【潔西家】劍橋文法 99 副詞子句 when …

好餓喔,直播到一半學生說晚上可以提前上課,那我就出門去了。昨天晚上用英文直播好玩好玩,今天晚上再來,可是晚上回到家可能會比較晚了,到時候再貼連結,沒睡覺的人可以來聊天。先出門上課去!

 

 

 

 

前面是講義,後面是一邊講一邊寫的講義,就是有說明的

副詞子句概述       名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句

a. 副詞子句通常是由一個從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunction 開始一個句子,比方說 although, because, when 等。這個連接詞表達了這個副詞子句跟主要子句之間的關係。

Although the sun’s shining, it’s freezing outside this morning.

I’m not going out because it’s so cold.

 

b. 副詞子句在句首時,用逗號分開主要子句。副詞子句在後面時,因為從連接詞很明顯就可以看出副詞子句的開頭,所以通常不用逗號。

Before he goes to bed, he brushes his teeth.

He brushes his teeth before he goes to bed.

 

  1. 一個句子可以用一個以上的副詞子句

Don’t touch the paint before it has dried because bubbles may form if anything touches it.

 

B 連接句子的方式

1 用從屬連接詞來連接句子來表示句子間的關係。

   After you have a rest, you’ll probably feel better.

   I can’t listen to music while I’m studying.

 

2 副詞子句是個非獨立子句,不可以用來當作獨立的句子,一定要與獨立子句合併成為一個句子。副詞子句不可再加上對等連接詞 (如: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) 來合併句子。

Because there were no lights, I couldn’t see anything.

It was dark, so I couldn’t do any work.

Because there were no lights, so I couldn’t do any work. (X)

We couldn’t use our computers because there was no electricity this morning.

We couldn’t use our computers. Because there was no electricity the morning. (X)

 

3 某些連接字如 after, before, than 可以當從屬連接詞或介系詞。當從屬連接詞時帶領副詞子句也就是後面加主詞,動詞,來連接句子,也可以當成介系詞用,當介系詞時後面加名詞。

I’ll talk to you after I get out of my next meeting. = I’ll talk to you after the meeting.

Tony had arrived before we got there. = Tony had arrived before us.

We had more money than they had. = We had more money than them.

 

4 某些用在副詞子句的連接詞,有一些跟他們的意義是相似的介系詞片語,後面加名詞

There were delays because the weather was bad.

= There were delays because of bad weather.

 

Although she’s old, Agnes still plays tennis.

= Despite her age, Agnes still plays tennis.

 

He got injured while we were playing.

= He got injured during the game.

  

5 表達時間的副詞子句用現在簡單式來代替未來式

You won’t pass the test if you don’t study.

I will be sleeping when you get home.

翻譯練習:

1 因為很熱,所以我們打開冷氣。

2 雖然很冷,他還是每天去游泳。

3 我出門前把燈關掉。

4 我總是一回到家就換衣服。

5 潔西通常一邊看日劇一邊吃飯。

6 Lily 在百貨公司逛街的時候看到她前男友。

7 當那個小男孩輸了比賽,他哭了。

8 飛機因為天氣不好延誤了。

9 儘管他很生氣,他還是按時完成企劃案。

10 我們會等你準備好。

 

講解

副詞子句概述       名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句

a. 副詞子句通常是由一個從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunction 開始一個句子,比方說 although, because, when 等。這個連接詞表達了這個副詞子句跟主要子句之間的關係。

Although the sun’s shining, it’s freezing outside this morning.

連接詞              動詞

                                     主要子句:主詞+動詞=獨立子句:語意完整

I’m not going out because it’s so cold.

主 動                 連接詞

 

b. 副詞子句在句首時,用逗號分開主要子句。副詞子句在後面時,因為從連接詞很明顯就可以看出副詞子句的開頭,所以通常不用逗號。

Before he goes to bed, he brushes his teeth.

He brushes his teeth before he goes to bed.

 

一個句子可以用一個以上的副詞子句

Don’t touch the paint before it has dried because bubbles may form if anything touches it.

 

B 連接句子的方式

1 用從屬連接詞來連接句子來表示句子間的關係。

   After you have a rest, you’ll probably feel better.

   I can’t listen to music while I’m studying.

 

2 副詞子句是個非獨立子句(語意不完整),不可以用來當作獨立的句子,一定要與獨立子句合併成為一個句子。副詞子句不可再加上對等連接詞 (如: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) 來合併句子。

Because there were no lights. (X)

Because there were no lights, I couldn’t see anything.

   副詞子句(非獨立子句)           主要子句(獨立子句)

It was dark, so I couldn’t do any work.

獨立子句            獨立子句

Because there were no lights, so I couldn’t do any work. (X)

Because there were no lights, I couldn’t do any work.

There were no lights, so I couldn’t do any work.

We couldn’t use our computers because there was no electricity this morning.

We couldn’t use our computers. Because there was no electricity the morning. (X)

 

3 某些連接字如 after, before, than 可以當從屬連接詞或介系詞。當從屬連接詞時帶領副詞子句也就是後面加主詞,動詞,來連接句子,也可以當成介系詞用,當介系詞時後面加名詞。

I’ll talk to you after I get out of my next meeting.

主要子句        連接詞 主 動

= I’ll talk to you after the meeting.

                              

 

Tony had arrived before we got there.

                連接詞 主 動    

= Tony had arrived before us.

                                

 

We had more money than they had.

主 動                    連接   

= We had more money than them.

                          

I usually have late night snacks after I finish work.

I usually have late night snacks after work.

 

4 某些用在副詞子句的連接詞,有一些跟他們的意義是相似的介系詞片語,後面加名詞

There were delays because the weather was bad.

                           連接詞              

= There were delays because of bad weather.

                               介片        

Although she’s old, Agnes still plays tennis.

= Despite her age, Agnes still plays tennis.

= In spite of her age,

He got injured while we were playing.

= He got injured during the game.

  

5 表達時間的副詞子句用現在簡單式來代替未來式

You won’t pass the test if you don’t study.

I will be sleeping when you get home.

翻譯練習:

1 因為很熱,所以我們打開冷氣。

2 雖然很冷,他還是每天去游泳。

3 我出門前把燈關掉。

4 我總是一回到家就換衣服。

5 潔西一邊看日劇一邊吃飯。

6 Lily 在百貨公司逛街的時候看到她前男友。

7 當那個小男孩輸了比賽,他哭了。

8 飛機因為天氣不好延誤了。

9 儘管他很生氣,他還是按時完成企劃案。

10 我們會等你準備好。

 

 

答案

翻譯練習:

1 因為很熱,所以我們打開冷氣。

1 Because it was hot, we turned on the air conditioner.

   We turned on the air conditioner because it was hot.

   It was hot, so we turned of the air conditioner.

2 雖然很冷,他還是每天去游泳。

   Although it is cold, he still goes swimming every day.

   Although it was cold, he still went swimming every day.

3 我出門前把燈關掉。

   I turn off the light before I go out.

   I turned off the light before I went out.

4 我總是一回到家就換衣服。

4 I always change clothes as soon as I get home.

5 潔西一邊看日劇一邊吃飯。

5 Jessie was eating while she was watching a Japanese drama.

6 Lily 在百貨公司逛街的時候看到她前男友。

6 Lily was shopping in a department when she saw her ex-boyfriend.

7 當那個小男孩輸了比賽,他哭了。

7 When the little boy lost the game, he cried.

8 飛機因為天氣不好延誤了。

8 The plane was delayed because of the bad weather.

9 儘管他很生氣,他還是按時完成企劃案。

9 Although he was angry, he still finished the project on time.

9 Despite his anger, he still finished the project on time.

10 我們會等你準備好。

10 We’ll wait until you are ready.

  

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