

(But David were careful, so he didn’t pass the exam.)

b. 主要子句可以用其他的情態助動詞如might, could,再加上have + V3。

If I had had my mobile yesterday, I could have contacted you.

We just caught the train. If we had stopped to buy a paper, we might have missed it.

c. had跟would都可以跟主詞合併縮寫成’d。

If you’d rung me, I’d have come to see you.

If you had rung me, I would have come to see you.

d. 第三條件句常用來表達後悔過去所做的事。

If I had known Mary was in town, I would have invited her to the party.

If I hadn’t fallen ill and missed the interview, I might have gotten the job.

e. 第三條件句有時可用來批評別人或指出他們的錯誤。

If you’d been a bit more careful, you wouldn’t have cut yourself.

If Matthew had set his alarm clock, he wouldn’t have overslept.

f. if 子句可以用過去完成進行式,表達過去某時點並沒有發生的某個狀態。

If it had not been raining, I would have gone for a walk.

J. 第二條件句跟第三條件句的比較

比較下列例子

If you planned things properly, you wouldn’t get into a mess. (You don’t plan.)

If you had planned things properly, you wouldn’t have gotten into a mess. (You

didn’t plan)

第一個句子表示你現在並沒有計劃,所以現在弄得一團糟。但第二個句子表示你過去沒

有計劃,所以在過去你把事情弄得一團糟。

K. a. Complete: George is thinking about the past. Complete his thoughts with the correct form of the words in parentheses.

  1. I didn’t go into business with my friend Sam. If I _____________ (go) into business with him, I __________________ (become) a success.
  2. I couldn’t go into the army because I was deaf one ear. I ________________ (go) into the army if I ___________________ (not lose) my hearing in that ear.
  3. Mary and I weren’t able to go on a honeymoon. We _________________ (can/go) away if my father ____________________ (not get) sick.
  4. Clarence showed me how the world would look without me. I _______________ (not know) that I was so important if Clarence ___________________ (not show) me.
  5. My old boss once made a terrible mistake. If I ___________________ (not help) him, he ____________________ (can/go) to jail.
  6. Mary ______________________ (may/not/lead) a happy life is she _______________ (not marry) me.
  7. Life here ____________________ (be) really different if I ________________ (not live)

b. Comment on each situation using a Third Conditional with if. Use would have, could have, or might have.

In a bookshop yesterday Daniel saw a book he really wanted. The only problem was that he didn’t have any money.

— Daniel would have bought the book if he had had any money.

Rita often goes to concerts at the town hall, although not to every one. There was one on Saturday, but she didn’t know about it.

— Rita might have gone to the concert if she had known about it.

1. On Sunday the guests had to have their lunch inside. Unfortunately it wasn’t warm enough to have it outside.

______________________________________________________________

2. There was a bomb scare last Tuesday. Sarah wanted to fly to Rome, but she wasn’t able to. The airport was closed.

______________________________________________________________

3. Laura has only met Nick once, and it’s possible she would recognize him. He passed her yesterday, but he had a crash-helmet on.

______________________________________________________________

4. Sarah has been quite busy, and she hasn’t watered her plants for some time. As a result, they’ve died.

______________________________________________________________

5. Nick likes ice hockey, but he didn’t have a ticket to the game last week, so unfortunately he wasn’t able to get in.

______________________________________________________________

L. 條件句的混合使用

條件句裡面的時間跟結果子句(主要子句)的時間可能是不同,可能是過去發生什麼事的條

件,導致現在的某個結果。或說明現在的條件是過去已經發生的結果的原因等等。可以

混合使用第二條件句跟第三條件句。

If he had eaten breakfast, he would not be hungry now.

(He didn’t eat breakfast, so he is hungry now.)

If he were a good student, he would have studied for the test yesterday.

(He is not a good student. He did not study for the test yesterday.)

If you hadn’t left all these dirty dishes, the place would look a bit tidier.

If I didn’t have all this work to do, I would have gone out for the day.

M. Complete the conversations. Put in the correct form of the verb. Use Past Simple, the Past Perfect, would, or would have.

A: You look tired.

B: Well, if you hadn’t woken (you/not/wake) me up in the middle of the night,

I wouldn’t be (I/not/be) so tired.

1. A: Is Trevor a practical person?

B: Trevor? No, he isn’t. If _______________________ (he/be) practical,

_________________________ (he/put) those shelves up a bit quicker. It

took hime ages.

2. A: Why are you sitting in the dark?

B: Let’s just say that if _________________________ (I/pay) my electricity

bill last month, ____________________________ (I/not be) in the dark now.

3. A: Why are you so angry with me? All I did yesterday was play basketball.

B: If _________________________ (you/love) me,

______________________ (you/not leave) me here alone on my birthday.

N. 條件句中if的省略

條件句中有were, had, 跟should這幾個助動詞時,條件句中的if可以省略。但在省略時,

if省略而子句必須要倒裝,也就是把助動詞were, had, should放到主詞前。

If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. — Were I you, I would do that.

If I had known, I would have told you. — Had I known, I would have told you.

If you should change your mind, please let me know immediately.

— Should you change your mind, please let me know immediately.

O. Create sentences with the same meaning by omitting if.

If you should need more money, go to the bank before six o’clock.

— Should you need more money, go to the bank before six o’clock.

  1. Your boss sounds like a real tyrant. If I were you, I would look for another job.
  2. She would have gotten the job if she had been better prepared.
  3. If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
  4. If there should be a global nuclear war, life on earth as we know it would end forever.
  5. If I were your teacher, I would insist you do better work.

P. Wish的用法

a. 當說話者所希望的跟現在或未來的事實不同,甚至相反時,wish後面接的子句中的動詞必需用過去簡單式。這種狀況下,動詞是be動詞時,所有的主詞皆用were。

S + wish (that) S + V2.

He wishes he had a yacht. (He doesn’t have a yacht, but he wants one.)

I wish I knew French. (I don’t know French.)

I wish she would tell me. (She will not tell me.)

Sometimes I wish I were a child again.

b. 當說話者要表達的是對於過去已經發生的事情的後悔或希望事情沒有發生時,wish後面接的子句中的動詞必須用過去完成式。

S + wish (that) S + had + V3.

They wish they had moved to the city. (They didn’t move to the city, and now they

think that was a mistake.)

c. 在wish後面可以接would,用來表達希望某個人或某件事會有不同的做法。表示希望未來可以按說話者的希望的方式發生,這個願望可能會實現,但也可能不會實現。常用來提出請求,或者抱怨,或後悔。

It’s raining. I wish it would stop. (I want it to stop raining.)

I’m expecting a call. I wish the phone would ring. (I want the phone to ring.)

We’re going to be late. I wish you would hurry.

I wish you would cook breakfast. You have more time than I do.

I wish she would visit more often. I really miss her.

wish後面的字句不用will。  I wish she will visit more often.

d. 在wish後面可以接could或could have 來表達想要當沒有實現的能力ability。

He wishes he could earn more money now.

He wishes he could have found a better job when he was younger.

I wish Mary could have come. (Mary couldn’t come.)

wish後面不用can。 He wishes he can earn more money.

e. wish用來祝福人的時候,不用子句的方式。直接加人跟祝福的話語

We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

He shook my hand and wished me luck.

Q.

a. Wish … the Past

Vicky is fed up. What is she saying? Use I wish.

(She can’t think straight.) — I wish I could think straight.

  1. (She is so tired.) ________________________________________________
  2. (She gets headaches.) ____________________________________________
  3. (Her work isn’t going well.) _________________________________________
  4. (She can’t concentrate.) ___________________________________________
  5. (Life is so complicated.)___________________________________________

b. Wish… Past Perfect

Complete the sentences. Use these words: accepted, caught, found ,played, saved, stayed

I spent all my money. — I wish now that I had saved it.

  1. I missed the train. I really wish ______________________________________
  2. Rita left the party early. I really wish _________________________________
  3. Emma refused the offer. But her parents wish ___________________________
  4. I looked everywhere for the key. I wish ________________________________
  5. The injured player could only watch. He wishes ___________________________

c. Complete: Read this article from a psychology magazine. Complete it with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses.

Wishes and Solutions

The old saying goes, “If wishes were horses, then beggars would ride.” “ I wish it

1. __________ (be) that easy,” says the therapist Joel Grimes. “But we can’t just wish problems 2. ________________ (will/go away). We have to make our own solutions. “ According to him, complainers are really saying, “I wish I                         3. ______________ (have) a magical solution. I wish I                                              4. _______________________ (not have to / deal) with this myself.” One client, for example, kept complaining, “ I wish I 5. ______________ (can/entertain) people, but my apartment is too small.” Grimes urged her to solve the problem. This year, she hosted a holiday open house, with people coming at different times. She still wishes she _________________ (can/invite) her whole family last year, but she learned she could solve her own problems. “At first clients get angry at me for not handling them solutions,” says Grimes. “But when they experience their own power, they wish they ______________ (know) about it sooner.”

Answer Key

C. 

  1. If you get promoted, your salary goes up.
  2. If I drink coffee late at night, I can’t sleep.
  3. If you don’t pay the bill, you get a warning letter.
  4. If I try to run fast, I get out of breath.
  5. If someone enters the building, the alarm goes off.
  6. If you lose your credit card, you have to ring the bank.

E. 

a. 

  1. will do, if, get
  2. If, win, will take
  3. If, become, will try
  4. will, do, if, lose
  5. If, lose, will continue, Unless, cooperate, won’t be, if, don’t elect, will be

b.

  1. If Rachel fail her driving test, she can take it again.
  2. If United loses, Tom will be upset.
  3. If the office is closed, Mark won’t be able to get in.
  4. If Nick arrives a bit early, he can help Tom to get things ready.
  5. If the party goes on all night, no one will want to do any work tomorrow.
  6. If Emma misses the train, she can get the next one.
  7. If Matthew enters the race, he’ll probably win it.

H. 

a

  1. If I had a dictionary, I could look the word up.
  2. If I wasn’t so busy, I would write to my friends.
  3. If my back wasn’t aching, I could play tennis.
  4. if Claire loved Henry, she would marry him.
  5. if he had a map, he could find his way.
  6. if he weren’t so clumsy, he wouldn’t have so many accidents.

b. 

1. you wouldn’t play   2. we go   3. I didn’t play  4. it would be   5. you think   6. you thought  7. it would be   8. it won’t be  9. I wouldn’t get

H.

c.  

I’ve got to stop staying up late reading “Peanuts”! If I weren’t always to tired, I would be able to stay awake in class. Whenever the teacher calls on me, I don’t know what to say. Then I get really embarrassed because of that cute red-haired girl that I like. I would talk to her if I weren’t so shy. My friend Jason says, “If I were you, I’d ask her to a party,” but I’m too afraid that if I asked her, she would say no. After class, I played baseball. Nobody wanted me on their team. If I played better, I would get chosen sometimes. Life is hard! I can really understand that Charlie Brown character in “Peanuts.” If fact, if I didn’t laugh so hard while reading “Peanuts,” I would cry!

M. 

  1. he were, he would have put
  2. I had paid, I wouldn’t be
  3. you loved, wouldn’t have left

K. a. 

had gone, would have become   

could (would) have one OR would have been able to go, hadn’t lost

could have gone, hadn’t gotten

wouldn’t have known, hadn’t shown

hadn’t helped, could have gone

might not have led, hadn’t married

would have been, hadn’t lived

K. b.

The guests could/would have had their lunch outside if it had been warm enough /if it hadn’t been so cold.

Sarah could/would have flown to Rome if the airport hadn’t been closed/had been open.

Laura might have recognized Nick if he hadn’t had a crash-helmet on.

Sarah’s plants wouldn’t have died/might not have died if she’d/she had watered them.

Nick could/would have got in (to the ice hockey game) if he’d/had had a ticket.

O. 

  1. Were I you, I would look for another job.
  2. Had she been better prepared, she would have gotten the job.
  3. Had they realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
  4. Should there be a global nuclear war, life on earth as we know it would end forever.
  5. Were I your teacher, I would insist you do better work.

Q. 

a. 

  1. I wish I weren’t so tired.
  2. I wish I didn’t get (these) headaches.
  3. I wish my work were going well.
  4. I wish I could concentrate.
  5. I wish life weren’t so complicated.

b. 

  1. I had caught it.
  2. she had stayed.
  3. she had accepted it.
  4. I had found it. / I could have found it.
  5. he could have played.

c. 

  1. were   2. would go away  3. had   4. didn’t have to deal  5. could entertain

6. could have invited/had been able to invite  7. had known