【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 34 情態助動詞 have to 與 must 的用法與不同

You’re pretty smart!

I’m a boy. I’m not pretty!

Well, boys can be pretty, too. You aren’t petty smart.  Let me think. How about “ugly" smart?

No!

OK. OK. I see. You’re “handsome" smart!

潔西跟學生上課的爆笑對話,上課笑到開始咳嗽。

喔,講到咳嗽,我還在考慮我要不要寫信去307的那家客運公司投訴。下午坐307從板橋捷運站坐,人不少,站在門口附近的地方,站了大概五六站吧,有人上車有人下車。氣管沒有很好的潔西只要遇到公車或捷運把冷氣開強的時候就會開始打噴嚏,先前在捷運上打了兩個噴嚏,附近就有兩個人馬上起身走到下個車廂去了。

公車的冷氣變強了,所以潔西打了個噴嚏。這時候司機先生突然對潔西說你不要站在門口,站到裡面去,但是我真的就是剛好下一站要下車,所以我就往裡面站一點,沒有站在門口有禁止站立的黃線上,跟司機說我下一站要下車。司機很不客氣地再對潔西吼說,你站到後面去,從後面下。大概過了三十秒才反應過來,啊,我剛剛打了噴嚏,所以這個司機應該是超歧視地怕我傳染新冠肺炎給他,把我趕到後面去,口氣超差的喔。我明明站在同一個位置都十分鐘左右了吧,打了個噴嚏就把我趕到後面去,而且態度惡劣,站在我旁邊也是在前門附近的阿婆也被他嚇到,明明她也靠近前門,她也剛好要下車,但是她跟著我走到後門下車。新冠肺炎的徵狀沒有打噴嚏吧?趕時間不想跟他吵,不過真的是越想越不爽,下車過馬路的時候特別正面拍了車子司機跟車牌,沒有啦,我沒有要放上來,我只是要記起來投訴的時候用。我有戴口罩,而且我打噴嚏的時候特別往下遮住對著自己,跟司機是背對的,再說假如真的有口沫傳染打完噴嚏後趕我到後面也來不及了。

莫名被兇很生氣?沒有,只是小不開心,不說出來會放心裡,寫寫大概明天就忘了,因為明天超多事要做的啊。怎麼能夠有老師說要帶東西去給學生說了四個星期,結果還是沒帶,明天用寄的吧,不然下星期可能還是忘記,真是暈倒的記憶啊。明天要錄好多影片,好多課要備,還要洗衣服。潔西不喜歡晚上洗衣服,可能是曬衣服的地方晚上只有小燈,容易被蚊子咬吧。口罩的錢今天轉帳轉好了,但是明天要繳手機的費用,小七居然不能繳。

啊!說到小七,那天去買東西的時候突然想到查了一下悠遊卡存的發票居然有中一張,十一月,快到期了,當天身上沒有證件所以不能領發票,明天要帶證件去,上次的也中了一張,這個叫做 simple and happy 簡單的幸福,剛剛晚餐的時候看偶像的電影,也覺得很幸福。前幾天看到一個影片在推特上超感動的,因為有加臉書的粉絲的社團,所以就放上去,順便問了一下其中一個團員為什麼在哭,粉絲都超專業的,也不過就一個畫面,馬上就有粉絲告訴潔西那是幾年幾月幾日的哪一個節目中出現的畫面跟掉淚的原因,然後呢有人就乾脆找了影片連結給潔西,然後呢還有人再加上在另外一隻某年某月某日的影片有提到,全都看了,好開心啊。其實在同個社團有看到人家在問影片,潔西也超熱心把影片找出來要給人家看,但是已經有別人留言了,恩,總之呢加入粉絲社團真不錯。

說到粉絲,大家有沒有發現潔西的文章的錯誤變少了呢?還是有啦我知道,昨天的肺炎打成肺癌,謝謝網友提醒才改過來。先前潔西都不管錯字,看得懂就好了,因為急性子,看過就算了,結果有一天,潔西的老師,沒錯,高中的數學老師傳訊息跟潔西提醒錯字,謝謝老師後趕快改過來,然後呢,很無聊地又編輯了一下,加了一堆廢話,上課上一上,下課的時候,ㄟ,又是老師的訊息,又提醒潔西新編輯的地方又有錯誤,然後老師還說是潔西的粉絲,哇,超不好意思的啊。從此之後每篇文章都最少檢查兩三遍,這篇已經看四遍了,但是有時候真的看不到自己的錯誤,再麻煩大家幫忙了。潔西有老師是國中的國文老師,她應該也沒看,她看了應該也不會理潔西,哈哈哈。

看脫口秀的主持人 Jimmy Falson 的兩個女兒都是金髮,突然想到有追的好幾個影星的老婆都是金髮美女,所以金髮美女不是迷思是事實?潔西亂掰的,好累,每天都很累,不看電影要看書去了,圖書館下次不借兩星期要還的書了啦,根本看不完。我已經要放棄偷書賊要改看翻譯的偵探小說去了,不然就要把沒看過的書拿去還會蠻不甘心的,背得那麼重的書是背心酸的喔。廢文製造機的潔西大概再繼續寫兩個小時都沒問題,難怪當老師,一天到晚說不完的話啊!大家收心愉快晚安或早安迎接週一。Bye bye.

 

must 跟 have to 用法講解

 

翻譯練習

 

 

1 must 跟 have to 加動詞原型都可以用來表示必須做某件事,must 語氣比 have to 強烈,常用在寫作,表格,標示,公告。口語比較常用 have to 來表達必須做某事。

You’ll be leaving college soon. You must think about your future.

You must leave your key at reception when you go out.

 

I have to wear glasses all the time.

She has to work on weekends.

 

2 must not 用在禁止,否定的命令,表是不做某件事是必須的,must not 可以縮寫成 mustn’t

You must not park here. / You mustn’t park here.

You must not forget her birthday again. / You mustn’t forget her birthday again.

 

3 don’t have to/doesn’t have to 用在表示某件事是不需要的

We don’t have to hurry. We’re early.

I’m off tomorrow. I don’t have to get up early.

 

4 要表達過去必須做某事的時候會用 had to

He had to go to New York for a meeting last month.

They had to change their plan because of the accident.

You didn’t have to do that.

How long did he have to wait?

 

5 have to 的句型

肯定句:主詞 + have/has to +動詞原型

主詞

have to/has to

動詞原型

其他部分

I

You

We

They

have to

cook

wear

pay

go

for my family.

a tie at work.

in advance.

to church on Sundays.

He

She

has to

be

exercise.

quiet.

 

否定句:主詞 + don’t/doesn’t + have to +動詞原型

主詞

don’t/doesn’t

have to

動詞原型

其他部分

I

You

We

They

don’t

have to

cook

wear

pay

go

for my family.

a tie at work.

in advance.

to church on Sundays.

He

She

doesn’t

have to

be

exercise.

quiet.

 

5 have to 的句型

Yes/No 疑問句:Do/Does + 主詞 + have to +動詞原型?

Do/Does

主詞

have to

動詞原型

其他部分

Do

I

you

we

they

have to

cook

wear

pay

go

for my family?

a tie at work?

in advance?

to church on Sundays?

Does

he

she

have to

be

exercise?

quiet?

 

WH 疑問句:WH 疑問詞 + do/does + 主詞 + have to +動詞原型?

WH 疑問詞

do/does

主詞

have to

動詞原型

其他部分

What time

How much

When

How often

do

I

you

we

they

have to

get

pay

leave?

work

up?

every month?

on Saturdays?

Where

What

does

he

she

have to

go?

do?

 

翻譯練習

1 很晚了。我該走了。 

2 你必須穿西裝,但是你不用打領帶。

3 你不必幫我介紹你老闆。我們已經見過面。

4 因為她是學生所以她必須讀很多書。

5 你必須十八歲或超過才可以看某些電影。

6 你進我房間前不需要敲門。

7 一個人不需要有錢跟有名才能過成功的生活。

8 他唸高中的時候不需要穿制服。(過去式)

9 她的雙親必須幫她付她的大學教育。(過去式)

10 他們為什麼必須提早離開?(過去式)

翻譯練習 答案

.

.

.

.

 

1 很晚了。我該走了。 

1 It’s late. I have to go.

 

2 你必須穿西裝,但是你不用打領帶。

2 You have to wear a suit, but you don’t have to wear a tie.

 

3 你不必幫我介紹你老闆。我們已經見過面。

3 You don’t have to introduce me to your boss. We’ve already met.

 

4 因為她是學生所以她必須讀很多書。

4 She has to read a lot of books because she is a student.

 

5 你必須十八歲或超過才可以看某些電影。

5 You have to be 18 or over to see some movies.

 

6 你進我房間前不需要敲門。

6 You don’t have to knock before you come into my room.

 

7 一個人不需要有錢跟有名才能過成功的生活。

7 A person doesn’t have to become rich and famous in order to live a successful life.

 

8 他唸高中的時候不需要穿制服。(過去式)

8 He didn’t have to wear a uniform when he was in high school. 

 

9 她的雙親必須幫她付她的大學教育。(過去式)

9 Her parents had to pay for her university education.

 

10 他們為什麼必須提早離開?(過去式)

10 Why did they have to leave early?

 

【潔西家】劍橋活用英語文法 初級 32 情態助動詞 must 用法+時態日記 2020/04/15

潔西又做了時態日記,昨天是個悲慘的一天,一起床頭微微痛,然後就大發作,吃藥後不知道為什麼頭不痛但是轉成全身酸痛,完全沒力氣,累到一個莫名其妙,病一整天,感覺火車輾過一樣。明明前一天星期一做了五隻影片,覺得精力充沛,物極必反?Don’t bite off more than you can chew. 不要咬超過你可以咀嚼的?中文的翻譯其實是不要自不量力的意思。星期一可能太逞強了,所以星期二就自食其果了。總之呢就超級累,勉強錄了影片自己都覺得難得我講話這麼溫柔啊,其實是非常虛弱沒力氣說話啊!

今天還是沒有很舒服,希望不是感冒了,這不是個感冒的時間點啊,還好這幾天都沒課,星期一晚上正有精力的時候還在想說要去九份走走,上一次去到那邊是幾年前,選錯時間,暑假,車站滿滿的人,到處都是人,我到了瑞芳火車站下車後,看到那人潮,去公車站牌看到等公車的人,就放棄了,哪裡都沒去又坐火車回台北了。

今天要好好加油,把上課的東西準備一下,散散步,可以的話再做個瑜伽,但是不能太累,這幾天天氣不錯,希望明天可以去九份走走,有人要一起去的嗎?我只是隨便說說,大家都要上班吧?不用上班的歡迎報名一起去踏青!Hav a good day! 祝大家有個愉快的一天!

 

時態日記講解

 

I got up on the wrong side of the bed yesterday. Anything that could go wrong went wrong. First, I noticed that I had a slight migraine when I got up, so I made myself a big cup of brown sugar latte again. It didn’t work. I took a pill called Imigran, which costs $250 if you buy it in a drugstore. The medicine was really strong and I felt my whole body ached so much that I had to lie down for a nap. 我昨天有個糟透了的一天(英文用起床起錯邊來表示一天都很糟糕)。任何會出錯的事都出錯了。首先我注意到我起床時有一點偏頭痛,所以我又泡了一大杯黑糖拿鐵。沒用。我吃了一顆叫做英明格的藥,一顆要兩百五十元,假如你在藥局買的話。那個藥很強,我覺的我全身酸痛到我必須要躺下來小睡一下。

I usually feel better after I take the medicine, but it was not the case yesterday. I was still very weak and sick after I slept for three hours. I managed to get up but I couldn’t do much. Everything I did needed a lot of effort. I tried to prepare for my lessons, but I ended up watching Ponyo on Netflix. It is a Japanese animated fantasy film (which was) written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki and produced by Studio Ghibli. 我通吃過藥後會覺得比較好,但是昨天完全不是那回事。我還是很虛弱很並在我睡了三個小時後。我盡力從床上起來,但是我沒辦法做太多事。我做每件事都要非常努力。我試著準備上課的東西,但是我最後變成在網飛上看崖上的波妞。它是一部日本動畫奇幻電影,由宮崎駿所寫跟導演,由吉普力工作室製作。

I spent most of my time in bed yesterday. While I was lying in bed, I got a message from my student. She wanted to suspend classes due to her morning sickness, which I totally understand. However, three classes were canceled this week, and not having stable income worries me from time to time. I decided to go to bed early and called it a day. All I wanted to do was just drinking some water before bed, and I couldn’t believe that I dropped my mug and broke it. It never rains but it pours. Finally, I went to bed at 10 p.m. last night. 我花大部分的時間在床上。當我躺在床上的時候,我收到我學生的一則訊息。她想要停課因為她孕吐,我完全可以理解。然侯,這個星期有三堂課被取消,而沒有穩定的收入三不五時會讓我擔憂。我決定早睡,結束一天。我所想要的只是在上床前喝點水,我不敢相信我手滑摔破杯子。禍不單行(英文表達說從來不下雨,不然就下大雨)。終於,我十點上床睡覺。

Whenever I have a terrible day, I always tell myself the sentence from the movie Gone With the Wind: Tomorrow is another day. 每次我有個糟糕的一天時,我總是告訴我自己從飄這部電影裡面出來的句子:明天又是另外一天。

Is today a better day? I’m not sure. At least it isn’t as bad as yesterday, and I’ll have to work hard to make it a good day! Keep on working! 今天是個比較好的一天嗎?我不確ㄉㄛˋ最少,不像昨天那麼糟,我需要努力讓它變成好的一天。繼續加油!

 

情態助動詞解說

 

情態助動詞翻譯練習

 

1 must 可以用來表示我們認為某件事情是真的

Andrew isn’t answering the phone. He must be in the meeting.

The doorbell is ringing. It must be the mailman.  deliveryman

 

2 must not 可以用來表示我們認為事情一定不是如此

Sam has flunked every test so far this semester. He must not study very hard.

He looks pale. He must not feel well.

 

3 must 也可以用來表示我們認為某件事是必須的,可以用在現在跟未來

I must do my homework now.

He must work late tomorrow.

 

4 用來表示過去必須做某件事時,不用 must ,要用 had to

Sandra had to get up early yesterday.

He had to quit his job last month.

 

5 must not 用在禁止,否定的命令,must not 可以縮寫成 mustn’t

Students must not leave bicycles in front of the library.

Passengers must not speak to the driver.

 

翻譯練習答案

1 狗在叫。一定有人在門口。

2 她一定認為我瘋了。

3 我知道你在開玩笑。你一定不是認真的。

4 他們買了一間房子。他們一定是賺很多錢。

5 我聽說你兒子有個很好的工作。你一定很為他驕傲。

6 你一定不可以在畫廊拍照。那對畫不好。

7 在台灣,你必須要二十歲才能投票。

8 醫生跟我說我必須要減肥。

9 你的房間一團亂。你必須要整理它。

10 你一定不可以打擾你的父親在他工作時。

翻譯練習答案

.

.

.

.

.

1 狗在叫。一定有人在門口。

1 The dog is barking.

   There must be someone at the door.

 

2 她一定認為我瘋了。

2 She must think I am crazy.

 

3 我知道你在開玩笑。你一定不是認真的。

3 I know you’re joking. You must not be serious.

 

4 他們買了一間大房子。他們一定是賺很多錢。

4 They bought a big house. They must make a lot of money.

 

5 我聽說你兒子有個很好的工作。你一定很為他驕傲。

5 I hear your son got a very good job. You must be very proud of him. 

 

6 你一定不可以在畫廊拍照。那對畫不好。

6 You must not take photos in the gallery. It’s bad for the paintings.

 

7 在台灣,你必須要二十歲才能投票。

7 In Taiwan, you must be 20 to vote.

 

8 醫生跟我說我必須要減肥。

8 The doctor told me I had to lose weight.

 

9 你的房間一團亂。你必須要整理它。

9 Your room is in a mess. You must tidy it.

 

10 你一定不可以打擾你的父親在他工作時。

10 You must not disturb your father while he’s working.