潔西整理講解 現在完成式 Present Perfect

早上四點半起床的潔西的一天就是把現在完成式的影片生出來了,耶!現在完成式真的是很多學生都弄不懂的時態,句型記住了,但是卻用錯地方,或者用錯句型。上課因為時間非常有限,所以不能給很多例子,這邊儘量給多一點例子,並且按照用法,也就是使用的時機來分不同影片講解,希望有解釋的清楚一點,讓同學更容易懂。不過今天睡眠不足,有點太 high 的部分大家就不要太在意,哈哈。

潔西自己當年學現在完成式也學好久才終於知道原來這樣用,但是後面也還是摸索很久,大概真的就是多做一些題目,多觀察看用在什麼地方,然後練習用出來,假如有上課的話可以問老師是否用得正確。這邊沒有很多的題目,網路上打 Present Perfect 應該也可以找到很多練習題喔。

然後這篇很長,也不用一次看完,可以分次看,潔西自己做影片都從早做到晚了,哈哈。然後也可以多參考幾個不同的網站,越看越多重複的印象會越深刻喔!加油!

英文有十二個時態。在學每一個時態時要記住四點:

1 使用時機

2 句型

3 動詞變化

4 搭配的副詞

最重要是理解跟多做練習,才能靈活運用、得心應手。

A 現在完成式的使用時機

1. 英文用現在完成式用來表達過去曾經發生(或未發生)在不確定時間的事件。重要的是經驗或該事件與現在的關係,時間並不重要。多與ever, never, already, yet, still, just 等副詞連用。

I have moved to a new apartment

She has never seen snow.  She hasn’t seen snow.

2. 現在完成式也用來表達過去重複的活動,實際發生的時間並不重要。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。

I have seen five movies this month.    —x—x—x—x—now ————

He has been to Japan three times.

3. 現在完成式也用來表達一件在過去開始一直持續到現在的事件。常與since與for連用。

I have taught English for twenty years.

They have lived in Taipei since 2001.

動詞的四個面貌

V1= base form  原型                       work,    eat

V2 = past tense  過去式                  worked, ate

V3 = past participle 過去分詞          worked, eaten

V-ing = present participle 現在分詞  working, eating

例句:

I work every day.       S+V1             I eat an apple every morning.

I worked yesterday.    S+V2             I ate an apple this morning.

I have worked all day. S+have+V3     I have eaten five apples today.

Did you eat dinner?

Have you eaten breakfast yet? 

Yes, I have already eaten breakfast.

No, I haven’t eaten breakfast yet.

B 現在完成式的句型

現在完成式的句型為主詞+have/has+過去分詞(V3)

1 肯定句句型為S + have/has + V3 (V3指的是動詞的第三態,過去分詞)

S   +    have/has + V3  past participle

I         have           been to Australia.

They      have          eaten dinner.

She       has            earned millions of dollars since 1995.

2 否定句在助動詞 have/has後面加not

S  +   haven’t/hasn’t + V3

We     haven’t             seen the movie.

You    haven’t             finished your homework.

He     hasn’t               made much money in his life.

3 Yes/No 問句把助動詞 have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has +  S  +  V3

Have          you   cooked Thai food?

Have          they  arrived?

Has           she   finished the report?

4 WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH       have/has    +   S    +   V3

Where      have            you       been?

What       have            they      done?

How long    has            May       studied English?

How        have           you        been?             x————now—————

How are you?

How was work?   How was school?

How was your weekend?  How was your vacation?

What have you been up to?

What are you up to?

How long have you waited?

How long have you been waiting? 現在完成進行式?

C 現在完成式經常搭配的副詞如:never, ever, already, yet, lately, recently, just, this week, today, 也常跟介系詞 for 與 since 連用…等。

現在完成式的用法:

現在完成式的使用時機    past ——x——now————— future     event/activity/action

1 表示經驗

現在完成式常用來表達經驗。常與 ever(in your life time)曾經,表示從你這

輩子出生到現在與 never(=at no time) 從不(從來沒有)連用。注意 ever 在

這個句型多放在疑問句,不用在肯定句。never用在否定句就不能再有not。

發生的時間不重要或不確定。 現在完成式用來表示經驗的時候一定沒有過去的

時間點。

I have eaten French food.

I have had champagne.

I have jumped into a lake at night.

I have lost my wallet.

I have found money on the street.

He has seen snow.

I have never been on TV.

Have you ever been to Japan?

Yes, I have been to Japan.   I have=I’ve

Yes, I have ever been to Japan. (X)

Have you ever had red wine?

No, I haven’t had red wine.  have not =haven’t

No, I have never had red wine.

No, I haven’t never had red wine. (X)

Have you ever met a famous person?  你曾經遇過名人嗎?

Yes, I have met a famous person. /Yes, I have ever met a famous person. (X)

No, I haven’t met a famous person. / No, I have never met a famous person.

No, I have not never met a famous person. (X)

She is the most beautiful person I have ever seen.

I have been to New York in 2005. (X)

I have been to New York. (O)

I went to New York in 2005. (O)

2 不特定時間發生,跟現在相關的結果

現在完成式常用來表達在過去某個不特定時間發生的事情,發生的時間不確

定或不重要,重要的是結果,而且結果是跟現在有關的。

I have seen this movie before. I don’t want to see it again now.

He has left the company. He doesn’t work here now.

He didn’t lend me the book. He hasn’t finished the book.

He lent me the book because he has finished it.

 3 最近發生的事

現在完成可以用來當表示剛剛最近不久前發生的事情時,常與 just, recently, 

   lately 連用。

We’ve just gotten back from Tokyo.    get, got, gotten

I’ve recently signed a contract to write a book.

He hasn’t had time lately.    S + have/has + V3

(美式英語常用過去簡單式來表示: We just got back from Tokyo.)

(在這個用法中不會有過去時間: We’ve just got back from Tokyo yesterday.)

4 already 與 yet 用法

現在完成式強調已發生的事或發生的比預期早的時,常與 already 連用。

already 的位置多放在 have/has與V3間,多用在肯定句。

Do you want something to eat? No, thanks. I’ve already eaten.

Are you going to see that movie? No. I’ve already seen it.

現在完成式常用 not yet 來表達還沒有發生的事,但我們認為未來會發生。

yet 的位置多放在句尾,也可以放在haven’t跟V3間,多用在否定句。

I haven’t finished this work yet. (but I will finish it.)

They haven’t replied to my letter yet. (but they will reply.)

現在完成式用 yet 在問句中表達我們預期會發生的事情是否已經發生。

Have you paid the bill yet?

Have you found a job yet?

Have you eaten dinner (yet)?

Yes, I have (already) eaten dinner.

No, I have not eaten dinner (yet).  (影片裡面漏掉 not 了)

Have you ever eaten dinner? (X)

Have you ever been to Taipei Zoo?

due 到期日 forgetful 健忘的

Exercise 練習題

Make sentences using the Present Perfect with already or yet.

根據提示,用already或yet造句

(I/not/read/today’s newspaper) yet.

I haven’t read today’s newspaper yet.

1. (you/decide/which one to buy) yet?

_________________________________________________

2. (I/explain/this to you three times) already.

_________________________________________________

3. (Their baby son/start/talking) already.

_________________________________________________

4. (you/phone/Jane) yet?

_________________________________________________

5. (The game/not/finish) yet.

_________________________________________________

6. (I/have/lunch) already.

_________________________________________________

7. (He/spend/all his money) already.

_________________________________________________

練習題的答案

1. (you/decide/which one to buy) yet?

Have you decided which one to buy yet?

2. (I/explain/this to you three times) already.

I have already explained this to you three times.

3. (Their baby son/start/talking) already.

Their baby son has already started talking.

4. (you/phone/Jane) yet?

Have you phoned Jane yet?

5. (The game/not/finish) yet.

The game hasn’t finished yet.

6. (I/have/lunch) already.

I have already had lunch.

7. (He/spend/all his money) already.

He has already spent all his money.

5   for與 since        past x———————now —————— future

2014                  2017

現在完成式可以用來表達在過去發生的事情,這個事情或狀態從過去開始一直延續到現在,在未來也可能繼續持續下去。表達這種情形時,多跟sincefor連用。

He has been a pro-gamer for three years.

He has been a pro-gamer since 2014.

She has worked at HTC since 2010.

I have lived in Taipei since I was born.

They have become successful since they have been in Taiwan.

1 How long have you been married?

I have been married for five years.

I’m married. 我結婚了。(我現在是結婚的)

I was married. 我之前結過婚。

2 How long have you worked at your company?

I have worked there since last year.

3 How long have you known your best friend?

I have known my best friend since high school.

4 I have lived in Taipei for 17 years.

I have lived in Taipei since 17 years ago.

  for + 一段時間:表示這個事件持續了多久

(for twenty minutes, for three hours, for two weeks, for three months,

for years, for a long time)

 

   since + 一個過去時間點 :表示這個事件開始的時間

(since 7:00, since Monday, since 1998, since two days ago,

since this morning)

since + S + V2: 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中的活動已經在過去結束

   (since I was a child)

since + S + have + V3:表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中在過去開始持續到現在。

   (since I have worked at IBM)

a. Fill in the blanks with for or since 空格中填入for或since

1. She has been married _______ ten years.

2. They have worked at the factory ________ they were 18 years old.

3. We have lived in Japan _______ 2010.

4. He hasn’t played basketball _______ over two years.

5. I have known Tom _________ high school.

6. They have won every game _______ they have played.

練習題答案

a. Fill in the blanks with for or since 空格中填入for或since

1. She has been married __for_____ ten years.

2. They have worked at the factory __since______ they were 18 years old.

3. We have lived in Japan _since____ 2010.

4. He hasn’t played basketball __for____ over two years.

5. I have known Tom __since_____ high school.

6. They have won every game __since_____ they have played.

b. Answer the questions 回答下列問題

1. How long have you studied at this school?

I have studied at this school for three months.  since last May

2. How long have you known your best friend?

I have known my best friend since I was a child.

3. How long have your parents been married? I don’t know.

4. How long have you had your current hairstyle? (現在的髮型維持多久了?)

I have had my current hairstyle since last month.

5. How long have you had your cell phone?

I have had my cell phone for two years.

6. How long have you been up today? (今天醒來多久了?)

I have been up since 4.30 a.m.

時態比較

1 現在簡單式

Present Simple:

past —x—x—x—x—x— now x—x—x—x—x—x— future

S + V1 : 

I    have a cup of coffee every morning.

2 過去簡單式

Simple Past / Past Simple

past ———x————— now ————————— future

S + V2 : 

I    had a cup of coffee this morning.

3 現在完成式

Present Perfect

past —x—x—x—x—x— now ————————— future

S + have + V3: 

I     have   had five cups of coffee today.

6 持續的狀態或活動

現在完成式也用來表達過去到現在一段時間內重複的活動,實際發生的時間

並不重要,強調的是次數。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。後面可以加時間,但是時間一定要是到目前為止today, this morning,

this month, this year,不能是過去時間。

I have had three cups of coffee this morning. 現在是早上

I had three cups of coffee yesterday.

I had three cups of coffee this morning. 現在不是早上

I have seen five movies this month.

We have had three tests so far this semester.

We have done quite a lot of work today.

He hasn’t had a holiday this year.

I have had five cups of coffee today.

I have had five cups of coffee yesterday. (X)

a. Answer the questions

How many times have you shopped this week?

I’ve shopped twice this week.  / I haven’t shopped at all this week.

1. How many times have you been to a KTV this year?

I have been to a KTV three times this year.    once, twice, three times

2. How many cups of coffee have you had today?

3. How many phone calls have you made today?

4. How many times have you eaten Japanese food this month?

I haven’t eaten Japanese food this month?

5. How many times have you done laundry this week?

I have done laundry once this week.

6. How many times have you cleaned the house this month?

I have cleaned the house once this month.

7 現在完成式常跟第一次,第二次,最高級等連用。

This is the first time I’ve been to Canada, so it’s all new to me.

He loves this movie. This is the fifth time he’s seen it.   he’s = he has

Paris is the most beautiful place I’ve ever been.

Tokyo Skytree is the most interesting place I’ve ever been.

Hacksaw Ridge is the best movie I’ve ever seen.

This is the best book I’ve ever read.

(ever在這樣的句型可以放在肯定句,表這輩子到目前為止)

Complete the sentences using the Preset Perfect form of the verbs words in brackets ( ). 根據括號裡的動詞提示,用現在完成式完成句子

Don’t take my plate away. I haven’t finished (not/finish) my meal.

1. A: What’s that book about? B: I don’t know. I _________ (not/read) it.

2. I __________ (lose) my pen. Can I borrow yours, please?

3. A: I __________ (book) a room here for tonight. B: Yes, madam, what’s your name, please?

4. I’m not sure what the problem with the car is. It _______(not/happen) before.

5. A: ____________ (you/reply) to that letter from the bank? B: No, I haven’t, but I’ll do it soon.

6. A: What’s happening in this program? B: I don’t know. _____________. (It/just/start)

7. A: How’s Lucy?  B: She’s very happy. ________________ (She/just/finish) her exams.

8. Could I have a copy of Next Magazine, please?  B: Sorry. __________________ (I/just/sell) the last copy.

練習題答案

Complete the sentences using the Preset Perfect form of the verbs words in brackets ( ). 根據括號裡的動詞提示,用現在完成式完成句子

Don’t take my plate away. I haven’t finished (not/finish) my meal.

1. A: What’s that book about? B: I don’t know. I _________ (not/read) it.

I haven’t read it.

2. I __________ (lose) my pen. Can I borrow yours, please?

I have lost my pen.

3. A: I __________ (book) a room here for tonight.

B: Yes, madam, what’s your name, please?

I have booked a room here for tonight.

4. I’m not sure what the problem with the car is. It _______(not/happen) before.

I hasn’t happened before.

5. A: ____________ (you/reply) to that letter from the bank?

B: No, I haven’t, but I’ll do it soon.

Have you replied to that letter from the bank?

6. A: What’s happening in this program?

B: I don’t know. _____________. (It/just/start)

It has just started.

7. A: How’s Lucy?

B: She’s very happy. ________________ (She/just/finish) her exams.

She has just finished her exams.

8. Could I have a copy of Next Magazine, please?  B: Sorry. __________________ (I/just/sell) the last copy.

把上一篇的 been to, gone to, went to 一起放進來,因為也是在現在完成式的範圍

8  現在完成式  Present Perfect 與過去簡單式

容易弄混淆或誤用的 been to, gone to, went to

下列句子有兩句是錯的,找不出來的話就看看影片囉。不要偷看最下面的答案喔!

I went to New York last year.

I have been to New York.

I have gone to New York.

He has gone to New York.

He has been to New York.

He has gone to New York last year.

1 been to: 

現在完成式:S + has/have been to + place.

用這個句型表達去過某個地方,但是現在回來了,不在哪個地方了。

He’s been to Paris. (He is now at home again.) 他去過巴黎(現在回來了)

I’ve been to Paris. (I am now at home again.) 我去過巴黎(現在回來了)

2 gone to:

現在完成式:S + has/have gone to + place.     V1: go, V2: went, V3: gone

用這個句型表人去了某個地方,人還在那裡,還沒有回來。所以表達自己去過某個地方絕對不要用這個句型。

He’s gone to Paris. (He is in Paris now.) 他去了巴黎(人現在在巴黎)

He has=He’s

I’ve gone to Paris. (X) 我人去了巴黎(錯誤的句子,因為說話時人在說話處)

3 went to:

過去簡單式:S + went to + place + past time expression

用這個句型表示過去的某個時間點去了某個地方。

I went to Paris last summer. (我去年夏天去了巴黎)

He went to Paris this morning. (他今天早上去了巴黎)

答案

I went to New York last year.

I have been to New York.

I have gone to New York. (X)

He has gone to New York.

He has been to New York.

He has gone to New York last year. (X)  He went to New York last year.

現在完成式與過去簡單式用法的區別 Present Perfect and Past Simple

潔西今天去醫院被電得很慘!

 

哈哈,沒有很慘啦,只是測神經傳導居然是用電來測,就一直被電被電被電,好像有點慘,哈哈。感覺就像潔西手濕濕的去摸插頭被電到的感覺,跟做電療有點像,不過強度有的頗強,一電下去,手整隻自己跳起來。醫生說兩個星期後看報告,覺得這根本沒什麼,按摩一下,吃點維他命B就好,不過潔西問檢驗師,她說三天就可以看了,恩,潔西下星期就要跑去看報告。沒事的話就等手自己好當然是最好。

 

今天整理了一下很多人會弄混淆的現在完成式跟過去簡單式用法的區別。很多人弄不清楚的這兩個,潔西盡可能的解釋清楚,多做題目,多閱讀看影片,看看母語使用者怎麼用,在什麼時候用,然後學過的東西自己在運用出來,慢慢就會比較上手。現在完成式,過去完成式,現在完成進行式,過去簡單式,過去進行式,很多人都弄不清楚,今天先說現在完成跟過去簡單的區別,其他待續。

 

先考一下:

 

A.

假如你去國外度假,被人問到

How long have you been here for?

How long are you here for?

該怎麼回答呢?老實說,潔西每次出國大概都會被問到,一開始也是一頭霧水,終於懂了的感覺真好XD 所以,今天是 4/14,假如你是4/1到加拿大,4/30回台灣,那你該怎麼回答呢?

 

B.

台灣人很容易覺得有已經就是現在完成式,那麼假如要問

你看過這部電影嗎?我昨天已經看過了。

這兩句的英文該怎麼說呢?

 

C.

我去過瑞士。

他去過加拿大。

他去了澳洲。

 

這幾句又要怎麼說呢?答案放到最後。

 

 

潔西教了十多年的英文,最常見的錯誤之一就是把完成式弄錯,使用的時機不對,句型不對,把現在完成式跟過去完成式或過去簡單式混淆等等。大概只要聽到學生使用完成式,不管是初級還是中級的學生,大概有一半以上的人說的都是錯的啊!其中很容易錯的是把現在完式跟過去簡單式弄混淆,再來是誤用過去完成式,然後時態的句型也沒記好,時間用詞用錯等等。今天先說現在完成式跟過去簡單式的區別。

 

 

現在完成式的句型是主詞+have/has+過去分詞(V3)。

過去簡單式的句型是主詞+動詞過去式(V2)。

 

 

現在完成式用 have/has 造否定句與疑問句。

過去簡單式用 did 造否定句跟疑問句,did後面的動詞要用原型(V1)。

 

 

不過使用時機大概是比較頭痛的,所以今天主要解釋現在完成式,跟過去簡單式的使用時機的區別。從 Oxford How English Works 裡面找了很多例子,在參考 Oxford Practice Grammar,Oxford Practical English,Azar Understanding and Using English一個一個慢慢來解釋,希望同學能夠有點概念。後面都有練習題,建議全部看過一遍後再一點一點重看,順便做練習,然後再對答案。不要用看的啦,保證一定忘記。錯的地方在哪裡,有錯最好,這樣下次就記得了,希望。

 

 

又除了 Facebook 分享外,請勿任意轉貼轉載,感恩,寫了一天手都快斷了,扣掉在醫院的時候都在寫啊,早上四點起來,恩,沒有一直寫,寫寫睡睡,十一點去看醫生,四點半回來,哇!寫到現在十點半,不行了。有錯再麻煩提醒,感恩感恩:)

 

 

熊本大地震,剛剛小寶看她的男神的推特看到,那時潔西查各大新聞都還沒出來呢。下面是鏡報的句子剛好運用

A massive earthquake measuring 6 on the Richter scale has hit Japan.

芮氏六級的大地震襲擊日本。(現在完成式,發表新聞,新訊息)

 

Buildings shook and some train services were suspended as a precaution, but there were no immediate reports of any serious damage, injuries or of a tsunami.

建築物搖晃,為安全起見,有些火車停駛,但是還沒有任何嚴重損害,受傷,或海嘯的報導。(過去簡單式,用來說明細節)

 

六級很大耶,潔西很喜歡的熊本熊的老家,希望平安無事!

 

 

Present Perfect 現在完式

 

使用時機

 

1.

現在完成把過去跟現在連接在一起。雖然是過去已經完成的動作,但是跟現在相關或是對現在而言很重要。會有一些現在的結果或是個新的訊息或新聞。因為叫做現在完成,所以雖然事情發生在過去,動作也已經完成了,但是跟現在有關,假如是跟現在無關就會用過去簡單式。通常把過去跟現在連在一起的現在完成式的句子可以改成現在簡單式,意思不會差太多。這種時候發生的時間不重要,強調的是過去某個不特定時間發生的事,但跟現在相關。

Past x——————x present 過去 x——————-x 現在

 

 

a.

現在的結果:

I can’t walk – I’ve hurt my leg. 我不能走路 – 我腳受傷了。

b.

現在的結果:

Look – he hasn’t eaten his vegetables. 你看 – 他還沒吃他的青菜。

c.

新消息:

Have you heard? He’s arrived! 你聽說了嗎?他已經抵達了!

d.

新消息:

You’ve passed the exam! 你通過考試了!

e.

現在完成改成現在簡單:

He’s lost his keys. = He can’t find them.

f.

現在完成改成現在簡單:

Sally’s come back. = Sally is home.

 

練習一:把下面現在完成式改成現在簡單式

  1. He’s gone.
  2. The plane has landed.
  3. We’ve washed the dishes.
  4. The dog has died.

 

 

2.

現在完成式常用來宣布消息或新聞,但是當要給更多的詳細內容的時候,通常會改成過去式。

a.

I’ve found my wallet. – Oh, good. Where did you find it?

我找到我的錢包了。- 太好了。你在哪裡找到的?

b.

Your parcel has arrived. The postman brought it at eight o’clock.

你的包裹到了。郵差在八點鐘送來。

c.

Three climbers has died in the Alps. They fell just before reaching the summit on Mont Blanc.

三個登山者死在阿爾斯山。他們在就要抵達白朗峰的頂峰時摔落。

d.

A light passenger plane crashed in Surrey. According to

eyewitnesses, the aircraft hit a tree while coming to land.

一台輕型客機在薩里郡墜毀。根據目擊著的話,飛機在降落的時候撞上一棵樹。

 

 

練習二:中翻英(用現在完成是跟過去簡單式

  1. 彼得(Peter)剛給我一份新工作!他說我正是他需要的人。
  2. 世界盃隊伍回家了。五千名粉絲在機場等他們。

 

 

當要講一個東西的來源,起源的時候會用過去簡單式,不用現在完成式

  1. Who wrote that? (NOT Who has written that?) 那是誰寫的?
  2. Bill gave me this necklace. 比爾給我這條項鍊。
  3. Did you put this here? 你把這個放在這裡嗎?
  4. Whose idea was it to come here on holiday? 來這裡是誰的主意?

 

 

 

3.

現在完成式用來描述從過去開始一直持續到現在的狀況 (up to now),特別是當我們要表達持續多長的時間的時候。常會與 since , for 連用。 since 後面可以加主詞,動詞,形成子句,如 since she left school 。 since 後面也可以加一個時間點 (particular time),如:since 1973, since two years ago, since university 等。 for 後面接的是一段時間 (a duration of time),如for two hours, for a very long time, for ages 等。

past –s-i-t-u-a-t-i-o-n->present 過去—狀—況—>現在

 

a.

He has lived in Taipei since he was born.

他一出生就到現在都住在台北。

b.

She has run a small business since 2012.

她從2012年開始經營一家小公司。

c.

Helen has played the piano for two years.

海倫開始彈琴到現在兩年了。

d.

I’ve always wanted to go to Greece, but I’ve never had time.

我一直想要去希臘,但是我一直都沒有時間。

 

不會用現在簡單式來說某件事情持續多久。

e.

I’ve known Tom for 7 years. (NOT I know Tom for years.)

我認識湯姆好多年了。

f.

How long have you been here for? (=’Since when …?’)

你來這裡多久了?(=從何時開始…?)

g.

How long are you here for? (=’Until when …?’)

你要在這裡待多久?(=直到什麼時候…?)

 

 

練習三:把下列句子中括號裡面的字改成正確的實態,並完成句子。

  1. He (be) unemployed. (ever since he left school)
  2. I (have) trouble sleeping. (all this week)
  3. I (have) trouble sleeping. (all last week)
  4. (you live) in this town? (How long)
  5. I (not learn) much. (in that job)
  6. He was ill before Christmas, but he (be) fine. (since then)

 

 

 

4.

現在完成式多會用在從過去某個時間到現在重複的活動。重複行為的時間不重要。這種表現方式常會跟著同時出現頻率副詞如:often, sometimes, occasionally, several times, twice, three times 等等。

 

a.

I’ve sometimes thought of moving to Australia.

我有時候會想要搬到澳洲去住。

b.

Benjamin’s been to Africa several times this year.

班傑明今年去過好幾次非洲。

c.

I’ve written six letters since lunch time.

從午餐時間到現在我已經寫了六封信了。

d.

He’s climbed a lot of mountains, but he’s never been up to Mont Blanc.

他爬過很多座山,但是他從來都沒上去過白朗峰。

 

 

練習四:用現在完成式或過去簡單式完成句子。

  1. How many cups of coffee (you drink) today?
  2. Since my brother lost his job, he (write) two books.
  3. I’m not cooking today – I (cook) all the meals yesterday. In fact, I (cook) most of the meals this week.
  4. My sister (run) away from home. But she came back two days later.

 

 

 

5.

現在完成式過去簡單式的時間用詞

現在完成式跟過去簡單式都可以用來表達過去完成的行為。決定用那個時態常常會是看用什麼樣的時間表達語。當時間表達語是已經過去的時間 (finished time),比方說 last night, yesterday, last month, three years ago, then, when 等,會用過去簡單式,不會用現在完成式。而當所表達的時間用語是過去的任何時間到目前為止 (any time up to now) 比方說 ever, never, before, recently, lately, often, already, yet, just 等時間用詞,則用現在完成式。

 

a.

I saw Kate yesterday. (NOT I’ve seen Kate yesterday.)

我昨天看到凱特。

b.

Have you seen Rob recently.

你最近有看到羅柏嗎?

c.

She studied Chinese when she was at university.

她在大學的時候學中文。

d.

He’s never studied any foreign languages.

他從來沒有學過任何外語。

 

 

練習五:選擇正確的時態

  1. ‘Who is she?’ ‘I (‘ve never seen / never saw) her before.
  2. I (‘ve done / did) a lot of stupid things in my life.
  3. When (have you got / did you get ) married?
  4. I’m sorry I (haven’t finished / didn’t finish) yet.
  5. He (has caught / caught) the plane at eight this morning.
  6. She (has left / left) school last year.

 

現在完成式用在過去的任何時間到現在,即使沒有用時間用詞,但是從句子中可以推測意思,就可以用現在完成式。而過去簡單式用在從句中可以推斷出是表示過去已結束的時間的話,雖然沒有時間用詞,還是用過去簡單式。

 

e.

Have you seen ‘Hamlet’? (= Have you ever seen ‘Hamlet?)

你有沒有看過哈姆雷特? (=你這輩子到現在有沒有看過哈姆雷特?)

f.

Did you see ‘Hamlet’? (It was on TV last night)

你有看哈姆雷特嗎?(昨天晚上電視有演。)

g.

My grandfather did a lot for me. (… when he was alive)

我的祖父為我做了很多。(…在他還活著的時候)

h.

How many times have you been in love?

你談過幾次戀愛?

 

 

 

6.

現在完成式用在最好的,最差的,第一次,第二次如 this/it/that is the first/second/third/only/best/worst 等句子。

 

a.

That’s the fifth cake you’ve eaten this morning.

那是你今天早上吃的第五塊蛋糕。

b.

This is the fifth time you’ve asked me the same question.

這是你第五次問我同樣的問題。

c.

It’s one of the most interesting books I’ve ever read.

這是我看過最有趣的一本書。

d.

This is the best movie I’ve ever seen.

這是我看過最棒的電影。

 

 

練習六:翻譯下列句子

  1. 這是我唯一一次看過她哭。
  2. 這是我今年吃過最棒的一餐。
  3. 那是你從早餐到現在喝的第十杯咖啡。
  4. 這是你在這份工作中犯過第三個嚴重的失誤。
  5. 這是你今天第八次你唱這首歌。

 

 

 

 

該用現在完成式還是過去簡單式?其實上面都有講過,這邊再重新整理複習一下:

 

1.

現在完成式:把過去跟現在一起想,也就是過去發生的事,但跟現在有關係的。

過去簡單式:只是描述過去,跟現在不相干的。

 

My sister has learned French. (She can speak French now.)

我姊姊學了法文。(她現在會說法文。)

Shakespeare probably learned Italian. (NOT Shakespeare has probably learned Italian.)

莎士比亞或許有學義大利文。

We’ve studied enough to pass the exam. (The exam is still to come.)

我們為了通過考試唸了夠多的書了。(考試還沒考。)

We studied enough to pass the exam. (The exam is over.)

我們為了通過考試唸足夠的書。(考試已經結束。)

(潔西注:中文其實沒有什麼不同,所以還蠻難懂的。)

 

 

2.

現在完成式:時間用詞是到目前為止 (some/any time up to now) 的意思,比方說像 ever, never, before, yet, recently, already 等這些,多半用現在完成式。

過去簡單式:時間用詞是已經結束的過去時間 (finished-time words)時,用的是過去簡單式,比方說像 yesterday, then, when, last week, three years ago, in 2000 等,不可以用現在完成式,要用現在簡單式。

 

Have you seen Lucy anywhere?

你有沒有看到露西?

I saw Lucy yesterday. (NOT I have seen Lucy yesterday.)

我昨天看到露西。

What have you done with the car keys? I can’t find them.

你對車子鑰匙做了什麼事?我找不到他們。

What did you do then? (NOT What you you done then?)

你當時做了什麼事?

My brother has had an accident. He’s in hospital.

我哥哥發生意外了。他人在醫院。

When did the accident happen? (NOT What has the accident happen?)

意外在什麼時候發生的?

 

 

3.

現在完成式:句子裡沒有提到時間,但是想的是從過去的某個時間一直到現在的就用現在完成式。

過去簡單式:句子裡沒有提到時間,但是想的是過去已經結束的時間的動作用過去簡單式。

 

Have you even seen ‘Romeo and Juliet’? (=Have you ever seen it? Or Have you seen the present production?)

你看過羅密歐與茱麗葉嗎?(= 你曾經有看過它嗎?或是你有看過現代的製作嗎?)

Did you see ‘Romeo and Juliet’? (It was on TV last night.)

你有看羅密歐與茱麗葉嗎?(昨天晚上電視有演。)

You’ve done a lot for me. (…up to now)

你為我做了很多。(…到目前為止)

My grandmother did a lot for me. (…when she was alive)

我奶奶為我做了很多。(在她生前)

 

 

4.

現在完成式:用來發表新消息,新聞。

過去簡單式:新聞中的詳細內容用過去簡單式。

 

Joe has passed his exam! He got 87%.

喬通過考試了!他拿了八十七分。

There has been a plane crash near Bristol. Witness say that there was an explosion as the aircraft was taking off.

在靠近布里斯托的地方有一起墜機事件。目擊者說在飛機起飛的時候爆炸了。

 

 

5.

不過美式英語在發表新聞給新訊息的時候常會用過去簡單式,而不是用現在完成式。但是不是所有的現在完成式都可以用過去簡單式代替,所以稍微記一下前面的規則就比較不容易說錯。下面句子前面是美式用法,後面是英式用法。

 

Uh, honey, I lost / I’ve lost the keys.

啊,親愛的,我鑰匙不見了。

Lucy just called. / Lucy has just called.

露西剛剛打電話來。

Did you eat already? / Have you eaten already?

你吃飯了嗎?

I didn’t call Bobby yet. / I haven’t called Bobby.

我還沒打電話給巴比。

 

 

下面就是答案了,沒寫不要偷看啊!!!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

答案:

A.

假如你去國外度假,被人問到

How long have you been here for?

How long are you here for?

該怎麼回答呢?老實說,潔西每次出國大概都會被問到,一開始也是一頭霧水,終於懂了的感覺真好XD 所以,今天是 4/14,假如你是4/1到加拿大,4/30回台灣,那你會怎麼回答呢?

How long have you been here for? I’ve been here for two weeks.

你來這兒多久了。我來這邊兩個星期了。

How long are you here for? I’m here for a month. / I’ll be here until the end of April.

你在這兒待多久?我在這兒待一個月。 / 我會在這兒待到四月底。

 

 

B.

台灣人很容易覺得有已經就是現在完成式,那麼假如要問

你看過這部電影嗎?我昨天已經看過了。

這兩句的英文該怎麼說呢?

Have you seen this movie? Yes, I have. I saw it yesterday.

不可以用 I have seen it yesterday. (X)

 

C.

我去過瑞士。他去過加拿大。他去了澳洲。這幾句又要怎麼說呢?

I’ve been to Switzerland.

He has been to Canada.

He has gone to Australia.

 

要表達去過一個地方後回來了用 have/has been to 不可以用 have/has gone to

 

has/have gone to 是用在人去了還沒有回來。

所以不可以說 I have gone to Switzerland. (X) 切記切記!

 

 

 

練習一:把下面現在完成式改成現在簡單式

1.

He’s gone. = He isn’t here.

他離開了。=他不在這裡。

2.

The plane has landed. = The plane is on the ground now.

那台飛機著陸了。=那台飛機現在在地面上。

3.

We’ve washed the dishes. = The dishes are clean now.

我們洗了盤子。= 盤子現在是乾淨的。

4.

The dog has died. = The dog is dead.

那隻狗已經死了。= 那隻狗是死掉了的。

 

 

 

練習二:中翻英(用現在完成是跟過去簡單式)

1.

彼得(Peter)剛給我一份新工作!他說我正是他需要的人。

Peter has offered me a new job! He said I was just the person he needed.

2.

世界盃隊伍回家了。五千名粉絲在機場等他們。

The World Cup team has arrived home. Five thousand fans were at the airport.

 

 

 

練習三:把下列句子中括號裡面的字改成正確的實態,並完成句子。

1.

He (be) unemployed. (ever since he left school)

He has been unemployed ever since he left school.

他從離開學校(畢業)後就一直沒有工作。

2.

I (have) trouble sleeping. (all this week)

I have had trouble sleeping all this week.

我這個星期都睡不著。

3.

I (have) trouble sleeping. (all last week)

I had trouble sleeping all last week.

我上個星期都睡不著。

4.

(you live) in this town? (How long)

How long have you lived in this town.

你在這個鎮上住了多久?

5.

I (not learn) much. (in that job)

I did not learn much in that job.

我在那份工作沒有學到很多。

6.

He was ill before Christmas, but he (be) fine. (since then)

He was ill before Christmas, but he has been fine since then.

他在聖誕節前上病了,但是從那之後他就一直都很健康。

 

 

 

練習四:用現在完成式或過去簡單式完成句子。

1.

How many cups of coffee (you drink) today?

How many cups of coffee have you drunk today?

你今天喝了幾杯咖啡?

2.

Since my brother lost his job, he (write) two books.

Since my brother lost his job, he has written two books.

自從我哥丟了工作飯碗後,他已經寫了兩本書了。

3.

I’m not cooking today – I (cook) all the meals yesterday. In fact, I (cook) most of the meals this week.

I’m not cooking today – I cooked all the meals yesterday. In fact, I have cooked most of the meals this week.

我今天不做菜 – 昨天的飯菜全部都是我煮的。說實在的,這星期大部分都是我在做菜。

4.

My sister (run) away from home. But she came back two days later.

My sister ran away from home. But she came back two days later.

我姊姊離家出走。但是她過了兩天就回來了。

 

 

 

練習五:選擇正確的時態

1.

‘Who is she?’ ‘I (‘ve never seen / never saw) her before.

‘Who is she?’ ‘I’ve never seen her before.’

「她是誰?」「我從來沒看過她。」

2.

I (‘ve done / did) a lot of stupid things in my life.

I’ve done a lot of stupid things in my life.

我這輩子做了很多愚蠢的事。

3.

When (have you got / did you get ) married?

When did you get married?

你什麼時候結婚的?

4.

I’m sorry I (haven’t finished / didn’t finish) yet.

I’m sorry I haven’t finished yet.

很抱歉我還沒有完成。

5.

He (has caught / caught) the plane at eight this morning.

He caught the plane at eight this morning.

他搭早上八點的飛機。

6.

She (has left / left) school last year.

She left school last year.

她去年畢業。

 

 

 

練習六:翻譯下列句子

1.

這是我唯一一次看過她哭。

This is the only time I have ever seen her cry.

2.

這是我今年吃過最棒的一餐。

This is the best meal I have eaten this year.

3.

那是你從早餐到現在喝的第十杯咖啡。

This is the tenth cup of coffee you have drunk since breakfast.

4.

這是你在這份工作中犯過第三個嚴重的失誤。

This is the third serious mistake you have made in this job.

5.

這是你今天第八次你唱這首歌。

This is the eighth time you have sung today.

 

 

最後,對了,麻煩不要請潔西幫忙改句子,答案可能有不同,潔西列出的只是可能性,尤其是翻譯的部分,因為中翻英跟英翻中都不太容易,有時候也不是很順,造著文法寫就不太會錯了。